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0^n fx 

THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY ' "^ 

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, IX.D. 

i 

t T. E. PAGE, C.H., LTTT.D. 

\ E. CAPPS, PH.D., IX.D. t W. H. D. ROUSE, utt.d. 

L A. POST, L.H.D. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.h.hist.soo. 



PLUTARCH'S 
MORALIA 

IX 



PLUTARCH'S 
MORALIA 

IN FIFTEEN VOLUMES 

IX 

697 c— 771 E 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 

EDWIN L. MINAR, Jr. 

DEPAUW UNIVERSITY, GRKENCASTLK, INDIANA 

F. H. SANDBACH 

TEINITY COLLEGE, CAKBRIDGB 

W. C. HELMBOLD 

UNITBRSITT OP CAUFOENIA 




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

MCMLXI 



© The President and Fellows of Harvard College 1961 




R-. 



TA 



1153GS0 



Printed in Great Britain 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IX 



FAQK 



Prefatory Note ..... vii 

The Traditional Order of the Books of the 

MORALIA ...... ix 

Table-Talk : Book VII — 

Introduction ...... 2 

Text and Translation .... 4 

Table-Talk : Book \^III — 

Introduction ...... 107 

Text and Translation . , .108 

Table-Talk : Book IX — 

Introduction . . . . . .215 

Text and Translation . .218 

The Dialogue on Love — 

Introduction ...... 303 

Text and Translation .... 306 



Inde.\ 



443 



PREFATORY NOTE 

Books VII and VIII of the Table-Talk are translated 
by Ed^vin L. Minar, Jr. Book IX is by F. H. Sand- 
bach. The Dialogue on Love is by W. C. Helmbold. 
TTiere is no joint responsibihty. 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER of the Books of 
the Moralia as they appear since the edition of 
Stephanus (1572), and their division into volumes 
in this edition. 



I. De liberis educandis (Hepi TraiScav dycoyrj^) 
Quomodo adolescens poetas audire debeat 

(nd)? Sei Tov veov TTon^fxaTiov aKovetv) 
De recta ratione audiendi (Ilepi tov aKoveiv) . 
Quomodo adulator ab amico internoscatur 

(IIcuj dv Tt? SiaKpiveie tov KoXaKa tov <f>iXov) . 
Quomodo quis suos in virtute sentiat profectus 

(Ildis dv Tij cuadoiTO 4avTov TrpoKOTrrovros en' 

dpeTjj) ....... 

II. De capienda ex inimicis utilitate (IIcDs dv tis 

vtt' ixdpwv d><f>€XolTo) 
De amicorum multitudine ((Hepi iToXv(f>iXias) 
De fortuna (Hepi tvxtjs) 
De virtute et vitio (Flept dpsT^s Kal KaKLas) 
Consolatio ad Apollonium {Ilapafivdi^TtKos -npos 

' AiToXXcLviov) ..... 
De tuenda sanitate praecepta (Tyieivd Trap 

ayyeXftaTo) ..... 
Coniugalia praecepta {TafJUKa TrapayyeXfiaTo) 
Septem sapientiura convivium (Ttav eWa ao<f>a>v 

avfiTToaiov) ..... 
De superstitione (Ilepi SeunSainovias) 
III. Re^im et imperatorum apophthegmata ('Atto 

<f>deyfiaTa jSacriAeajv Kai OTparrfycov) 
Apophthegmata Laconica {'AiTo<j)deyfj.aTa Aa 

KCDVlKa) ...... 

Instituta Laconica (Td TroAoid tcoi' Aaxehanjxovuav 

imrtjBeviJUiTa) ..... 



PAGE 

1a 

17d 
37 b 

48e 

75a 

86b 

93a 

97c 

100b 

lOlF 

122b 
138a 

146b 
164e 

172a 

208a 

236f 
ix 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER 

FAOB 

Lacaenarum apophthegmata {AaKaiv&v dno- 

<f)9eYfj,aTa) ...... 240c 

Mulierum virtutes (TwaiKciv apcrax) . . 242e 

IV. Quaestiones Romanae (Ama 'Pw^at*fa) . 263d 

Quaestiones Graecae (Airta 'EAAijvt/ca) . . 29 Id 

Parallela Graeca et Romana {T^vvayaiyr] ioro- 

picov napaXX-qXiov 'E^tjvikwv koi 'PcDfiaiKCov) . 305a 
De fortuna Romanorum {Ilepi t^? 'Poj/uat'toi' 

Tu;fny) ....... 316b 

De Alexandri magni fortuna aut virtute, li- 

bri ii (Ilepi rfjs 'AXe^dvSpov tvxtjs ^ dper'^s, 

AdyoijS') 326d 

Bellone an pace clariores fuerint Athenienses 

(IloTepov 'Adrjvaioi Kara -rroXefiov i] /card ao<f>lav 

evSo^OTepoi) ...... 345c 

V. De Iside et Osiride {Ufpl 'latSos Kal 'OcriptSo?). 351c 
De E apud Delphos {Hepl rov EI rov iv AeA^ots) 384c 
De Pythiae oraculis {Hepl tov (jl^ XP^'" eMMfrpa 

vvv T-qv Ilvdiav) ..... 394d 

De defectu oraculorum (JUepl t<op eKXeXoinorcov 

XpT]OTT]pi(jjv) ...... 409e 

VI. An virtus doceri possit (Et SiBaKTov -q dpen]) . 439a 
De virtute morali {Hepl tt}s tj^ik^j dperrjs) 440d 

De cohibenda ira {Hepl dopyrjaias) 452e 

De tranquillitate animi {Hepl evdvulas) . 464e 

De fraterno amore {Hepl <f>iXaSeX(f>Las) . 478a 

De amore prolis {Hepl rfjs els rd enyova (f>iXo- 

oTopyias) ...... 493a 

An vitiositas ad infelicitatem sufficiat (Et 

avrdpKTjs i} KaKia TTpos KaKohaipiOviav) . . 498a 

Animine an corporis affectiones sint peiores 

(IIoTepov Ta Ti\s ipvxrjs ^ to tov awfiaros Trddrj 

Xelpova) ....... 500b 

De garrulitate (Ilept dSoXeaxlas) 502b 

De curiositate (Ilept TroXvn-payfJLoaijvrjs) ■ ■ 515b 

VII. De cupiditate divitiarum (Ilept <j>iXonXovrias) ■ 523c 
De vitioso pudore (Ilept Svacomas) ■ 528c 

De invidia et odio (Ilept <f>d6vov Kal fiiaovs) 536e 

De se ipsum citra invidiam laudando (Ilept tov 

eavTOv eTTaivelv dveTri(f>d6vws) . • • 539a 

De sera numinis vindicta (Ilept tu)v vv6 tov 

deiov ^paSe'coj Ti^aipou/xeVoji') . . . 548a 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER 

, PAGE 

De fato (Ilepi elfuipfievrfs) .... 568b 
De genio Socratis (Ilepi toS XcoKparovs BaifjMviov) 575a 

De exUio (Ilepi (f>vyfjs) 599a 

Gansolatio ad uxorem {napafivdTjTiKos irpos r^v 

YvvalKo) 608a 

VIII. Quaestionum convivalium libri vi (Lvn-rroaia- 

Kuiv irpo^XrjfjATwv /St^Ai'a S"') . . . 612c 

I, 612c ; II, 629b ; III, 644e ; IV, 659e ; V, 

672d ; VI, 686a 
IX. Quaestionum convivalium libri iii (Zvfiiroaia- 

Kwv ■npo^Xr)fuxro)v j3tj8Aia y') . . . 697c 

VII, 697c ; VIII, 716d ; IX, 736c 
Amatorius {'EpoxriKos) .... 748e 

X. Amatoriae narrationes ('Epa»T»cat SnTyrJoei?) . 77 1e 
Maxime cum principibus philosopho esse dis- 

serendum (Ilepi rot? ort /jAXurra rots "ffyenoai 

htl rov ^iX6ao<f>ov SiaXeyeaBai) . . . 776a 

Ad principem ineruditum (IIpo? fiy^nova dnai- 

SevTov) 779c 

An seni respublica gerenda sit (Ei npeaPirrepo) 

■7ToXlT€VT€Qv) .....' 783a 

Praecepta gerendae reipublicae {UoXitiko. 

irapayyeXfiara) 798a 

De unius in republica dominatione, populari 
statu, et paucorum imperio (He pi fiovapxias 
Kol brjfiOKpaTias Kal oXiyapxias) . . 826a 

De vitando acre alieno (Ilept rov firj 8eiv Savel- 
JecTdai) 827d 

\ itae decern oratorum (Ilept ra>v Sc'ko pi/rd- 
fx^v) 832b 

Comparationis Aristophanis et Menandri com- 
pendium (SwyKpureojs 'ApiOTCxfxivovs kou Mev- 

VT T-> °-*'^P°" «'^'™M^) 853a 

XI. De Herodoti malignitate (Ilept Trjs 'RpoSorov 

KaKOTjOeias) ...... 854e 

De placitis philosophorum, ' libri v (Ilept rtHv 

dpeoKovTcov ToTs <f>iXoa6<f>ois, j3t/5Aia e') 874d 

Quaestiones naturales (AtTta ^ucrt#«i) 911c 

XII. De facie quae in orbe lunae apparet (Ilept rov 
efitfiaivofievov -npoacoTTOv rco kvkXo) rijs aeX-jj- 
•^f). -.*..'.. 920a 

De prime frigido (Ilepi tow irpwrtos >lwxpov) 945e 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER 



Aquane an ignis sit utilior (Ilepi tov -norepov 

vhuip rj TTvp xp^<^i-l^<^Tfpov) .... 955d 

Terrestriane an aquatilia animalia sint callidi- 
ora {Ylorepa rutv C,a>a)v <f>povifi(i)Tepa to. x^pocua 
■^ TO. evv8pa) ...... 959a 

Bruta animalia ratione uti, sive Gryllus (Ilepi 

TOV TO. dXoya Xoycp xprjadai) . . ■ 985d 

De esu carnium orationes ii (Ilept aapKo<f>ayias 

Xoyoi /3') ... . . . 993a 

XIII. Platonicae quaestiones {HXaTcoviKo. ^iji-ij/xara) . 999c 
De animae procreatione in Timaeo (Ilepl rrjs ev 

Ti/Liaioj ipvxoyovlas) ..... 1012a 

Compendium libri de animae procreatione in 
Timaeo {'Emrofi-fj rov nepl rqs ev rw Tifiaiu) 
tfiv\oyovias) ...... lOoUD 

De Stoicorum repugnantiis (Ilepl Stcoikwj' ivav- 

TlCDflCLTCOv) ...... 1033a 

Compendium argumenti Stoicos absurdiora 
poetis dicere (Huvoi/iis tov otl napaSo^oTepa oi 
HtcoikoI Tiov TTOvqTcov Xeyovai) . . . 1057c 

De communibus notitiis adversus Stoicos (Ilepi 

T&v KOLvwv ivvoLOiv Ttpos Tovs Stwikouj) . 1058e 

XIV. Non posse suaviter vivi secundum Epicurum 

('On ot)8' rjSeios Cv^ ^^'^'^ '^'"■'''^ 'FiTTiKovpov) . 1086c 
Adversus Colotem (npo? KtuAcuTTyv) . . 1107d 

An recte dictum sit latenter esse vivendum {el 

KoXaJs etprjTai. to Xdde ^iwaas) ■ -1 128a 

De musica (Ilepi /xouatK'^s) .... 1131a 
XV. Fragments and Index .... 



Xll 



TABLE-TALK 

(QUAESTIONES CONVIVALES) 
BOOK VII 



VOL. IX 



INTRODUCTION 

The Tahle-Talk is a collection of dialogues pui'porting 
to reproduce the after-dinner conversation of Plu- 
tarch and his friends and relatives on various occa- 
sions. They differ widely in dramatic liveliness, and 
in the degree to which they seem to be based on 
recollection, or on memoranda, of actual conversa- 
tions. Their subject matter ranges from scientific or 
philosophical questions, more or less serious, to anti- 
quarian, historical, and ethical topics ; some deal 
with the symposium or dinner party itself. 

In Book VII, the scene of two or three of the dia- 
logues (7, 8, and probably 3) is laid in Plutarch's 
home in Chaeronea, that of 2 and 5 at Delphi, and that 
of 9 and 10 at Athens ; the others give no clue as to 
location. The seventh and eighth dialogues are con- 
nected dramatically, as are the ninth and tenth. A 
peculiar phrase at the beginning of 10 suggests that 
some revision or rearrangement has taken place. The 
lack of dramatic detail causes Questions 3 and 6 to 
seem less like reports of actual conversation than the 
rest ; and the rather formal organization of Question 
6 heightens this impression. 

No fewer than six of the ten dialogues in this book 
have subjects related to the organization and conduct 
of the symposium itself ; the others are scientific 
and antiquarian. Plutarch's customary interest in the 
2 



TABLE-TALK VII 

ethical implications of customs and ideas is strongly 
e\ident, especially in the long Questions 5, 6, and 
8, and not least in his spirited defence of the use of 
wine in 10. 

The text and critical notes of this edition are based 
on K. Hubert's Teubner edition {Moralia, vol. iv, 
Leipzig, 1938). The notes are intended to record im- 
portant variations from manuscript readings. BookVH 
includes the passage (704 f— 709 a) whose loss from 
MS. T (Vindobonensis 14-8) enabled scholars to show 
that in its original form this was the source of all 
other manuscripts of the Quaestiones Convivales. 

Edwin L. Minar, Jr. 



^^^"^^ SYMnOSIAK^N 



BIBAION EBAOMON 

\apUvTos avSpos, c5 SdffCTte HevcKLCov, /cat ^lA- 
avdpcoTTov Xoyov exovcn 'Pwixatoi 8ia crro^aTog, 
oar IS -qv 6 eliroyv, enel fjiovog eSeLTTvrjaev, " ^e^pco- 
Kevai, p.rj SeheLTTvrjKcvai, ai^pLepov," cus" tov Sclttvov 
KOLVcovLav /cat (f)LXo(f)pocrvvrjv €(f>7]Svvovaav aei tto- 
D dovvTos. EvT^vo? [xev yap eXeyev to TTvp TJStarov 
rjSvandrcov etvat, /cat tov dXa " delov " "Ojjbrjpos, 
ol Se TToAAoi " ;^a/3tTa? " KaXovatv, otl ctti to. 
TrAetara payvvixevos evappbooTa ttj yevaei /cat irpoa- 
(f)iXr] TTOtet /cat Kexo.pt.crp.eva- SetVvou Se /cat rpa- 
7re^r)s decoraTov cog olXtjOws rjBvapia ^t'Ao? eari 
TTapojv /cat avvrjOt)? /cat yvcopt/ito? ou to) avveadieiv 
/cat avpiTTLvetv, dAA' ort Aoyou p,€TaXap.^dvei /cat 
pieTaSiScoaLV, dv ye Sr) ;!^p7yo'ijUov evTy ti /cat nidavov 
Kal ot/cetov rot? Xeyop.evoLS' eTrel tovs ye ttoXXovs 
al Trap' otvov aSoAecr;^tat Xr^povvTas ep-^dXXovai 

" The Roman friend of Plutarch to whom is dedicated 
each book of the Table-Talk, as well as a number of other 
Plutarchean works. He was a friend of the emperor Trajan, 
and consul in 99, 102, and 107 a.d. 

Notes on all the characters in these dialogues are to be 
found in section 8, " Plutarchs Freundeskreis," of K. Ziegler's 
long article, s.v. " Plutarchos (2)," Pauly-Wissowa, Real- 

4 



TABLE-TALK 
BOOK SEVEN 

The Romans, Sossius Senecio," are fond of quoting 
a witty and sociable person who said, after a solitary 
meal, " I have eaten, but not dined to-day," implying 
that a " dinner " always requires friendly sociability 
for seasoning. Now Evenus said that a fire is the 
finest of seasonings''; Homer calls salt " divine,"'' 
and a colloquial term for salt is " graces," because 
when mixed -with foods it will render most of them 
harmonious and agreeable and so " gracious " to our 
taste. ** But the most truly godlike seasoning at the 
dining-table is the presence of a friend or companion 
or intimate acquaintance — not because of his eating 
and drinking with us, but because he participates in 
the give-and-take of conversation, at least if there is 
something profitable and probable and relevant in 
what is said. For chitchat over wine means for most 
people a wild plunge into the life of feeling and tends 

encyclopadie (henceforth abbreviated RE) (1951; also pub- 
lished separately, 1949), cols. 665-696 (cols. 688 f. for Sossius, 
on whom cf. also ibid. s.v. " Sossius," cols. 1180-1193). 

' Frag. 10 Bergk ; also cited at Mor. 50 a and 1010 c. 
At 126 D the line is attributed to Prodicus {cf. Diels-Kranz, 
Frag, der Vorsok.^ 84 b 10, and note). 

' Iliad, ix. 214 ; cf. above. Book V, 684 f. 

•* Cf. Book V, 685 a, where the reason is " that it makes 
the necessary ple«isanL" 

5 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(697) Trpo? ra Tradrj Kal TrpocrStacTTpe^oucrtv. odev d^Lov 
E iaxL jx-qSev rjTTOv Xoyovs r) <j)iXovs SeSo/fi/xacr/xeVous" 
TTapaAa/x^avetv eirl to, SetTTva, rovvavriov rj Aa/ce- 
8ai[x6vioi (f)povovvTas /cat Aeyorras" eKclvoi fxev yo.p, 
orav veov ■^ ^Ivov els to <f>iSiTt,ov TrapaXd^ojai, rds 
dvpag^ Set'lavres", " ravrrj," j>a<jiv, " ovk i^epx^rai 
Xoyos "' rjixelg 8' eaurou? ;^p^(T0at Xoyocg avvedit^Oi- 
fiev, wv Trdaiv iartv Kal Trpog rrdvTag i^aycoyq, hid 
ras VTTodeaeis fJi'qhev aKoXaarov p,rjhk ^Xdu^'qjxov 
[xrjSe KaKorjdes ixovcrag /xr^S' dveXevdepov. e^earc 
8e KpLveiv Tols TrapaheiypiaaLV , wv rrjv e^h6p,r]v 
Se/caSa tovtI Trepiix^i to ^i^Xlov. 



F nPOBAHMA A 

IIpoj Tovs eYKaXovvras TLXdrtovi to ttotov eiTTOVTi 8ta rov 
nXevfjiOvos i^uvai 

Collocuntur Nicias, Protogenes, Florus, Plutarchus, conviva 

1. ElCTT^A^e TLVl TCOV OVfJiTTOTtOV COpO, depOVS TOVTL 

TO rrpox^ipov dnaaiv dva<j)dey^a(7dai , 

698 Teyye TrXevfiovas oivco' to yap doTpov TrepireAAerat • 

icat Nt/cta? o NiKTOTToAiTTy? laTpos ovhev €(f>ri dav- 
/Ltacrrdv, el ttoltitlko'S dvrjp 'AA/caro? rjyvorjaev o 
Kal HXdTOJV 6 (f)iX6ao(f)OS • KaiTOi tov fxev 'AA/cator 

^ Ovpas Kronenberg : dvpihas. 

" Also cited Instituta Laconica, 236 r ; Life of Lycurgus, 
46 D. 

* This Question is cited and discussed by Gellius, Nodes 
Atticae, xvii. 11, and imitated by Macrobius, Saturnalia, vii. 
15, who apparently also had Gellius before him. Cf. also 

6 



TABLE-TALK VIL 1, 697-698 

to warp the character. Therefore subjects of discourse, 
like friends, should be admitted to dinners only if they 
are of proved quality. In spirit and in speech we 
should be just the opposite of the Lacedaemonians." 
When they in\ite a young man or a foreign visitor to 
their common meal, thev point to the door and say, 
" No talk goes out that way." Let us rather make a 
practice of speaking only such words as may be di- 
vulged by anyone to anyone, as they may if the topics 
involve no licence, no profanity, no mahce, and no 
vulgarity. Permission is given to use as criteria the 
examples whose seventh set of ten this book com- 
prises. 

QUESTION 1 

Against those who find fault with Plato for saying 
that drink passes through the lungs. * 

Speakers : Nicias, Protogenes, Floras, Plutarch, an unnamed 
guest 

1. A CERTAIN dinner-guest, on a summer evening, 
was inspired to quote the familiar tag, 

Drench your lungs with wine, for the Dog-star returns ' ; 

and Nicias of NicopoHs, the physician,** commented 
that it was no wonder if Alcaeus, a poet, was ignorant 
of a point which even the philosopher Plato missed. 
And yet (he said) Alcaeus could be defended, after a 

Hippocrates, On the Heart, 2, Aristotle, De Part. Animal. 
iii. 3 (664 b 4-19) (where those who hold this view, presumably 
including Plato, are criticized), Cohen and Drabkin, Source- 
Book of Greek Science (New York, 1948), p. 479. 

« Alcaeus, frag. 39 Bergk, 94 Diehl, Z 23 Lobel-Page 
{Poetarum Lesbiorum Fragmenta), line 1. 

* A follower of the school of Erasistratus, as appears below. 

7 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(698) dficoayevcos^ evTToprjaeiv ^orideias, aTToXaveiv yap" 
iKfJidSos Tov rrXevfxova, yeiTVicuvra tw aTopA^co, koX 
hid Tovro reyyeadai Tvidavov eariv "6 8e (f)i,X6- 
ao(f>og ovTcoal aa(f)cog," €(/)rj, " ypdiftas Sie^teVat rd 
TTOTtt' Sid TOV irXevpiovos ovSk tols TrpoOvfxordroLS 
apLvvetv* i7n)(€LpriaLv vnep avrov TTcdavrjv dnoXeXot,- 
B 7T€V. TO ydp dyvoTjfjLa fieya' rtpoiTOV fjuev oti, ttjs 
vypds Tpo(f>rjg rrpos ttjv ^rjpdv dvayKatav exovarj^ 
TT^v dvapiL^Lv, CLKos ioTiv TavTov dp.(f)OTepaLs dyyeZov 
VTTOKeladai tov aTOfia^ov els Trjv /carcu KoiXiav ck- 
SiBovTa fiaXaKov /cat hid^poxov to oltLov eTretra 
TOV TrXevjjiovos p-rf Xeiov /cat ttvkvov TTavTarraai 
yeyovoTo? , ttcos to avv kvk€(vvl mvop^evov dX(f)tTov 
Sie^etCTt /cat ovk iviax^Tai,; tovtl ydp 'EpaatcrTpa- 
Tog 6p9d)s Trpog avTOV rjTToprjaev. 

Kat pLTjv ivL ye tcov TrXeioTcov tov aoip^aTos 
jxopicDV TO ou* eveKa tco Xoycp p,eTi<hv /cat vrpos" tjv 
CKaoTov rj <j)vais' XP^^^^ 7T€7tol7]K€v ^ovX6p.€vos, 
oiOTTep /cat TTpoarjKei tco (f)tXoa6(f)cp , (f>pov€Lv, ovk 
C evTrdpiTov e;)^et* to ttjs CTnyXcoTTLSog epyov, eTTt 
TovTcp TeTaypbivrjs, ottcd? ev ttj /caraTToaet Trjs Tpo- 

^ afuoayeTrojs Xylander (in his translation) : dXXws ye tkhs. 

* yap added by Turnebus. ' ttoto. Turnebus : iroXXa. 

* cifjivveLv Basel edition : afx^Xweiv. 

* /X17 added by Hubert. * to ov Stephanus : rovrov. 
' <j>vais Basel edition : Kpiais- 

* evirdpiTov e;^ei Post ; ev ndpirov T : ev irapiqai Wyttenbach, 
Hubert. 

" Plutarch uses the word arofiaxos for both oesophagus and 
stomach. The translation varies according to the context. 

* Timaeus, 70 c, 91 a. Galen supposed Plato to mean that 
only part of the liquid drunk passes through the lungs {Hipp, 
et Plat. 722 fF. ; cf. Cornford, Plato's Cosmology, p. 284, n. 



TABLE-TALK VIL 1, 698 

fashion, since it is a plausible \'iew that the lungs, 
being neighbours to the stomach," do benefit by the 
moisture of the body, and that in this way they are 
" drenched." " The philosopher, however," he con- 
tinued, " 's\Tote so plainly that what is drunk passes 
through the lungs that he left no plausible line of 
argument in his behalf, even for those most zealous 
to defend him.'' His error is a blatant one, in the 
first place because, since our liquid nourishment 
must necessarily be mixed with the dry, it stands to 
reason that the stomach serves as a receptacle, the 
same for both, and passes the food on, soft and moist, 
into the lower belly. In the second place, since the 
lung is not altogether smooth and close-textured, 
how does the barley drunk in a kykeon '^ pass through 
without getting stuck ? This is the objection which 
Erasistratus <* justifiably raised against Plato. 

" Moreover, since for most of the parts of the body 
Plato takes account of their purpose in the course 
of his discussion, wishing, as a philosopher should, to 
understand the function for which nature has made 
each one, it is wTong for him to ignore the service 
performed by the epiglottis, which is put there for 
this very purpose, of stopping the windpipe while 

1), and this would be consistent with some Platonic passages 
(Timaeiis, 70 c, 72 e, 78 a, b). In 91 a, however, he seems to 
speak unequivocally of " the conduit of our drink . . . 
through the lungs " (Cornford). 

* A drink containing barley-groats and grated cheese, in 
wine. 

^ A native of Ceos, physician and scholar at Alexandria in 
the first half of the third century b.c. He established an in- 
fluential school which was still active in Plutarch's time. Cf. 
Wellmann, RE, s.v. (on this passage, col. 338), H. Fuchs, 
" De Erasistrato Capita Selecta," Hermes, xxix (1894), pp. 
171-203. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(698) <f>rjs rr)V apr'qpiav 7Tiet,ovaa kcoXvt] Trapc^Trecretv 
OTLOvv et? Tov TrXevjjiova' Setva? yap vtto jSt];^©? 
LGX^i rpaxvrrjras Kal )(apd^ets, orav TrapoXiadr) 
(f)€poixevov TOV TTvevjxaros' rj 8e iieravXos avrrj 
kXicjiv in* diJi(f>6r€pa Xapb^avovaa <f)deyyo^€VO}v fxev 
eTmTLTrrei tco aToixd)(cp, cnrovixevwv Se Kal ttivov- 
Tcov rfj dprrjpia, Kadapov rep TTvevpiaTL rov hp6p,ov 
<f>vXdrTovaa Kal ttjv dvaTTVo'qv. 

" "Ert TOLVVV," €^17, " Kal tovs drpipia Trivovras 
Lap,€v Ttt? /coiAt'a? vyporepag 'laxovras tcDv ddpovv 
D €(j)eXKop,€voiv TO vypov (hdeiTai} yap evdvs et? 
Kvcrrtv VTTO pv/JLrjg Sie^iov cKetvo 8e jjuoXXov ivSia- 
rpL^ei TotS" aLTLOL'5 Kal /xaXdaaei, coot dvapilyvvcrdat, 
Kal rrapapieveiv . ovk dv Se TavTa avve^aive 8ta- 
KpivojxevcDV evdvs €v ttj KaTairooei tcjv vypcov, 
dXXd ovfJiTrXeKOfievcDV djxa^ Kal crvixTTapaTTcpLTTOVTOJV 
TO aiTiov, olov ox'Tip-aTL Tcp vypcp xP^H'^^o^y ^^ 
eXeyev 'EpacrtcrTpaTos'." 

2. Toiaura tov Nt/ctou Sie^iovTos 6 ypafi/xaTiKos 
II pcoToyevqg ^<j>ff avvecDpaKevai TrpcoTov "OfMrjpov, 

OTL TTJS fXeV TpOcf)7JS 6 CTTO/Xap^OS' dyyCLOV €GTIV, TOV 

Se 7TV€VfxaTos 6 ^poyxo?, ov docjidpayov €KdXovv ol 
E TTaXaior 8l6 Kal tovs pb€yaXo<f)d)vovs " €pia<f>apd- 

yovg " €7TovoiJidll,€iv eldidaaiv enrcbv ovv otl tov 

"E/CTopo? o ^AxtXXevs rjXaae 

XevKavL-qv, Iva re ijsvx'^)? (^'<I'(^tos oXedpos' 

ov8' dp* (xtt' do(f)dpayov ixeXirj rdfxe x^-XKO^dpeia, 

6<j>pa TL pnv 7TpoTL€L7TOL dfiei^opievos eTTeeaatv, 

^ (odelrai Wyttenbach : codei. 
2 a/xa Madvig : -qiMciv a/xa. ' e<f>ri added by Turnebus. 

" Erasistratus' expression is also cited above, vi. 690 a. 
* Probably the same as the Protogenes of the Amatorius 

10 



TABLE-TALK VIL 1, 698 

food is being swallowed, thus preventing any of it 
from accidentally falling into the lungs ; for the 
latter are badly rasped and scratched by coughing 
when anything slips past during respiration. The epi- 
glottis, Uke the inner door of a courtyard, can be set 
either way. \Mien we speak it falls over the oeso- 
phagus, and when we eat or drink it falls over the 
windpipe, thus keeping the route clear for the breath 
when we inhale again. 

" Further," he continued, " we know that people 
who drink slowly have more moisture in their abdo- 
men than those who gulp their drink. In the latter 
case, it is thrust by the momentum straight to the 
bladder, while in the former, it lingers \\-ith the food, 
and softens it up, thus combining and staving ^\^th 
it. This would not be the case if any liquids were 
separated out at the very' moment of swallowing. 
They must be in one package \\ith the food, helping 
to speed it on its way and ser\ing it as a vehicle, in 
Erasistratus' words." " 

2. After this exp>osition by Nicias, the schoolmaster 
Protogenes ^ remarked that Homer was the first to 
have observed that the receptacle for our nourishment 
is the oesophagus, and for breath the ^\•indpipe, which 
the ancients called aspharagus (so that the epithet for 
loud-voiced persons was erispharagoi)S WTien Homer 
says that Achilles struck Hector's " throat (leukanie), 
where life is quickest to perish, but the bronze-heavy 
ashen spear cut not his \vindpipe (aspharagos), that 
he might speak and exchange words with Mm," <^ he 

(below), a guest-friend of Plutarch from Tarsus. Cf. also 
viii. 4, ix. 2, 12, 13. 

' This word is onlj^ found, however, in the Homeric Hymn 
to Hermes (187, of Poseidon), and once in Pindar. 

" Iliad, xxii. 325, 328-329. 

11 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(698) CO? rov aa<j)(ipayov ovra (f)covrjg tSiov ox^rov Kal 
TTvevfiaros, ttjv 8e XevKavirjv rpo(f)rjs dyyelov Aeyei 

iv TOVTOIS' 

vvv Srj Kal aiTov TraadfJLrjv Kal aWoTra otvov 
XevKavirjv icred-qKa} 

3. TevofJievrjs ovv inl tco Xoyo) GLiOTrrjs 6 OAcapo? 
eiTrev " ovtco? u^rjCTo/Lte^a rov YlXaTWVos ip'qixrjv 
6(f)XL(TKdvovros ; " 

Ovx rifiels y* ," €(f)7]v iyw- " TTporjaofxeda yap 
ttjua TO) YlXdrcovL Kal rov "Op/qpov, o? roaovrov 
(XTToSet rov ro vypov d77eAauveiv Kal d7ToaTp€(f)€iv 
rrjs dpTTjpias , oiare Kal ro airiov opbov avveK^aXelv 
ivravda- ' (f)dpvyyos ,'^ ydp (f>rjaLV, ' e^eaavro olvos 
F i/rcojLtot t' dvhpopeoi '• x^P''^ ^^ I^V "^^^ Ku/cAa)7ra 
(f>'qcreL rt? wanep 6<f)daXp6v ^x^tv eva Kal iropov 
rpo(f)r]s Kal (f)a)V'fjs rov avrov t] rov (j>dpvyya (f>'^aeL 
aropcaxov elpijadaL Kal p,r] ^poyxov, warrep vrro 
TrdvTOJV Kal ndXai Kal vvv (I)v6p,aaraL. ravra 8' 
ovK dtTopia p,aprvpcov, dAA' vtto rrjs dXr^deLa? eTTt]- 
yayop^rjv irrel pudprvpeg ye rip WXarcovL ttoXXol re 
699 Kayadol rrdpeiaiv. EuVoAtv pLev ydp, el ^ouXei, 
irdpes ev KdAa^tr eiTTovra, 

TTVveiv ydp 6 Upoyrayopas eVe'Aeycj', Iva 

TTpo rov Kvvos rov TrXevpLov^ eKKXvarov (f>opfj' 

^ rpo<f)rjs . . . XevKavlrjv added by Wyttenbach, who saw- 
that Plutarch must have quoted Iliad, xxiv. 641 f. (Homer's 
MSS. have XevKavlrjs KaOerjKa.) 

* <f>dpvyos Xylander, to accord with Homer's spelling, and 
the metre. 

12 



TABLE-TALK VIL 1, 698-699 

is speaking of the windpipe (aspharagos) as the special 
channel of voice and breath, but he speaks of the 
throat (leukanie) as the receptacle of nourishment in 
the following : 

Now I have tasted food and poured bright wine down my 
throat." 

3. After a pause, Florus * said, "Are we thus to let 
Plato's case go by default ? " 

" Surely not," I replied, " for we should be betray- 
ing Homer as well as Plato. He is so far from dri%dng 
or turning liquid from the \vindpipe that he even has 
soHd food coming out with it by that route. ' From 
his throat (pharynx),' he says, ' came pouring wine 
and pieces of human flesh.' "^ Unless someone is 
going to allege that, as the Cyclops had one eye, he 
also had a single passagewav for both food and voice 
— or that bv pharynx Homer meant the oesophagus 
and not the windpipe, which is what everyone has 
meant by it in both ancient and modem times. I 
have introduced this quotation not for any lack of 
authorities, but out of regard for truth ; for the 
witnesses on Plato's side are both numerous and ex- 
cellent. Disregard Eupolis, if you will, who says in 
the Flatterers, 

Protagoras bade him drink, to have his lungs well sluiced, 
before the dog days."* 

• See critical note. 

' L. Mestrius Florus, an influential Roman friend, through 
whom, presumably, Plutarch obtained Roman citizenship, 
and whose gentile name he assumed. Florus is characterized 
in the Table-Talk, where he appears 13 times, as a man of 
wide learning, with a fondness for philosophy (734 d) and for 
ancient customs (702 d). 

' Odyssey, Lx. 373. 

" Frag. 147 Kock. 

13 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(699) napes 8e Kal tov koixi/jov 'Eiparoadevrjv XeyovTa, 

/cat ^advv dKprjTO) TrXevfjiova reyyofxevos' 

^vpiTTtSrjs Se aa(f)OJS S-qnov Xeycov, 

otvos TTepdaas TrXevpLOVcov Siappods, 

BijXos icrriv ^KpaaLarpdrov ^Xcttcov tl o^vrepov 
6t8ev yap on arjpayyas 6 TrXevficjov €)(€t /cat iropois 
KararcrpriraL, hi wv to vypov hiirjoiv. ov yap to 
TTvevpLa TTOpojv eSetTO Trpos rrjv i^aycoyrjv, dXX' 
eveKa rcbv vypoiiv /cat tojv roZs vypol's avixTrapoXi- 
B adaivovTcov yeyovev -^OixoetSrjs Kal TToXviropo's. /cat 
ovhev TjTTOv, (L jJuiKapie, rep TrXevpiOvi TrpocrrJKOv 
eariv rj to) aropid^^cp avveKhihovai to dX(f>iTov /cat 
TO KpipLvov ovhe yap 6 crrop^axos rjp^cov Xelos, a>9 
Tiveg, oi5S' oXiadrjpos, dAA' e;^et rpaxvrrjras, at? 
et/co? eCTTt Ta Xerrrd /cat /xt/cpa TrepLTTiTTrovra /cat 
irpoaiaxopieva hia^evyeiv rrjv KardTToaiv. 

'AAA' ovre Tovro Xeyeiv ovr^ €K€lvo KaXcos 
€Xov eariv rj yap ^vais ovk i(f)LKr6v e;^ei rep Xoycp 
TO TTcpl rds evepyeias evp.'qxo.vov, oj)8' ecrTi rcov 
opydvtov avrrjg rrjv aKpl^eiav ot? xprjrai (Xeyco 8e 
TO 7TV€vp,a /cat TO deppiov) d^icos SteXdetv. 
C " "ETt Srj Tibv piapTvpcov Tip nAaTOJVt irpooKa- 
Xovp,ai ^tAtCTTta/va Te tov Ao/cpdv, €v p,dXa TraAatov 
dvhpa /cat Xap,7rp6v diro Trjg T€)(vrjs vp,a)V yevo- 
pLCvov, /cat 'iTTTTOKpdTT] /Cat Alw^lttttov tov 'Itttto- 
KpdT€Lov OVTOL ydp ovx €Tepav oSov, dAA' rjv 
HXdTCDV, v^r]yovvTai tov TTopiaTog.^ rj ye p.r]v ttoXv- 

^ TTofiaros Reiske : orofMaros. 

" E. Hiller, Eratosthenis Carminum Reliquiae (1872), pp. 
3, 100 ; fr. 25 Powell {Collectanea Alexandrina, p. 65). 

14 



TABLE-TALK VIL 1, 699 

Disregard the elegant Eratosthenes, too, and his 
expression, 

Drenching his lungs deep down with unmixed wine.* 

But when Euripides speaks in plain terms of 

Wine, traversing the channels of the lungs,* 

he shows that he has keener eyes than Erasistratus. 
For he has perceived that the lung has cavities and 
is pierced mth channels through which it transmits 
liquid. The breath has no need of special passages 
through which to escape ; it is for the sake of the 
liquids and the solids that slip in ^\ith them, that the 
lung is created in the pattern of a sieve, and is well 
pro\ided \vith channels. What is more, my good 
friend, it is no less the part of the lung than of the 
stomach to pass along the barley groats or meal you 
speak of. Our stomach is not smooth or slippery, as 
some suppose, but it has irregularities, into which it 
is Ukely that light and small particles fall and lodge 
and so escape getting swallowed further. 

" But neither this account nor the other is quite 
satisfactory ; the ingenious organization of Nature's 
actixities is beyond the range of words, and it is im- 
possible to explain adequately the exact working of 
the agencies it employs — that is breath and warmth. 
Now, the further witnesses for Plato whom I 
shall call are Philistion of Locri,'= a very ancient 
authority and one eminent in your profession, and 
Hippocrates with his follower Dioxippus.** These 
men teach us that what we drink follows no other 
route but Plato's. Your precious epiglottis did not 

* Frag. 983 Nauck. « Frag. 7 Wellmann. 

•* The correct form of the name is probably Dexippus (c/. 
Wellmann in RE^ s.v. " Dexippos (7) "). 

15 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(699) TifiTjros eTrtyAcDTTi? ovk eXade rov Alco^ittttov, dAAa 
TTepl Tavrrjv cfyrjal to vypov iv rfj KaraTroaei Sta- 
KpLv6fi€vov els rrjv aprripiav eTTippetv, to Se airiov 
els rov arofiaxov eTnKvXivSeladai,' /cat rfj jxev 
aprrjpia rdv eScoScficov [xrjBev 7rapep,7TL7TreLV, rov Se 
arofxaxov a^ta rfj $T)p5. rpo(f)fj Kal rijs vypds dva- 

D fiiyvvfxevov tl p-epos VTTohexeadai' TTidavov yap earc 
rrjv puev yap eTTiyXiorriha rijs dprrjpias TrpoKeladai, 
8i,d(f)payp,a Kal rapneZov, ottcos drpefia Kal Kar' 
oXlyov SLT]drjraL ro irorov, dXXd firj raxv /^'7S' 
dOpovv CTTLppaKrov d7ToPLdl!,r]raL ro TTvevpia Kal 
hiarapdrrrf 8to roZs opviaiv ov yeyovev eTTiyXcorrls 
01)8' ear IV ovSe yap GTTwvres ovSe XaTrrovres, dXXd 
Kairrovres Kal Kar' oXiyov huevres ro rrorov rjavxjj 
rrjv dprrjpiav BiaLvovcri Kal reyyovai. 

Maprvpcov fiev ovv dXis. 6 Se Xoyos rw 
UXdrojvL TTpcjrov e/c rijs aladrjaetos e;^€t rrjv iriartv 
rijs yap dpnqpias rpcoOelarjs ov Kararriverai ro 

E vypoVy dAA' oiarrep dyerov SiaKOTTevros eKTrZirrov 
e^co Kal drroKpovvit^ov opdrai, Kairrep vyiovs Kal 
dKepaiov rod arop^dyov p,evovros. eVetra iravres 
tafiev, ore rots TTepnrXevpoviKols "nddeai hupos^ 
eTTerai 'nepL(j)Xeyeararov vtto ^rjporrjros ^ depp,o- 
riyros i] rivos dXX-qs alrias dp,a rfj (f)Xeyp.ovfj riqv 
ope^iv ep.TToiovarjS' o he rovrov p^eX^ov eari reKp^n]- 
piov, oCToi? TrXevpioJv ovk ep^Tre^vKe rdv ^ojcuv f] 
a(f)6Spa p,LKp6s ep^TTe^vKe, ravr' ov Selrat rrorov ro 
TTapaTTav ouS' opeyerai, hid ro rcov piopnov eKaarm 
avpL<j>VTOv VTrdpyeiv rrjv -rrpos rovpyov^ eTTidvpaav, 

^ hujios Stephanus : huha. 

* rovpyov Reiske, Doehner {ministerium Macrobius, 1 8) : 
TO vypov. 

16 



TABLE-TALK VIL 1, 699 

escape Dioxippus' notice ; he says that in the act 
of swallo-N^-ing, the liquid part is separated out in this 
organ's neighbourhood and flows into the windpipe, 
while the solid food goes tumbling into the oesopha- 
gus. No solid food sUps into the Avindpipe ; but the 
oesophagus, along with the dry part of the nourish- 
ment, also receives a portion of the moist combined 
with it. This seems a Ukely interpretation ; the epi- 
glottis, you see, is stationed before the windpipe Uke 
a barrier or regulator, so that what we drink may 
filter through gradually, a httle at a time, and not, 
by being forced down suddenly or all at once, do 
violence to the breath and interfere with its regu- 
larity. This is why birds have not been provided with 
an epiglottis. They do not drink by sucking or lap- 
ping, but by gulps ; by taking in a httle at a time 
they gradually moisten or wet their windpipe. 

" Enough of authorities. Plato's account has its 
primary corroboration from ordinary observation : 
when the windpipe is wounded, liquids are not 
swallowed. They are observed escaping and gushing 
out as from a broken water pipe, though the oeso- 
phagus remains whole and uninjured. In the second 
place, we all know that in diseases involving an in- 
flammation of the lungs there develops an excessive, 
burning thirst, because of the dryness or the heat, or 
some other cause that induces the craving for hquid 
along with the fever. But a proof even stronger than 
this is that the creatures to whom nature has not 
given a lung, or has given only a very small one, do 
not need to drink at all, and feel no desire for it, 
because a natural concomitant of each organ is the 
desire directed toward fulfilment of its function, and 

17 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(699) OLS 8' ovK eart fMopia, /Ltr^Se ;^petav TrapeZvai, [Ji'qbe 
TTpodv^Liav TTJg 8t' avrcjv evepyeias . 
F " "OAo)? 8e So^et {jLO.T'qv tj Kvans yeyovevai rots 
€)(ovaLV et ya./3 o crrd^ap^o? ayita to) oltlu) to ttotov 
avaXafi^dvcL /cat T?y kolXlo. Trapahihoiaiv, ovdev 
ISiov TTopov Setrat to TTCpLrrajfxa rrjs vypds Tpo(f)7Js, 
dAA' ets" dpKei /cat /cotvos" warrep evSialos d[jLcf)OTe- 
pots €LS ravTO 8td rauTou avveLaKoixil,opievoL's^' vvv 
he ;^a>pt? /xev •j^ kvotls yeyovev, ;)^a>/)ts" 8e to evrepov, 
OTi TO /xer e/c tou TrXevjJiovos jSaSt^et, to S' e/c tou 
700 arojxd)(ov, Sta/cpivd/xevov evdv? rrepl ttjv KaraTToaiv . 
odev oyS' i7TL(f)aLV€Tat rco vypa> rod ^7]pov Trepirru)- 
pLaros ovhev, ovre XP^^- "^poaeoiKog ovr^ ^^P'fj ''"^ 
TTapdvav Kairoi ^vaiv et^ev dvapnyvvp^evov iv rfj 
KoiXta Kdvhv6p,€vov^ dvaTTLpLTrXaadai rcov €K€lvov 
TTOiOT-qrcov /cat p,rj Kadapov ovrcos dTTrjdeZodai /cat 

dxpOLVTOV. oAA' OuSe XWoS iv /COlAta 7Ta)7TOT€ 

avvearrr)' /caiTOi Xoyov etj^ev pur^hev tjttov tj iv 
Kvarei avviaraadai /cat TTriyvvadai ro vypov, elrrep 
els KoiXiav i^copeL Sid aropLd^ov -ndv to mvopLevov. 
dXX eoLKev 6 piev aropiaxos iK ttjs dprrjpLa? evdvg 
B eXKOiv Tov TTapoSevovTog vypov ro LKavov /cat to 
pierpLov drroxpyjcrdaL Ttpos pidXa^iv Kal x^Xcoaiv rrj? 
Tpo<f)rjs, 8td pLTjSev vypov TTepirTCxyp.a TToielv 6 he 
TrXevp^ojv diarrepel ro TTvevp-a /cat ro vypov i^ 
avrov Siavepicjov rots Seopcevois ro Xolttov iKKpiveiv 
els rrjv Kvariv. 

Et/coTa ydp pcaKpw ravra pidXXov eKeivojv. ro 

^ atn>eiaKOfii^ofi€vois Doehner : eloKOfu^ofievois. 
* KavSvofievov Hubert : Kal dvaSevo/xevov. 

18 



TABLE-TALK VIL 1, 699-700 

creatures that do not have certain parts have neither 
a need for them nor any eagerness for the activity 
that employs them. 

" The bladder, too, vriW by your account seem to 
have been given to the creatures that have it quite 
in vain ; for if the stomach takes in drink along with 
food, and passes it along to the lower abdomen, the 
residue of liquid nourishment has no need for a pas- 
sage of its own ; a single one would suffice, shared, like 
a bilge-hole, by both, since they would be borne to the 
same place over the same route. In fact, however, 
the bladder and the bowel have been made separate 
and distinct because one type of waste comes from 
the lung, and the other from the stomach, separation 
taking place at the very start when we swallow. 
This is why, in the liquid excretion, no remnant of dry 
food is seen, nor any approximation either in colour 
or in odour ; and yet the natural thing would be, if 
the liquid were mixed in the belly ^vith the solid, so 
as to permeate it, that it should be infected with its 
properties instead of being filtered out so clear and 
uncontaminated. Nor in fact has a stone ever been 
formed in the abdomen, though it would make as 
good sense for liquid to be concentrated and soUdified 
here as in the bladder, if ever\i;hing drunk went 
through the stomach into the abdomen. What seems 
likely is that the stomach draws directly from the 
\^indpipe a sufficient and moderate quantity of mois- 
ture as it passes by, and uses it to soften and Uquefy 
the food, and for that reason produces no hquid 
residue. And the lung, distributing air and liquid 
from itself, so to speak, to the parts that need them, 
excretes the remainder to the bladder. 

" This is far more probable than the other accounts. 

19 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(700) 8' dX-qdes icrojs oKtitttov ev ye tovtols, Kal ovk eSti 
TTpos <f)LX6ao(f>ov 80^7^ T€ Kal Swafjiei Trpcorov ovrcos 
aTTavdahiaaaSai Trepl Trpdyfiaros dS'qXov /cat ro- 
aavrrjv dvriAoyiav^ exovros." 

nPOBAHMA B 

Ti's o irapa r& IIAdTwvt KepaaPoXos, Koi Sict ti tcuj' cnrepfuiTcuv 
C drepafiova yiyveTcu ra irpoaTTinTOVTa rots Kepaai tu>v jSocSv; 

Collocuntur Euthydemus, Patrocleas, Florus, Plutarchus, 
alii 

1. 'Ev rats' nAarcuvt/cats" avvavayvdyaeaiv^ 6 
Xeyofxevos " Kepaa^oXos " Kal " drepd/jLiov " 1,'qT'qaiv 
del TTapel)(ev' ov)( oaris etrj, SrjXov yap ii)v on tcjv 
aTTeppLaroiv rd TrpoaTTLTTTovra tols rdJv ^otov Ke- 
pacriv drepdp^ova top Kaprrov eK(f)V€LV vopiit,ovre^ 
ovrcos Tov avddSrj Kal aKXrjpov dv6pa>7Tov e/c fiera- 
<f)opds Kepaa^oXov Kal drepd/jLova Trpoarjyopevov 
dXXd 776/31 avTTJs hirjTTopelTO rrjs alrias Kad^ rjv 
D TOVTO Trdax^t rd irpoaTriTnovra rols Kepaai TOiv 
^odjv aTTeppLara. /cat TroAAa/ct? dTrenrdpieda rols 
<j)iXois, ovx TJKiara Qeo^pdoTov BeSirrofMevov^ rov 
Xoyov, ev 01? iroAAa avvayrjoxev /cat laroprjKev ratv 
TTjV air lav dvevperov rjpJtv exovrtov olos eariv 6 
TcDv dXeKroplhoyv orav reKcoat 7TepiKap(f)iafx6s , 17 re 

^ dvTiXoYiav Bernardakis : alnoXoyiav. 
* First four words transferred from end of Question 1 by 
Wyttenbach. 

' SeSiTTo/Me'vou Kronenberg : atViTTo/xeVou. 

" Laws, ix. 853 d. 
20 



TABLE-TALK VII. 1-2, 700 

Certainty, however, is doubtless unattainable in 
questions of this sort ; and it was wrong to make 
such a rash attack, in a matter which is obscure and 
admits of so many contrary arguments, against a 
philosopher pre-eminent in reputation and in in- 
fluence." 

QUESTION 2 

Who the " horncast " man is, of whom Plato speaks, and 
why seeds that happen to touch the horns of cattle are 
" obdurate." 

Speakers : Euthydemus, Patrocleas, Floras, Plutarch, and 
others 

1. When we have had readings from Plato in com- 
pany, the sort of person he calls " horncast " (keras- 
holos) or " obdurate " (ateramon) * has always set us to 
puzzling — not who he is, for it is clear that people 
used to believe that seeds which touch the horns of 
oxen produce grain that is " obdurate " and so, by 
transfer, referred to a self-willed and unbending 
person as " horncast " and " obdurate." Our diffi- 
culty was rather to know the reason itself why seeds 
which touch the horns of cattle are so affected. I had 
frequently asked my friends to excuse me, not least 
because Theophrastus fights shy of the question, in a 
book that collects and discusses many phenomena 
whose causes we cannot discover,'' such as the hen's 
covering herself with chaff when she has laid an Ggg," 

* Frag. 1 75 Wimmer ; but Theophrastus does not mention 
the kerasbolon here, and in De Causis Plant, iv. 12. 13, he 
expresses doubt about this phenomenon. 

" Cf. Aristotle, Historia Animal, vii. 2 (560 b 8). Pliny, 
Nat. Hist. X. 116 interprets this as an act of religious purifi- 
cation. 

21 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(700) KaraTTivovaa <f)U)Kr) ttjv nvriav oXicrKOfievT),^ /cat to 
Karopvaaofxevov vtto rojv iXdtfxov Kepas, koL to 
ripvyyiov, o fjuds alyos els ro (jrofxa Xa^ovarjs aTrav 
e(f)LararaL to aiTToAtor* iv tovtols yap Kal to. 
Kepaa^oXa tcov crTrepfjidTajv TTpoTideTat,, irpayp^a 
TTLGTiv e^ov OTL yiyveTttt, T7]v 8' atTtttv ^xov dvopov 
E f] TTayxaXeTTov . dXX ev ye AeX(f)oXs Trapd heiTTVov 
erredevTo Tives rjfjuv tcHv eTaipcov, cos ov p,6vov 

yampos avro TrXeirjs ^ovXrjV Kal firJTiv dfjueivw 

yivopLevrjv dXXd Kal Tas ^rjT'qaets ttoXv irpodvpio- 
repas /cai dpaavTepas Tas d7Tocf)dvaeis tov otvov 
TTOiovvTos, d^LovvTes eLTTelv TL nepl tov vpo^X-q- 
fiaros. 

2. Er^^ov fJLev ovv dpvovfievos ov <f>avXovs avvr)- 
yopovs, Kv6vhr)iJ.ov tov avviepea Kal YlaTpoKXea 
TOV ya/ji^pov, ovk oXiya TOiavTa TtDv dTvo yecopylas 
Kal Kvvr]y las irpo^epovTas' olov eSo/cei to Trepl ttjv 
XdXat,av elvai ttjv vtto twv )(aXa^o<f)vXdKa)v atpiaTt 
F OTTaXaKos ^ paKlois yvvaiKelois dTTOTpeTroixevqv 
Kal TO TUiv dyplcjov epLvecbv, a Tats rj/jiepoLS rrepi- 
aTTTOfxeva avKals diroppelv ovk ea tov Kapirov dXXd 

^ TTvriav oXiaKOfxevr) Meziriacus, after Xylander : mrvv dva- 
MoKOfievrj. 

" Aelian, De Natura Animal, iii. 19 ; Aristotle, frag. 370 
Rose ; Ps.-Aristotle, De Mir. Ausc. 835 b 31 ; Pliny, Nat. 
Hist, xxviii. 77. 

22 



TABLE-TALK ML 2, 700 

the seal's swallowing its rennet when captured," the 
stag's burpng its cast horns,* and the sea-holly (if one 
goat takes a bit of this in its mouth, the whole herd 
comes to a stop)/ It is in this context that he men- 
tions the matter of the homcast seeds, a phenomenon 
whose occurrence is attested, but whose cause is im- 
possible or ver\' difficult to discover. At a dinner in 
Delphi, however, some of mv companions set upon 
me, pressing for a discussion of this problem, on the 
ground not only that 

Counsel and wisdom are better when belly is full,'* 

but that wine makes a man much more zealous in in- 
quiry and self-confident in stating his \iews. 

2. I refused the request, and got no mean support 
from Euthydemus, my colleague in priesthood,* and 
Patrocleas my son-in-law,^ who cited a good number 
of similar phenomena out of their experience in 
farming and hunting ; for example, the story of hail 
being averted by " hail-\nzards " through the use of 
the blood of a mole or a woman's rags ^ ; or that 
about wild figs, which when attached to domesticated 
fig-trees prevent them from dropping their fruit, and 

* Aristotle, Historia Animal. 611 a 29 ; frag. 370 Rose ; 
Aelian, De Natura Animal, iii. 17 ; Pliny, Xat. Hist. viii. 1 15. 

* Cf. De Sera yuminis Vindicta, 558 e, Maxime cum 
Princ. 776 f ; Aristotle, Historia Animal. 610 b 29. 

'' Fragment of an unknown poet. 

* Euthydemus appears also in iii. 10. Probably he was a 
fellow citizen of Plutarch, though apparently not a close 
friend. 

' This man appears several times in Plutarch's dialogues. 
Since the writer's only daughter died in childhood, it is con- 
jectured that by yafj.pp6s Plutarch means the husband of a 
niece {RE, «.r.'" Plutarchos (2)," col. 651). 

' Cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist, xxviii. 77. 

23 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(700) avvex^i Kai avveKTreTraivei' Kol to ras €Xd<f>ovs 
dX^vpov d(f)i,€vai, rovg Se avs yXvKV to haKpvov 
aXt,crKO[X€vovs. 

" 'AAA' idv raur'," €(f)r), " l^'qrfjs," 6 KvdvSrjpios, 
" avTLKa Se-qacL ae /cat -Trepl rod aeXivov Kal irepl 
Tov KVfiLvov StSdvat Xoyov, c5v to [jl€v iv tco 
^AacTTttveiv KaTaTTaTovvTCS Kal awTpi^ovTcg otovTai 
701 ^cXtiov av^dveadai., to 8' av KaTapcofxevot aireipoyat 
Koi XoihopovvTGs." 

3. 'Evret Se tovto /xev 6 ^Xcbpos a)€To TraiBidv 
elvai Kal <f)Xvapov, eKeivcov 8' ovk dv Tiva ttjs aiTias 
(vs dX-rJTTTOv TTpoeadai ttjv ^i]Trjai,v, " i^evprjK* ," 
€(f)r]v, " (f>dppiaKov, S jrpos tov Xoyov €(f>' ripids 
Trpoad^eis^ tovtov, tva Kal av StaAuarys" evia twv 
e/c/cet/xeVcov. Sok€l 8?) p,oi rj ijivx^poTrj^ to aTepapiov 
e/i7Toietv TotS" re TTvpols' Kal rot? ;^e8poi/fi, Triet^ovaa 
Kal TTrjyvvovaa ttjv e^iv d^pi' OKXrjpoTrjTos, rj 8e 
depixoTTjs TO evBidXvTOV Kal pcaXaKov. odev ovk 
opdcos ol XeyovTes, ' ctos (jiepei ovtls dpovpa,' rd 
Kad' 'OfJi'^pov Xeyovaiv Ta yap evdepfia cfivaei 
B x^P^^> Kpdcnv €vp,evrj tov depos ivSiSovTos , €K(f)€p€i, 
fMaXaKOJTepovg tovs Kapnovs. oaa toLvvv e/c ttjs 

X^ipOS evdvs et? TTjV yijV d(f)l€[M€V* iflTTLTTTei TCX)V 

GTTepfxdTOJV, ivSvofieva Kal Xox^vofieva ttj Kpvifjei 
fidXXov dTToXavei Trjg iv ttj yrj Oep/xoT'qTOS Kal 
vypoTrjTos' Ta 8e TrpooKpovovTa rot? Kcpaai tojv 
^od)v ov Tvyxdvei ttjs ' dpiaTr^g ' Kad^ 'HcrtoSov 



^ rrpoaa^eis Post : npoad^eis. 
* iTvpols Basel edition : pviroZs. 



" Cf. Amatorius, 753 a ; Aristotle, Historia Animal- 
557 b 29 ; Theophrastus, De Causis Plant, ii. 9. 5 ; Pliny» 
Nat. Hist. XV. 81. 



24 



TABLE-TALK VIL 2, 700-701 

promote its ripening " ; or the fact that deer when 
captured shed salty tears, while boars shed sweet. 

" But if you go into these matters," said Euthy- 
demus, " you will straightway have to explain about 
celery and cumin, too ; the first of these, people 
think, grows better if they trample and crush it as it 
grows, the other if they sow the seed with curses 
and maledictions." * 

3. Since Florus thought all this last was childish 
nonsense, but that none of the former questions 
should be given up as insoluble, I said,*^ " I have 
found a potion that \n\\ make you leap into the argu- 
ment against us, so that you too may lend a hand in 
sohing some of the problems proposed. It seems to 
me to be cold that produces obduracy in both wheat 
and legumes ; it squeezes and freezes them into such 
a state that they are unjielding, whereas warmth 
produces a texture that is soft and easily loosened. 
Thus it is wTong to cite the proverb, ' the season, 
not the field, bears the crop,' against Homer.** For 
localities that are naturally warm, where the climate 
affords a bland temperature, produce grain that is 
softer. However, while seeds that sink into the soil 
straight from the hand that sows them, nestle down 
and become embedded, so that, covered up as they 
are, they get more good of the warmth and moisture 
of the soil, those which strike the horns of oxen do not 
receive the ' best placement,' as Hesiod calls it,* but 

• Cf. Theophrastus, Hist. Plant. 11. 4. 3; Pliny, Nat. 
Hist. xlx. 120, 158. 

' Much of the following passage, and In particular the 
idea of the influence of cold, is borrowed from Theophrastus, 
Be Causis Plant. Iv. 12. 1-9. 

^ C/. Theophrastus, Be Causis Plant. liL 23. 4 ; Hist. 
Plant. vlU. 7. 6. • Works and Days, ill. 

25 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(701) * €vdr]fjiOGvvr]g,' dXXa acfyaXXofxeva Kal TrapoXiaBai- 
vovra piTTTOixevoL^ ixdXXov rj crTreipo/xeVotS' Trpoa- 
€OtK€V odev rj (f)delpovaiv avrd TravrdiTaaLV at j/fUX" 
porrjTes rj bv(rrr]KTa Kal ap^yjita Kal ^vXcohr] rots 
Xi'TCjai yvfivols iTnaK-qTTTOvaaL ttoiovglv. 

Opas yap OTL Kal tcov Xidcov rd eyyata Kal 
C ^d)(f)vra pieprj jxaXaKcorepa rdjv €TTi7ToXrj? rj dXea 
(f)vXdrTef Sto Kal Karopurrovaiv ol Tep^rtrai rovs 
epyaaifiovs Xldovs, cooTrep €K7T€7TaLvopi€vov£ vrrd 
rrjs deppLorrjTos' ol 8' vnatd poL Kal yvp-voi Sid 
ipv-)(OS dvTLTVTTOt Kal SvGjjLerd^XrjTOi Kal drepa- 
fioves^ dTravTibai rolg epyoL?. rovs Se Kapirovs, 
Kav cttI TTJs dXo) SiafieLVCjoac TrXecu) xpovov VTraidpioi 
Kal yvfxvoL, fidXXov drepdpiovas yiveadai Xiyovaiv 
ra>v €vdvs alpofjievcov. iviaxov Se Kal TTvevfia 
XiKficofjievoLg iniyivofievov drepdpiovas Troiei Sia ro 

iIjV)(OS, WGTTep iv OtAt7T770l? TTJS M^aKcSoVLaS tCTTO- 

povaf rots 8' d7TOK€ijjL€voL? ^or^del to d)(vpov. ov 
D Set 8e 6avp.dt,€LV aKovovras rcov yecopyojv, on /cat 
8i;etv avXaKcov 7TapaXXr]Xcov rj jxev drepdjjLovag, rj 8e 
Tepdfxovas^ eKcftepeL tous Kapnovs, Kal o pLeyiarov 
icTTi, Tovs KvdfjLovg rcov Xo^dJv ol fxev roiovs ol 8e 
roLOVS, SrjXovoTL rot? fxev tJttov roZ? 8e jxaXXov rj 
TTvevfiaros ijjvxpov TrpoarreaovTOS rj vharos." 

nPOBAHMA r 

Aia TL Tov fj,ev otvov to fieaov, rod 8' iXaiov to eVavaj, tov he 
fxiXiTos TO KaTco yiveTai peXriov; 

Collocuntur Alexio, Plutarchus, alii 

1. 'AAe^tcov o irevdepos KareyeXa rod Yiaiohov 

^ drepdfioves Bernardakis : a.Tepdfivot,s. 
26 



TABLE-TALK VIL 2-3, 701 

as they are baffled and glance off, are more like seed 
thrown away than so>%'n. So the cold, impinging upon 
their naked coats, either destroys them altogether 
or makes them unyielding and juiceless and woody. 

" You observe, too, that those parts of stones which 
are underground and quickset are kept softer by the 
warmth than the parts on the surface. This is why 
artisans in fact bur^- stones that are to be worked, as 
though they were to be ripened by the heat, whereas 
those that lie naked in the open air are bv reason of 
cold impenetrable and rigid, and prove to be difficult 
to work. They say that even such grain as lies naked 
to the sky on the threshing-floor for a good while 
becomes more obdurate than any that is removed at 
once. In some places a ^\•ind that comes up during 
winnowing will make them obdurate by cooling (this 
is reported from Philippi in Macedonia), whereas 
what has been put away is protected bv the chaff. 
We need not be surprised when we hear farmers say 
that even of two furrows side by side one will produce 
unpelding, and one yielding grain, or even, what is 
more, that some pods have one kind of beans and 
others another, clearly because some are more ex- 
posed, some less, to the cold onset of wind and rain." 

QUESTION* 3 

\\'hy it is that in wine the middle part is best, in olive 
oil the top, and in honey the bottom. • 

Speakers : Alexio, Plutarch, others 

1. Alexio, my father-in-law,* ridiculed Hesiod for 

" Macrobius imitates this discussion, Saturnalia, vii. 12. 
8-16. * The only mention of Plutarch's father-in-law. 

* Tj Se TepdfjLoivis added by Bernardakis. 

27 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(701) irapawovvTos , " ap^oyiivov mdov Kal Xi^yovTos i/x- 
(f)op€LadaL, ixeaaodi he (fyetSeadai," ottov to XPV~ 
E (JTorarov olvdpiov ecrrtv. " ris yo-py" ^^f], " ovK 
otSev, oTi Tov fjiev o'ivov to fxeaov ylverai ^eXriarov , 
Tov 8' iXaiov TO avcordroi , to he /carajTaTcu tov 
fxeXiTos; 6 S' idv CKcXevev tov iv p,eao}^ koI Trept- 
fxeveiv, axpi' o.v jxeTa^dXr) Trpos to x^lpov, dno- 
heovs TOV TTidov yevopiivov." prjdevTUJV he tovtojv, 
Xaipeiv edaavTes tov 'HatoSor eirl to t,rjT€Lv ttjv 
atTLav TTJs hta(f)opds wpprjaapev} 

2- *0 pev ovv tov piiXiTOS Xoyos ov vdvv ttoXXol 
TTpaypaTa Trapea^^v rjplv, ndvTcov cu? erros etTreiv 

eTTLOTapeVCOV OTI to KOVcfiOTaTOV VTTO paVOTTjTOS 

Kov(f)6TaTOv eoTLV, TO he ttvkvov Kal Gvve^es htd 

F pdpog v(f)L<7TaTai Ta> Aoittoj" kclv TrepiaTpeifjjjs to 

ayyeiov, ay^i? oXiyco XP^^V '''W TrpoariKovaav 

cKdTepov aTToXap^dvei x^P^^> '^^^ P'^^ KdTCO (f)epo- 

pieVOV TOV 8' eTTtTToXdtjOVTOS . 

Ov pi7]v ovh' 6 otvos d7TeXei(f)drj mdavcvv eTTiX'^i'P'')- 
p.dTwv TTpcoTOV pev yap rj hvvapi? avTov, deppoTrjs 
ovaa, TTpos to peaov evXoycos hoKel avvrjxdai 
pidXiOTa /cat tovto SiaTrjpelv ^eXTLOTov eTretra to 
pev KdTO) hid TTjv Tpvya (f)avXov elvai, to 8' ef 
702 enLTToXrjs tov depos ^OeipeaOai TrXrjaLal^ovTO?' oauiv* 
yap e^ioTrjaLV 6 drjp ttjs ttoiot'^to'S tov olvov erri- 
a<f>aXeaTaTov* tapev ovra* hio /cat KaTopvTTovai 
Toijs TTidovs Kal a/cevra^ouCTtv, ottcus" otl apiKpoTaTOS 
drjp avTcbv eTTLifjavrj . to he pLeytOTov, ov ^deipei 
TrXrjpes dyyetov ovtcos pahiios olvov to? aTTohees 



28 



^ fieau) Doehner : fieaio olvov. 
(lipfn^aafxev Kronenberg : (Lpurjaav. 



TABLE-TALK VIL 3, 701-702 

giving the advice, " when the storage jar is first 
opened or giving out, drink your fill, but be sparing 
of the middle part " " — where the best part of the 
wine is found. " Who does not know," he said, " that 
in wine the middle part is best, in olive oil the top, 
and in honey the bottom ? Yet Hesiod tells us to 
let the wine in the middle stand, and wait till it 
changes for the worse, after the jar is partly emptied. " 
With this comment, we took leave of Hesiod, and 
attacked the problem why there is this difference. 

2. The explanation was not at all troublesome in 
the case of honey, since practically everyone knows 
that what is lightest is so because of the looseness of 
its elements, whereas the dense and compact, be- 
cause of its weight, sinks below the rest ; and if you 
turn the container over, each part presently resumes 
its proper position again, one sinking and the other 
rising. 

Nor was wine, moreover, left destitute of plausible 
arguments. In the first place, it seems reasonable 
that its specific power, which is heat, is especially 
concentrated in the middle, so that it keeps this part 
of it in best condition. Secondly, the lower part is of 
poor quality because of the lees, while that on the 
surface tends to deteriorate because of its contact 
with the air. For of all the things whose quality air 
alters vve know that wine is the most susceptible. So 
in fact they bury wine jars in the ground and cover 
them, so that as little air as possible may come in 
contact with them. What is more, a full container 
does not let wine go bad as easily as one partly 

" Works and Days, 368. 

' oacjy Herwerden : ori. 
* iiruKfxjXiaraTov Stephanns : eina<j>aX4ar€pov. 

29 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(702) yevofjicvov ttoXvs yap et? to Kevov/xevov eTreiapiojv 
o arjp e^Larrjai jxaXXov iv Se tols [jL€gtoZs 6 olvos 
avTog j5<^' avTOV avvexerai, ttoXv rov (jideipovros 
e^codev iJ,rj TrapaSe^^ofievos . 

3. To 8' eXaiov ov (l>avXr]v SiaTpL^rjv rrapiax^v . 
o fxev yap rt? €^17 to koltu} tov iXatov yiveadai 
X^Zpov aTTO TTy? dpLopyr^g dvadoXovfxevov , ov to dvco 

B ^IXtlov, dXXd SoKelv, otl TToppwTaTOJ tov jSAa- 

TTTOVTOS eOTLV. dXXoS TyTtttTO TT^V TTVKVOTTjTa, St' 

7)v apLLKTOTaTov eoTL Kal Tcov dXXcov vypcov ovBev 
ct? avTO hlx^Tai, ttXtjv j8ta Kal vno TrXrjyrjs dva- 
KOTTTOfievov odev ovSe tw dept SiScocrtv dvdpa^LV, 
dAA' aTTOCTTaret Std XeTTTOTrjTa tojv p^optcov Kal 
avve^^Lav, coad tjttov vtt^ avTOV TpeTreadai pirj 
KpaTOvvTos. eSd/cet Se Trpos tovtov vnevavTiovadat 
TOV Xoyov ' ApiaTOTeXrjs , TeTTjprjKios, cu? (f)rjaLV, 
evoiheoTepov re yLvopuevov Kal ^cXtlov oAco? to iv 
Tot? dnoKevovpievois^ dyyeloi'S eXaiov etra tco dept 
TTjV aiTLav Trjs jSeArtcocreaJS' dvaTiOrjcnv, TrXeicov yap 
C eoTL Kal KpaTel [xdXAov et? diroSces KaTcp^dpievos 
TO dyyeZov. 

4. " Mt^ttot' ovv," e<f>T)v iyo), " Kal to eXaiov 6 
drjp (h<j>eXeZ Kal /SAaTrrei tov olvov diro Trjs avTrjg 
Svvdpieojg ; olvu) p,€V yap cti^e'At^ov, iXaiio 8' 
davpi(/)opov TTaXaiu>ais , rjv cKaTepov TTpoaTTiTTTOJV 6 
drjp d^atpet- to yap ijjvxdp-evov veapov Stapevei,^ to 
8' ovK €Xov StaTTVoTjv VTTO CTUve^^eia? Taxi) TraXat- 
ovrai Kal dTroyTjpdaKei.^ Sto tov pev o'tvov to 

^ a.7roKevovfj,evoii Wyttenbach : oLTTOKfifievoLS. 

* 8iafjiev€i Stephanus : hia<^ip(i. 

* The following words, XeXexOai mdavcos, oti rots iniTToX-qs 
irXrjaiaCcuv 6 drjp veapoiroiet, are deleted by Hubert as a mar- 
ginal note. 

30 



TABLE-TALK VIL 3, 702 

empty. For if the air comes streaming into an 
emptied vessel, it is more likely to produce an altera- 
tion of quality, whereas in full containers the >v'ine is 
self-enclosed, and does not permit much of the de- 
structive element to penetrate from outside. 

3. Olive-oil proxided us an interesting topic. Some- 
one expressed the opinion that the lower part of the 
oil is less good because it is adulterated by the watery 
exudate from the olives, and that the upper part is 
not actually better, but seems so, because it is farthest 
from this source of contamination. Someone else 
found a cause in the density of olive oil, which ac- 
counts for its being very averse to mixture, not ad- 
mitting any other liquid into it except by force, and 
when it is \igorously beaten. Thus it does not submit 
to mixture ^\ith air either, but holds aloof because of 
the fineness and coherence of its particles, with the 
result that it is less Ukely to be altered bv an element 
which has no power over it. We thought, however, 
that this argument was countered by the observation 
reported by Aristotle,"* that oil in partly emptied 
vessels has a better odour and is better on all counts ; 
he goes on to attribute the improvement to the action 
of air, which is present in greater quantity and 
strength when it enters a partly empty vessel. 

4. " I wonder if it may not be," said I, " that the 
same property of air both improves oil and harms 
^\^ne. For ageing is beneficial to \\ine but harmful to 
oil, and air by its contact deprives them both of this. 
One of them is cooled and retains its freshness, but 
the other, which, because of its compactness, has no 
passageways for air, quickly ages and gets stale. This 
is why the top of the wine is least good and the top 

• Frag. 224, Rose. 

31 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(702) dvu) (f)avX6rarov rov 8' iXalov ^eXriarov rj yap 
TTaXaicoGLS TO) fiev ttjv apiarriv rco he rrjv KaKiarT^v 
ifiTTOiei Sta^ecTtv." 

D nPOBAHMA A 

Aia Ti TOis TToXai 'Poj/iaioi? fdos '^v (x-qre Tpdire^av alpofievrjv 
■trepiopdv Kevr/v /tfjfre Xvxvov a^ewvfievov ; 

Collocuntur Florus, Eustrophus, Caesernius, Lucius, 
Plutarchus 

1. ^LXdpxoiios cov^ 6 OAcSpo? ovK eta Kevrjv oltt- 
aipCLV rrjV Tpdne^av, dXX' del tcov iScoSijJiCDV in 
avTTJs VTTeXeLTTev " Kal ov rovro fiovov," e(f)ri, " ofSa 
rov TTarepa /cat rov TrdTrnov ev jxdXa 7Tapa<j>vXdT- 
rovrag, oAAa /xTySe Au;^vov etuvra? aTToa^evvuvai' 
Kal yap tovto tovs TraAaioy? 'Pcofxaiovs efeuAajSet- 
adaf rovs Be vvv evdvs dTToa^evvvvai /xera to 
heiTTVov, oTTCos fXTj fidrT^v TOvXaiov dvaXicTKOictL." 

Y{apd)v ovv Kvarpo<f>os 6 'A6r]vaLog, " etr'," e<f>rj, 
" ri TrXeov avrotg, dv fxrj to IloXvxdpp,ov rov rj/xe- 
E repov <TO<f)6v eKfxddojcnv ; os ttoXvv ecfyrj OKeTTTO- 
fxevos ;^/3ov'ov, oncug ov KXeifjovai rouXaiov ot, 
TratSes, e^evpelv /xoXtg' evdvs yap dnoTrXripovv rov? 
Xvxvovg dTToa^eaQevra? , elr' emaKOTTelv rjj va- 
repaia ttoAiv, el TrX-qpeis hiapLevovaiv ." 

TeXdaas S' o OAajpo?, " ovkovv," eiTrev, " errel 
rovro ro Trpo^Xripia XeXvrat, GKeipiofieda rov Xoyov, 

^ <f>iXdpxcu.os a>v Amyot, Meziriacus : (f)iXapxos. 

" Cf. QuaesL Rom. 64, 279 d, 75, 281 f, where some of 
the same explanations are advanced. Rose (in his com- 
mentary, p. 197) thinks it likely that this custom was " a 

32 



TABLE-TALK VII. 3-t, 702 

of the oil is best ; the ageing process induces the 
most favourable condition in the one and the least 
favourable in the other." 



QUESTION 4 

The reason for the custom of the ancient Romans, not to allow 
a table to be removed empty, nor to let a lamp be 
extinguished." 

Speakers : Floras, Eustrophus, Caesernius, Lucius, 
Plutarch 

1. Florus, being a lover of old customs, would never 
let the servants take his table away empty, but would 
always leave some food on it. " I know," he said, 
" that my father and grandfather not only observed 
this custom very carefully, but also would refuse to 
let them put out the lamp. This was another thing 
the ancient Romans were scrupulous about, but 
people nowadays put it out directly after eating, so 
as not to waste oil." 

Eustrophus the Athenian,'' who was among the 
guests, said, " WTiat gain would that be to them, 
unless they knew the trick of my fellow citizen Poly- 
charmus ? After long consideration of the problem 
of preventing the slaves from steaHng oil, he finally 
came up \\ith this method : to fill the lamps immedi- 
ately after they are extinguished, and then inspect 
them the next dav, to see whether they are still 
full." 

" Well," said Florus ^^'ith a laugh, " since this pro- 
blem has been solved, let us consider what reason 

piece of sympathetic magic, designed to prevent the family 
from being short of food." 

* Also a character in the dialogue De E apud Delphos. 

VOL. IX c 33 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(702) <L rovs TTaXaiovs cIkos eari koI Trepl rovs Xvxvovs 
Kai irepl ras rpaTret^as ovtws cvXa^ets yeyovevat." 

2. UpoTcpov ovv i^rjrelro rrept rcov Xvxvcov *cai 
o fX€v yafji^pos avrov Kataepvio? oJero rfi rrpos to 
aa^eoTov /cat lepov TTvp avyyeveia Travros cf)dopav 
TTvpos d(f>o(nu)aaadat tovs vpea^VTepovs' 8uo yap 

F elvai <j>dopds, woTrep dvdpojTTov, rrjv pev jStaiov 
a^€vvvp,€vov, TTjv 8' oxTTTep KaTO. (f)vaiv dTTop,apaL- 
vopLevov TO) fi€V ovv tepo) vpos dp^orepas dpi^yeiv, 
del Tp€(f>ovras Kal ^vXdrrovTas' to S' aAAo St' 
avTov TTepiopdv papaivopevov, avTovs Se prj jSta^e- 
adat prjhe (fydovelv oioirep QpippaTos a(f)aLpovpevovs 
TO ^rjv tva pr] pdTTjv Tp€(f)oiTo. 

3. AeuKLos 8' o Tov ^Xwpov vlos raAAa pev e(f>7] 
KaXcJS Xiyeadai, to S' Upov nvp ovk dpeivov rjyov- 
pevovs^ €T€pov TTvpos ovhc aepvorepov odtoj ae- 

703 ^eadat /cat TrepieTTeiv aAA' woTrep AlyvvTicov evlovs 
p,€v TO KvvoJv yivos CLTTav ai^eadai /cat Tipdv, 
ivLovs 8e TO XvKcov T^ KpoKoSecXcov, eva pevToi 
Tpe(f>eLV Tovs pev Kvva tovs 8e /cpo/coSetAov tovs 8e 
XvKov {ov yap olov t t^v a/navTas), ovtws ivTavda 
TTjv TTepl e/ceivo OepaTrelav /cat (f)vXaKr)v to TTvp ttjs 
77/30? aTray evXa^eias elvai avp^oXov . " ovdev yap 
dXXo pLOiXXov ipApvx<p 7TpoaeoLK€v Tj TTvp, Kivovpevov 

T€ /cat Tp€(f)6p€VOV St' aUTOU /cat TTJ XapTTpOTTjTl 

Sr]XovVy woTTcp Tj j/'UX^' '^^^ cra(f)T]VLt,ov aTravra" 
pAXidTa Se rat? a^eaeaiv avTov /cat (f)dopals ep,<f>ai- 

^ TjyovfJLevovs Wyttenbach : cdpovfievovs. 
34 



TABLE-TALK VIL 4, 702-703 

the ancients probably had for being so scrupulous, 
both in the matter of lamps and that of tables." 

2. First we looked into the question about lamps. 
Florus' son-in-law Caesemius opined that his an- 
cestors had avoided putting out any fire out of pious 
motives, because of its kinship to the unquenchable, 
sacred fire." Fire, like man, can die two kinds of 
death — one violent, when it is put out, and the other 
when it dies out in a natural way. The sacred fire 
they protected against both kinds, continually feeding 
and watching over it ; an ordinary fire they would 
allow to die out of itself, but they would not them- 
selves use \iolence toward it, nor seem to begrudge 
it sustenance, so to speak, by taking its life to avoid 
feeding a useless mouth, as we do with livestock. 

3. Florus' son Lucius '' expressed general satisfac- 
tion with these remarks, but said that the Romans 
did not revere and minister to the sacred fire in this 
way because they thought it better or more holy than 
other fire, but that just as some of the Egyptians 
worship and honour the whole race of dogs, others 
that of wolves or crocodiles, but feed only a single 
one (some a dog, some a crocodile, and some a wolf), 
because it is not possible to feed them all — so in 
Rome the care and preservation of that particular 
fire is symbolic of a reverent attitude to all fire. 
" For there is nothing else," he said, " that is more 
like a li\-ing being than fire. It is self-moved and 
finds its own food, and by its radiance, Uke the mind, 
reveals and clarifies everything. Especially in its 
extinction or destruction a force is vaguely seen that 

• The fire in the temple of Vesta, in the Forum, tended 
perpetually by the Vestal Virgins. 

* Only mentioned here. 

35 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(703) 

-p verac Svvafxis ovk d/jLotpovaa I^cotlktjs dpxyjs' j8oa 

yap Kal (fydeyyerai. Kal dfJiVveraL, Kaddrrep epupyxov 

aTTodvrjcrKov ^la /cat (f)ov€v6fi€vov el fX'q tl av 

Xeycis," €<l>7] TTpos e/ie ^Xlijjas, " ^eXriov." 

4. " OvBev," cIttov iyco, " tojv elprjixevcov aLTtco- 

jxai.' TTpoadeirjv 8' dv, otl /cat (fnXavOpcovLas 8t8a- 

CT/caAta TO cdos icrrlv ovre yap rpo(j>7]v d(f)avit,€iv 

oaiov avTovg dSrjv exovrag, ovre vd/xaros ifJ,(f>opr]- 

^evTas" TTrjyrjv dTTorv(f)\ovv /cat dTTOKpviTTeiv, ovre 

ttXov ar)[j,€La /cat oSov hiacjydeipeiv ;^/3i^cra)Ltevoys", 

dAA' idv /cat aTroAeiTretv to. ;\;p7^cri/xa rots herjao- 

fi€Vot,9 fied' TjfJids. odev ovSe ^cD? Xv^vov pLrj 8eo- 

C [xevovg dTToXXvvaL 8td ixLKpoXoyiav KaXov, dXXd 
T7]peLv Kal dnoXeLTTeiv, et tls eXdoi heopLevos irap- 
ovrog ert /cat XdfjiTTOvros' /cat yap oi/jtv, el Svvarov 
rjv, /cat dKorjv ;^p'^crat KaXcbs €t;^ev ereptp /cat v^ 
Aia TTjv (f)p6vr)atv /cat rrfv dvSpeiav, fieXXovras 
avrov? KadevBeLV /cat rjavxdl^eLv. 

" "Opa 8', ei /cat fxeXeTTjs eVe/ca roi; eup^aptWoy 
rd? TOiaura? e^tevres" VTre p^oXds ovk droTTcos ol 
TTaXaiol Kal 8pvs iae^ovro Kap7To<f)6povg Kal arvKrjv 
riva 7Tpoar)y6p€VGav lepdv 'Ad'qvaloi Kal p,opiav 
CKKOTTTeiv dTrayopevovaiv^ • ravra yap ov rrotet Trpos 
SeiaiSat/xovtav ivL(f)6povs, co? evtoi (f>acnv, dXXd 

D TTpoa€6it,eL TO ev^dpiarov rjfxcov Kal kolvcovckov iv 
rols dvaicrO'qToig Kal di/jv^ot? Trpos dAAiyAou?. odev 

^ a.'TTayopevovaiv Basel edition : Trpoaayopevovaiv. 
36 



TABLE-TALK VIL i, 703 

is not utterly devoid of elemental life. It protests and 
speaks up and resists like a li\ing creature that is slain 
by a \iolent and murderous death. — Or perhaps you 
have some better explanation," he concluded, turn- 
ing to me. 

4. " No," I replied, " I have no objection to what 
you have said, but I might add that the custom 
teaches a lesson in social responsibility. For it is 
impious to destroy food when we have ourselves 
eaten enough, or to blind and conceal a spring as 
soon as we have had our fill of its flow, or to destroy 
the markers of a voyage or journey after using them. 
No, we should leave and abandon whatever is ser%ice- 
able for the benefit of any who follow us and need 
them. Consequently it is also not gentlemanly to be 
so minutely thrifty as to quench a lamp that is not 
needed. We should keep it going and leave it burn- 
ing in case someone should come who requires a light 
still shining there. It would in fact also be generous 
to lend the sense of sight or hearing to another, if 
it were possible, as well as, by Zeus, the \'irtues of 
prudence and courage, if we expect to be asleep and 
inactive ourselves. 

I wonder in fact whether it was not merely absurd 
— whether it was to inculcate the \irtue of gratitude 
by enjoining such extreme observances that the 
ancients showed reverence to the fruitful oak, while 
the Athenians pronounced a certain fig-tree sacred 
and prohibit the grubbing out of a holy ohve ? The 
effect of these observances is not to make us prone 
to superstition, as some say, but to make gratitude 
habitual, as well as the impulse to share >nth each 
other, where respect is shown for things without 
sensation and even without life. Thus Hesiod is 

37 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(703) opdcos fi€v 'HcrioSos' ov8^ ' oltto x^tPottoSojv aveinp- 
peKTCov ' ea TrapaTiOecrOat alrov tj oijjov, aAA' 
aTTapxoLS Tip TTvpl /cat ye'pa rfjs SiaKovtas olttoSl- 
oovras' eu 8e 'Poj/xatot xprjcrdpievoi, rots Xv)(yoLS 
T)v eSoaav ovk d(f>r)povvTO Tpo(f>TJv, dXXd XPV^^^'' 
t,6jVTas ctoiv^ /cat XdpLTTOvra's ." 

5. EjMou 8e raur' elrrovTos 6 YiVarpo<j>os, " dp* 
ovv, ' k^fj, " rovTo /cat tco Trepl rrjs rpane^-qs Aoyo) 
irapooov oi/ceiav 8i8a>aiv, olofi4vojv 8etr del rt /cara- 
AiTreiv oi/ceVats' (XTro heiTTVov /cat Tratalv oIkctcov; 
Xdtpovai yap ovx ovtojs Xafx^dvovreg co? [xeraXap.- 

E ^dvovreg. Sto /cat tou? IlepCTaiv ^aatAet? (j)aaiv ov 
p,ovov <f)lXoLs /cat rjyep^oai /cat aa>p,aTO(f>vXa^iv dno- 
7T€fj,7r€iv del pepiSas, dXXd /cat to tcui^ 8oJAa»v Kat 
TO Toiv /cuvcDi' SetTTVov* €7rt T7]? eKeivcov Trporide- 
adat rpaTTe^rjg, chs dvvarov^ -^v, TvdvTas ols expiJovro 
7TOLOvp,€vojv opoTpaTTe^ovs /cat opeariovs • rjpepov- 
rai yap rfj rrjs Tpo(f)rjg peraSoaei /cat rd GKvdpoj- 
TTorara rdv drjpLcov." 

6. 'Eytb 8e yeAaaa?, " eKclvov 8'," etrrov, " c5 
eraXpe, tov e/c t-^? Trapoiplas ' drroKeipevov Ix^vv ' 8t(X 
Tt* oi);^ e'A/co^ev* et? peaov perd rrjs IlvdayopLKTJs 
XOLVLKos, €(f)' T^g diT'qyopevev Kadrjadai, SiBdoKcuv 

F rjpidg aet ti tou Trapovrog elg rd peXXov inroXeLTreiv 

/cat TTJs avptov ev rfj arip,epov pvrjpoveveiv ; rjpZv 

p,ev ovv rolg BotwTots" to ' AetTre Tt /cat Mr^Sot? ' 8ia 

aropLarog eariv, i^ ov MT^Sot tt^v re Ow/ctSa /cat Ta 

^ ^uivTas etojv Xylander, Reiske : ^wv. 

* So Sandbach : del delwov. 

* dwarov Stephanus : av olarov. 

* Std Tt added by Stephanus. 

' eXKOfjiiv Basel edition : eA/cd/xevov. 

" Works and Days, 748. Hesiod apparently meant " from 
38 



TABLE-TALK ML 4-, 703 

right in not permitting us to serve bread and meat 
' from undedicated dishes.' " We should render the 
fire its due hbation as a tribute to its service ; and 
the Romans did well, after making use of a lamp, not 
to scant it of the food that they had themselves given 
it, but to allow the lamp to live and shine by using 
the rest." 

5. After my remarks. Eustrophus asked, " Does 
this also provide a useful approach to the question of 
the table ? Did people think that they ought always 
to leave something from dinner for the slaves and the 
slaves' children ? They enjoy not so much the taking 
as the partaking with us. So too the kings of Persia 
(they say) not only always send portions to their 
friends and officers and bodyguards, but even see that 
the slaves' dinner, and the dogs' dinner, are served 
on their table, in so far as this is feasible, considering 
all who serve them sharers in table and hearth. For 
by passing out food even the most sullen of \rild 
beasts can be tamed." 

6. I replied with a smile, " My friend, we may as 
well drag in the proverbial ' fish in reserve,' ** too, 
and Pythagoras' peck-measure," upon which he for- 
bade us to sit, in order to teach us always to leave for 
the future some part of what is at hand, and each day 
to think of the morrow. We Boeotians have had on 
our tongues the saying, ' Leave some for the Medes, 
too,' since the time when the Medes came ravaging 

an uncharmed pot " (Evelyn- White), i.e., " Do not use vessels 
until you have offered sacrifice over them " (Sinclair) ; but 
Plutarch is thinking of an offering from the pot. 

* Leutsch-Schneidewin, Paroemiographi Graeci, ii. 462. 

" Plutarch was fond of this Pythagorean precept, which 
he " dragged in " at least five times in his surviving works. 
On the symbola see below, viii. 7-8, and notes. 

39 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(703) eaxo-Ta rrjs Boicorias dyovres Kal (fiipovres i-niTpe- 
Xov aei he /cat Travraxov Set Trpoxetpov elvai to 
' AeiTre tl Kai ^evoi^ CTTeXdovcnv .' ws eytoye Kal 
Tov 'A^^tAAeo)? Kevrjv del Kal Xificobr] KaraXapL^avo- 
704 [MevTjv aiTicopiat r-qv rpdiret^av roJv re yap Trepl tov 
Atavra Kal tov 'OSucro-e'a Trpeo^eoyv d(f)tKOfX€VCt}V, 
ovhev exoiv erot/aov dvayKat^eTai piayeipeveiv i^ 
VTTapxT]? xal oijjoTTotelv y tov re Yipiapiov (l>iXo(f)poveZ- 
adat ^ovXopievos TrdXiv ' dvat^a? olv dpyv<f>ov ' 
a<f>dTTeL Kal hiaipel Kal ottto., ttoXv piepos Trepl 
TavT* dvaXiGKcov tt]s vvktos. 6 8' Kvp,ai,os, are 
brj dpepipLa yeyovcbs ao(f)ov ao(f>6v, ov 7Tpdyp,aT^ 
et^ev TOV TeXepLa^ov e7n<j)avevTOS , aAA' evdvs eaTia 
KadiaavTa, irivaKas Kpeibv TrapaTidels 

oTTTaXecov, a pa rfj Trporepr] KaTeXenrov eSovTeg. 

el Be TOVTO So^et puKpov, eKeZvo y ov pcLKpov, to 
B avGTeXXeiv Kal dve^eiv ttjv ope^iv en Trapovarjg Trjg 
dnoXavaecjos' rJTTOV yap eTTidvpLovai tcov dvovTcuv^ 
ol ediodevTes aTrexecrdaL tiov napovTCOV. 

7. 'TTToAa^cbv 8' o AevKLos e(f>r] Trjg pidp,pL7]s d/oj- 
Kodis p,vr]pLov€V€LV, d)S lepov piev rj Tparre^a, Set 8e 
T(x)v lepdjv p.'qSev elvai Kevov. " e/xot 8'," enrev, 

ehoKei Kal pLLpLT^pua Trjs yf]? rj r panel,' etvaf npos 
yap Tcp Tpe(f)eiv rjpidg Kal crrpoyyvX-q Kal piOVipLos 
eoTL Kal KaXtbs utt' evlcov ' ecrria ' /caAetTat. Kadd- 
TTep yap t7]v yrjv del tl ;^p7^crt/Ltov exetv Kal (f>epeiv 

^ aTTOvriiiv Basel edition : aTrdvTwv. 

" Cf. Athenaeus, i. 13 a. " Iliad, ix. 206. 

" Iliad, xxiv. 621. ^ Odyssey, xvi. 50. 

* The Greek word can mean " home " as well as " hearth " 
(and to be sure Hofmann, Etym. Worterbuch d. Gr. p. 96, 

40 



TABLE-TALK ML i, 703-704 

and pillaging to Phocis and the borders of Boeotia. 
But the maxim for every time and place is ' leave 
something for unexpected guests.' " L for one, in- 
clude in my disapproval the table of Achilles, which 
is always found empty and hungry. WTien the em- 
bassy of Ajax and Odysseus came,* he had nothing 
ready, and had to start from the very beginning, 
butchering and roasting meat ; and again, when he 
wanted to show Priam hospitahty, he ' jumped up ' 
and slaughtered a ' white sheep,' cut it up and roasted 
it, consuming in this a good part of the night. '^ 
Eumaeus, on the other hand, the wise thrall of a ^vise 
man, suffered no embarrassment when Telemachus 
appeared, but at once gave him a seat and pro\'ided 
hospitable fare, putting before him platters of meat, 

Roasted, which were left over from yesterday's meal."* 

If this seems a small point, the next is not : to take 
in sail and hold back the appetite while there is still 
pleasure in food ; for those are less greedy for what 
they do not have who have been trained to abstain 
from what they do have." 

7. Lucius, in reply, said he recalled hearing from 
his grandmother that the table is sacred and that 
nothing sacred should be empty. " I have entertained 
the idea," he went on, " that the table is in fact copied 
from the earth. For besides nourishing us, it is both 
roimd and stable, and by Some it is properly given 
the name of ' hearth.' * Just as we expect the earth 
always to have and produce something useful for us, 

would derive it from a root meaning " dwell "). Popular 
etymology doubtless connected it with eardvoj,, " stand," as 
does Cornutus, JJe Xat. Deor. 28. An old tradition identified 
the goddess Hestia with Gala or Earth (Sophocles, frag. 558 
Nauck ; Euripides, frag. 944 Nauck), 

41 



PLUTARCH'S xMORALIA 

(704) rjfuv d^tovfxev, ovrcos ovSe rrjv rpaTre^av otofjieda 
Selv Kevrjv opdv /cat dvepixdnciTov dTroAetTro/xe'vTjv." 

C nPOBAHMA E 

On 8ei ^laXiarn to? 8ta t'^? KaKOfiovmag ijSova? <f>vXaTTeadai, 
Kal TTws <f>vXaKTeov 

Collocuntur Callistratus, Lamprias, Plutarchus 

1. 'Ep' Uvdioig KaAAiCTTparos', tojj/ * A[i(f>LKTv6viJ0V 
eTTifieXrjT'qs , auAojSov nva ttoXlttjv Kal <f>LXov vare- 
p-qaavra rrjg aTToypacfyrjs rov fxev dywvos elp^e Kara 
Tov vofjiov, iaricov 8' rjudg Traprj-yayev elg to avfx- 
TToaiov eadrJTL /cat crre^avoi?, coaTrep ev dycovi, 
jierd TOV ■)(opov K€Koap.r]p.€vov CKTrpeTraJS. Kal vr] 
D Aia Kopufiov ^v aKpoafjia to TrpcoTov eVetTa Stacret- 
aas Kal Sia/ccoScovt'cra? to avpLTToaiov, cLs rjcrddveTO 
Toiig TToAAou? ey/ce/cAi/cora? /cat Trapl^ovTas V(f>* 
rjSovrjg 6 rt ^ovXoito ^prjadai Kal /carauAetv Kal 
dKoXaaraiveiv , dTroKaXvifjdp,€vos TravTaTraatv iirehei- 
^aTO rrjV ixovglktjv ttovtos olvov fxdXXov p.edv(TKov- 
aav Tovs OTTCiis erv^^v Kal dveSrjv avTrjg ipi<j)opov- 
fjievovs' ovSe yap /cara/cet/xevot? ert ^odv e^T^p/cei 
Kal KpoTclv, dXXd TcXevTcovreg dveTT-qScov ol ttoXXoI 
Kal avv€KivovvTO KivrjacLs dveXevdepovs, TrpeTTOvaas 

" dvepiJ.dricrTos means properly " without ballast " (as at 
Mor. 501 d), but L. A. Post calls attention to a pun here 
with epnalov, " lucky find " : the leftovers are a lucky find 
for the slaves. 

42 



TABLE-TALK VIL 4r-5, 704 

so we do not think a table should be seen, when it is 
abandoned, bare and carrying no load of luck." " 



QUESTION 5 

That one should guard especially against the pleasures 
derived from degenerate music, and how to do so.* 

Speakers : Callistratus, Lamprias, Plutarch 

1. At the time of the Pythian Games, Callistratus," 
who was a director of the Amphictyons, had, in 
accordance ^Wth the rule, disquahfied for late regis- 
tration a certain flute-player who was a fellow citizen 
and friend of his. But when he gave a dinner for us, 
he brought the man before the party, with his 
dancing-group, splendidly arrayed as for a contest, 
in costume and garlands. And for a fact it was a 
fine performance to hear — at first. But then, shaking 
the hall and filling it with resounding noise, when he 
perceived that most of the auditors were so over- 
whelmed as to allow him, under the spell of pleasure, 
to do with them what he pleased and hypnotize them 
with his piping or even with licentious movements, he 
cast off all disguise and showed that music can in- 
ebriate, more effectively than any wine, those who 
drink it in as it comes, with no restraint. For the 
guests were no longer content to shout and clap 
from their places, but finally most of them leapt up 
and joined in the dancing, with movements disgrace- 
ful for a gentleman, though quite in keeping with 

* On this theme compare the essay, Quomodo Adolescens 
Poetas Audire Debeat, Mor. 14 e ff. 

' Son of Leon (below, 705 b), member of a prominent 
family of Delphi, very rich, whose lavish entertainment at 
Aedepsus, in Euboea, is described in iv. 4, above. 

43 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(704) 8e rots Kpovyt,aaiv e/ceiVoi? koi toIs fxeXeaiv. eTrel 

E 8' eTTavcravTO /cat KardaraaLv avdis waTvep ck 

yLavias 6 ttotos iXdfjL^avev , i^ovXero /xer o AafX- 

Trpia? €L7T€LV Tt Kttt TTapprjaidaacrdai, Trpo? tou? 

veou?* oppcxihovvTL S' oficog avrco pur] Xiav dr)hr)s 

yevrp-aL Kal XvTrrjpos, avTOS 6 ^aXXiarparos axnrep 

ivhoaipiov TTapeax^ roiavrd riva SiaAep^^et'?' 

2. " 'A/cpacria? /AeV," e^'>;, " Kal aino? dvoXvo) 

TO (fyiX-qKoov Kal ^LXodeap,ov ov p^rjv ^Apiaro^evo) 

ye avp.<j>€po p,ai TravraTTacn, ravrais piovais <j>a.- 

OKovri rals rjSovals to ' KaXcbs '* imXeyeadai' Kal 

yap oijsa KaXa Kal fivpa KaXovoL Kal KaXcbs yeyo- 

veVat XeyovGLV ^einvqaavTes rjSecos Kal TToXvTeXaJs. 

F So/cet 8e /Ltot /xTjS' ' ApLOTOTeXrjs airta BiKaia tols 

Trepl deav Kal OLKpoaaiv evTTadela? aTToXveiv d/cpa- 

cria?, CO? p.6vas dvdpojTTiKds ovcrag, rat? 8' aAAai? 

Kol TO. drjpta (^vaiv^ ep^ovra XPV^^'^'- '<^<^^ KOLviovetv . 

opaJfjLev yap otl Kal p^ovoLKfj TroAAa KrjXelTai tcov 

dXoycov,^ oiOTTep eAa^ot ovpiy^iv, ittttois 8e pnyvv- 

IxevaLS CTTavXeLTaL vopLos, ov iTnrodopov ovofid^ovaiv 

^ KoXcos Basel edition : KaKcJs. 
^ ^vaiv Meziriacus : (f>aalv. 

' The section from this point to 709 a is missing from the 
principal ms., i.e. T. 

" One of Plutarch's two brothers, who appears many 
times in his works (see RE, s.v. " Plutarchos (2)," col. 645). 
Sometimes he shows a less serious side, as viii. 6, 726 e, and 
vii. 10, 715 A (if the same brother is meant there). 

44 



TABLE-TALK VIL 5, 704- 

that kind of rhj^hm and melody. When they stopped 
and the company was settling dowTX again, as though 
recovering from a fit of madness, Lamprias " wanted 
to address some frank words of expostulation to the 
younger men, but when he hesitated, not \\-ishing to 
be too disagreeable or censorious, Callistratus him- 
self sounded a keynote for him, so to speak, ^^•ith 
some such words as these : 

2. "I myself would exempt from the charge of 
dissolute character a person who is fond of concerts 
and spectacles. On the other hand, I do not agree 
completely with Aristoxenus' statement that the 
word ' beautiful ' is applied to the pleasures of these 
senses alone * ; for people call both foods and per- 
fumes ' beautiful ' and say that it was a ' beautiful ' 
occasion when they have enjoyed a pleasant and 
sumptuous meal. Aristotle seems to me mistaken, 
too, in the reason he gives for exempting the delights 
of sight and sound from charges of incontinence, 
namely that these alone are exclusively human, 
whereas animals too are capable by nature of feeling 
the others and sharing in them.'' We observe that 
many nonrational creatures are bewitched by music, 
for example stags by flutes ^ ; and a tune, which is 
called ' Hippothoros ' (' The Stallion's Leap '), is played 
to mares while they are being covered.* Pindar speaks 

* Frag. 74 Wehrli ; Frag. Hist. Graec. ii. 288. 

* Nicomachean Ethics, ill. 10 (1118 a 23 if.) ; Problemata, 
xxviii. 7 (949 b 37 ff.). 

■* Aristotle, Historia Animal. 611 b 36, etc. 

' Plutarch also mentions this custom in his Coniugalia 
Praecepta, 138 b. Cf. also Aelian, De Xatura Animal, xii. 
44 ; XV. 25, where the custom is attributed to the Mysians, 
and we learn in addition that under the music's influence the 
mares conceive more readily and have more handsome 
offspring. 

45 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(704) o 8e YlivBapos (fyrjcrt, K€Kt.vrjadai. irpos coSrjv 

aXiov S€X<f>lvos vnoKpiCTiv 
705 Tov fjuev d/cujLtovo? iv ttovtov TreAayei 

auAcuv eKLvrja'^ iparov ^e'Aos" 

opxovfievoL Se rovs wtous'* alpovai, )(alpovTas rrj 

oip€L /cat ixip.'qTiKcbs a/xa 8evpo KOLKeiae rovs a>yiovs 

(TVvSLa(f>€povTa9 . oySev o^v d/aoi ra? roiayras' rjBo- 

vd? iSiop' i)(ovaas, "q on fxovat, rrjs ^'^XV^ clcriv, at 

S' dAAai rod aiofiaros Kal Trepl to croj/xa KaraXriyov- 

aiv fxeXos 8e /cat pvdjxos /cat opx^jcns /cat oiStj 

Trapafjienfidfjuevai ttjv a'iadr]aLv iv rep ;;(atpovTt tt^? 

ipvxyj? aTTepeihovrai ro iTTtrepTres /cat yapyaAt^ov. 

o^ev ovSefila rcov tolovtojv tjBovcov aTT6Kpv(f)6s iartv 

ovSe GKOTOvs SeofievT] /cat tcSv tolxcov ' Trepideov- 

B Tcov,' u)S ol Ku/37jvat/cot* AeyouCTtv, dAAd /cat ffrdSta 

raurats' /cat dearpa Trotetrat, /cat to /Lterd TroAAoiv 

dedaaadal rt /cat d/coucrat eTTLTepTTearepov iari /cat 

aefjivoTepov, ovk aKpaaias hiqTTOv /cat rjhvnadeias 

dAA' iXevdepLov Starpt^-^? /cat dcTTeta? pidprvpas 

rjpcov OTL irXeioTovs Xap^avovroiv ." 

3. Taura toiJ KaAAtoTpdrou etVovro? d Aapnpias 

opojv €TL p,dXXov iK€LVOvs Tovs TCOV d/cpoajLtdxaJV 

Xoprjyovs dpaavvopevovs , " ov rovr ," €(f>ri, " ro 

atriov, <L TTOL Aeovros, dXXd pot SoKovatv ovk 

opOws ol TraAatot TratSa AT^drjs rov Auovvaov (eSei 

yap TTarepa) Ttpoaayopeveiv v(f>' ov /cat cru vvv 

^ iKivrfo Stephanus : eKelvns, eKeivois MSS. 

» wTouj Hubert: wnas {oKwiras Reiske, cf. Athen.ix. 391 a). 

^ ol KvfrqvaXKol Doehner : al ywatxe? (c/. 1089 a). 

46 



TABLE-TALK VIL 5, 704-705 

of himself as stirred by a song, 

Like a dolphin of the sea, whom on the main of the wave- 
less 
Deep the lovely strain of pipes has set adancing." 

And by dancing they capture horned owls,^ which 
take pleasure in the spectacle and in an imitative 
way move their shoulders rhythmically this way and 
that. I do not see that pleasures of this sort have 
anything special about them, except that they alone 
have to do with the mind, whereas the rest are 
pleasures of the body and reach an end in the body. 
Melody, however, and rhythm and dance and song 
go on past sense-perception and find a basis for their 
pleasing and enticing quality in the mind's faculty 
of enjojTnent. Thus none of the pleasures of this 
kind is secret or requires darkness or walls ' running 
round ' (as the CjTcnaics say), but stadia are even 
built for them, and theatres ; and to witness a spec- 
tacle of sight or sound in a large company is con- 
sidered more enjoyable and more impressive because 
we are associating as many persons as possible viith 
ourselves, surely not in incontinence and sensuality, 
but in a liberal and civiUzed pastime." 

3. Lamprias perceived that after this speech of 
Callistratus those partisans of musical entertainments 
were still more incUned to assert themselves. " You 
have missed the point," he said, " O son of Leon. I 
fear the ancients were wrong in calUng Dionysus the 
son of Lethe (Forgetfulness) ; they should have made 
him her father. For he seems to have made you forget 

" Frag. 235 Schroeder, 1-25 Bowra. On the dolphin cf. 
Septem Sapientium Convivium, Mor. 162 f, and note. 

* Cf. Aristotle, frag. 354-355 Rose ; Athenaeus, ix. 390 e — 
391 a ; De Sollertia Animalium, Mor. 961 e, and note. 

47 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

p dfjLvr]ixov€LV eoiKas, on rcHv Trepl ras rjSovas dfiap- 
TavofjL€vojv TO. fi€v OLKpaGia TO. S' dyvoia Troiet Kal 
TrapopacTis- ottov [xev yap rj ^Xd^rj TrpohrjXos eari, 
tuvt' d/cpacrta /caTajSta^d/Ltevoi rov Xoyiaixdv e^- 
ajjLaprdvovaiv oaa 8' ovk evdvs ovhk Trapaxprjp^o- 
TTJs dKoXaaias rov pnadov cttiti^t^cti, ravd^ V'n 
dyvoias rov ^Xdnrovros alpovvrai koX TTpdrrovai. 
8io Tovs /xev "TTepl eScuSas' Kal d(j)pohiaLa Kal ttotovs 
daroxovvras, olg voaoi re rroXXal Kal ;y;p7j^aTa)v 
oXedpoi avvaKoXovdovat, Kal to KaKcbs aKoveiv, 
dKparels TrpoaayopevojjLev cu? ©eoSeVrryv CKelvov 
eiTTovra ' X'^^P^ (jiiXov (f)cos ' 6(f>6aXp.LcovTa, rrjs epco- 
ixevrjs €7n(f>av€Lar]g- ^ rov ^A^SrjpLTTjv ^Avd^apxov, 

D 6V pa Kal elScos, 

d)S (f)daav, ddXios eoKe • ^vais Se p-iv e/jLTraXtv -^yev^ 
■^SovottXt^^ , T7J TrXelaroi VTrorpcLovai ao<f)iaT(ov. 

oaat, 8e rcov rjSovwv rovs "nepl yaarepa Kal alSoXa 
Kal yevaiv Kal 6a<f)priaiv dvrneTaypievovs avrals 
Kol 07TC0S ovx dXioaovrai irpoaixovras CKTrepio- 
Sevovaai nepl rd op,p,ara Kal to, cora Xavddvovacv 
€vcpKLap.evai Kal Xox<^cro.i, tovtovs €K€Lvct)v ovSev 
•^TTOV ep-TTadels ovra^ Kal dKoXaarovs aKpareZs 
opboicos ov KaXovp,€v ov yap etSore? aAAa 8t' 
dTTeipiav v7TO</)€povTaL, Kal vop,it,ovai rdjv rjSovdJv 
etvai Kpeirroveg, dv iv dedrpois datroi, Kal aTToroi 8t- 
^ ddXios . . . ■^yev Xylander (c/. 446 c) : Ae'Ato? . . . ^ksv. 

" In the essay De Virtute Morali, Mor. 445 b ff., using 
Aristotelian terminology, as here, Plutarch discusses this 
distinction more fully (though not more clearly), and comes 
to a somewhat different result. Aristotle's principal discus- 
sion of incontinence is in the Nicomachean Ethics, Book VII. 

* This proverb is very diflPerently interpreted by the paroe- 

48 



TABLE-TALK VII. 5, 705 

just now that of faults in dealing with pleasure, some 
are due to incontinence and others to misapprehen- 
sion and oversights." Wherever the harm is ob\'ious, 
the fault is indulged because people fail to control 
themselves and forcibly suppress their reason. But 
acts that do not impose the penalty for inconti- 
nence directly and immediately, they choose and 
perform in ignorance of any harm to come. Thus 
those whose shortcomings are in eating and drinking 
and sexual indulgence, which are attended by a 
numerous train of diseases and financial losses as well 
as ill fame, we call incontinent, like the notorious 
Theodectes, with his ophthalmia, saying ' Hail, dear 
light I ' when his lady-love appeared * ; or Anax- 
archus of Abdera, 

Who, though he knew, they said, would still be wretched ; 

his nature. 
Pleasure-struck, would lead him back to haunts most wise 

men shun.* 

But when pleasures succeed in hoodwinking men who 
are on guard against them, alert not to be taken by 
surprise in the regions of belly, sex-organs, palate 
and nose — for they outflank our defences and lodge 
ambushed in eyes and ears,— these men, though 
they are no less subject to passion and no less licen- 
tious than the others, we still do not call incontinent. 
For they have not seen the consequences ; it is 
through inexperience that they are swept away down- 
stream ; they think that they are superior to pleasure 
if they spend a whole day in the theatres without 

miographers (Leutsch-Schneidewin, Paroemiographi Graeci, 
i, 173, 319). 

' Timon, frag. 58 Diels {Poet. Phil. Frag.) ; cf. Frag, der 
Vorsok.^ 12 A 10. Quoted more fully in De VirtuU Morali, 
Mot. 446 b. 

49 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(705) , , , . ' ' J. ' 

TJ, rjiMepevacoaiv ojanep ci t(x>v Kepajxictiv fxeya (ppovoirj 

TO fjbT] OLTTO^ rrjs yaarpos alpofievov rj rod TTvBp,€vos, 

€K 8e r(x)v oirojv pahiojs /Liera^epd/xevov • odev 

'ApKealXaos ovSev e(f>r] htacfyepeiv rols oTTiadev etvat 

KLvaihov Tj Tolg efjLTTpoadev. Set Srj Kal rriv iv 

o/Lt/xaat Kal rrjv iv (haiv yapyaXiS^ovaav /xaAa/ciav 

Kal ■qhvTTaOe.iav (f>o^€ladai, Kal jjLrjre ttoXiv dvdXco- 

Tov vop,L^€t,v rrjv rds aAAa? irvXas ^aXavdypais Kal 

fjLoxXols Kal KarappaKraLS dp^upct? e^ovaav, el Sid 

/xtas ol TToXepLoi TrapeXdovreg eVSov eialv, /xt^^' 

iavTOV d'qrrrjTOV ixj)' rjhovrjs, el /lat) Kara ro 'A^po- 

StCTiov oAAd Kara ro Movaelov idXcoKev 7) ro dia- 

rpov ofJLolcos yap iyKCKXiKC Kal TrapahehojKe^ rat? 

F i^Sovai? dyeiv Kal ^epeiv rrjv ifjvxijv- 0.I 8e "navro? 

oipoTToiov Kal ixvpei/jov SpLfivrepa Kal TTotKiXcorepa 

(f)dpiJiaKa rd rcov peXdJv Kal rojv pvdpiwv Kara-)(e6- 

fjuevai rovrots dyovaiv r]fxds Kai hLa^deipovaiv , 

avrcov rpoTTov rivd Karajxaprvpovvras . rtovSe yap 

' ovr€ ri fiefiTTrov ovr* cov fieraAXaKrov,' co? Yllv- 

706 Sapos €(f)r], roJv irrl rats rpaTre^ais, ' oaa* dyXad 

')(6it}v TTOvrov re piiral cf)epovaLV,' dpri TvapaKCL- 

pL€Vix)V' dXX ovr^ oifjov ovhev ovre airiov ovO^ 6 

^eXriaros ovroal 7nv6p,evos olvos e^'qyayev v(f>' 

r)Sovfjs (jxjjvqv, olov dpri rd avXt^jxara Kal rd Kpov- 

fiara rrjv olKtav, el p.rj Kal rrjv ttoXlv dnaaav, epTre- 

TrXrjKe dopv^ojv Kal Kporcov Kal dXaXay/jLcvv. 

Aid Sei pdXiara ravras evXa^eZadai rds rjSo- 

vds' laxvporarat yap elaiv, are Srj fXTj, KadaTrep 

at TTepl yevaiv Kal d(f)r]v Kal 6a(f)p7]aLV , els rd dXoyov 

B Kal (f)vaiK6v aTToreXevrdiaai rfjs ^pvxrjs, dXXd rod 

^ fiT} £1770 added by Bernardakis. 
* irapahehaiKi Kronenberg : TtapihoiKe. 

50 



TABLE-TALK VIL 5, 705-706 

food or drink, as though, forsooth, a pot should be 
proud that cannot be picked up by the belly or the 
base, when it can easily be carried about by the ears. 
So Arcesilaiis said it makes no difference if a man is 
licentious in front or in the rear." Svurely one must 
also be wary of the degeneracy and luxury that titil- 
lates the eyes and ears. We should not reckon a 
city impregnable because most of the gates are 
fastened with bars and bolts and portcullises, if the 
enemy have entered by a single one, and are within 
the walls ; nor can a man rate himself immune to 
pleasure if he is not overcome in Aphrodite's precinct 
but is in that of the Muses or that of the theatre ; in 
any case, he has given way and surrendered his mind 
to the pleasures to despoil. So they take us captive 
and corrupt us by means of concoctions more pun- 
gent and varied than the products of any cook or per- 
fumer, overwhelming our senses — I mean melody and 
rhythm. They testify against themselves, in a way : 
of what lies ready for us on the tables here, there is, 
as Pindar says, ' nothing to cavil at and nothing to 
change, of all that the bright earth and the surges of 
the sea provide ' * ; but no food, meat or sauce, nor 
this excellent \\ine that we are drinking, ever pro- 
duced, through the pleasure it gives, such an outcry as 
the music did just now, filling the whole house, if not 
the whole city, ^vith roars and clapping and cheers. 

" Hence we must be especially wary of these 
pleasures ; they are extremely powerful, because 
they do not, like those of taste and touch and smell, 
have their only effect in the irrational and ' natural ' 

" Quoted also in De Tuenda Sanitate, Mor, 126 a ; cf. 
Gellius, Nodes Atticae, ill. 5. 

> Frag. 220 Schroeder, 207 Bowra. 

51 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(706) Kpivovrog aTrro/xevai /cat tov (fipovovvros' eTreira 
rat? jjiev aAAatS" rjhvTradeiais Kav 6 Xoytafxos iXXiTTT) 
8LaijLa)(6iJL€vog, dXXa rcov Tra^cDv evia ttoXXolkls ip- 
TTohojv ioTL- Kal yap ev Ixdvcov dyopa fxtKpoXoyta 
Kadaipel SdKrvXov oifjocfidyov , Kal ttoXvtcXovs iraC- 
pas d7T€(JTp€i/j€ <f>LXapyvpia <j)LXoyvviav woTrep 
d/xdXei -napd rip MevavSpoj rcbv avprroTcJov eKaaros 
eTTi^ovXevopevos vtto tov Tropvo^ooKov ao^apdv 
Tiva TTaiSiaKrjv endyovros avroXg 

Kvipas Kad^ iavTov rdjv rpayrjpLdrwv e<j)Xa' 

XaXeTTov yap 6 Savetcr/xo? Trjg dKpaaias KoXaapa 
C Kai TO Xvaat, ^aXdvTiov ov rrdw pdSiov Taurai? 8e 
rat? iXevdepiais Xeyopevaig irepV cora Kal oppara 
<f>iXopovGois Kal (fiiXavXois povaopavcais TrpocKa 
Kai apiadi rtov t^Sovcov Trdpeari,^ noXXa^^^odev dpvre- 
adai Kal drroXaveLv, iv dycocnv, iv dedrpois, iv avp- 
rroaioLS, irepoyv ^(^oprjyovvTOJV odev eroipov ro 
Sia(f)daprjvaL roig prj ^orjdovvra Kal Traihaywyovvra 
TOV Xoytapov €)(ovgl." 

4. Tevopevrjs ovv aicoTrrjs, " tl ovv," €^r]v, " ttol- 

ovvra TOV Xoyiapov r) tl Xeyovra ^orjOelv d^tovpev; 

ov yap dp(f)iOTi.has ye TrepiOrjaei Tct? Eevo/cpctTous 

ripiv oj38' dvaaTTjaeL pera^v henrvovvTa? , idv alado)- 

D p^Oa Xvpas dppot,opevr)s rj Kivovpevcov avAoiv." 

Ov yap ovv," etTrer o Kap-npias, " dAA' 
ocra/ct? dv els Ta? Hieiprfvas^ ipTTeacopev, etriKaXel- 

^ Trepi added by Meziriacus. 

* ndpeaTi Meziriacus : yap iari. 

* Scip^vas Wyttenbach : etprifj.evas. 

" Frag. 607 Kock, 741 Koerte. Also quoted in De Tuenda 
Sanitate, Mor. 133 b. 

52 



TABLE-TALK VIL 5, 706 

part of our mind, but lay hold of our faculty of judge- 
ment and prudence. Again, with the other forms of 
luxury, though our reason may give up its struggle 
against them, there remain other emotions that fre- 
quently stand in their way. In the fish-market, 
stinginess restrains the finger of the epicure ; and 
MiserUness turns Lechery from the expensive harlot. 
Such is the case in Menander's scene in which the 
banqueters are all exposed one by one to the wiles 
of a designing procurer, who brings a certain very 
grand courtesan before them. 

Each kept his head down, nibbling at dessert." 

Yes, the loans at interest are a severe chastiser of 
incontinence, and to make a man loosen his purse- 
strings is not a very easy matter. But \vith these so- 
called refined crazes for music and flute-plapng, 
whose attack is on the eyes and ears, it is frequently 
possible to procure and enjoy such delights free, 
without any expenditure at all — at the festivals, in 
the theatres, or at dinners, where others foot the 
bills. In this way it is easy for the hearers to be 
corrupted, since they do not have the calculation of 
the costs to rescue and discipline them." 

4. A silence fell. " Well, now," I said, " what is 
it we expect the calculation to do or say in order to 
rescue us ? Surely it won't muffle us in the ear- 
protectors Xenocrates '' speaks of, nor get us up in 
the midst of a dinner if we hear a lyre being tuned 
or see a flute raised." 

" Of course not," repUed Lamprias, " but whenever 
we fall among the Sirens, we must call upon the 

* Frag. 96 Heinze ; cf. De Recta Ratione Audiendi, Mor. 
38 B. 

53 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(706) adaL Set ra? M.ovaas Kal /cara^euyeiv els rov 
'KXtKcJJva Tov Tojv TTaXaicov. ipcovrL /xev yap ttoXv- 
reXovs ovK eart rrjv IlryveAoTrTyv Trpoaayayelv ouSe 
avvoLKLGai TTjv YlaLvdeiav rj^ojjievov 8e ixljjlols /cat 
fieXeac Kal wSals KaKorexvois Kal KaKot,t)XoLS 
€^€GTi fxerdyeLV i-irl tov KvplttlStjv Kal rov Uiv- 
hapov Kal tov M.€vavSpov, ' TTOTLfjLcp Xoycp dXfivpav 
aKorfv,' o)S ^'r]oiv 6 IIAaTCov, ' aTTo/c^Aii^o/xevov.' 
E (jiOTTep yap ol fxayou tovs Saj/xovt^o/xevou? k€- 
Xevovai, TO. ^Yi<j>eaia ypafifxaTa rrpos avTovs Kara- 
Xeyeiv Kal 6vo[xdt,€iv, ovtojs rj/xeXs iv tols tolovtols 
T€p€TiajjiaaL /cat aKLpTrjpLaai 

fiavCais t' dXaXals t' opcvop^evoi piipavx^vi avv 
kXovo) 

TOJV lepcbv Kal aefxvMV eKeivwv ypapbixdTCJv dva- 
fiifjivrjaKoiJievoi, Kal irapa^dXXovTes (hhas Kau ttolt]- 
jLtara /cat Xoyovs yevvaiovs^ ovk cKTrXayqaoiJieda 
TTavrdTTaoLV vtto tovtcov ovSe TrXayiov? Trapabo)- 
(TOfJiev iavTOVs ojoTrep vtto pevpiaTos Xeiov <f>ep€- 
adai." 

nPOBAHMA ? 

riepi Ta)V Xeyofievcov okuov, Koi ei Sci jSoSi'^etv KoXovjxfvov npos 
irepovs v(j)' erepcov evl SetTTTOV, Kal Trore, Kal napa Tivas 

Collocuntur Plutarchiis, Florus, Caesernius 
F 1. Tov* Meve'Aaov "OfM'qpos TTeTTOLrjKev avTO- 

^ yewaiovs Minar : Kevovs. 

* 706 F (tov . . . ex(aat.v), appended to Question 5 in the 
Mss., placed here by Xylander and Amyot. 

» The wife of a Persian grandee in Xenophon's historical 
novel, Cyropaedeia. 

54, 



TABLE-TALK ML 5-6, 706 

Muses and take refuge in the Helicon of olden times. 
If a man has a passion for a costly harlot, we cannot 
bring Penelope on stage, nor marry Pantheia " to 
him ; but it is possible to take a man who is enjo\'ing 
mimes and tunes and lyrics that are bad art and bad 
taste, and lead him back to Euripides and Pindar and 
Menander, * washing the brine from the ears with 
the clear fresh water of reason,' in Plato's words.* 
For just as sorcerers advise those possessed by demons 
to recite and name over to themselves the Ephesian 
letters," so we, in the midst of such warbhngs and 
caperings. 

Stirred by frenzies and whoops to the tumult of tossing 
heads, ■* 

if we bethink ourselves of those hallowed and vener- 
able writings and set up for comparison songs and 
poems and tales of true nobiUty, shall not be alto- 
gether dazed by these performances, nor shall we 
surrender ourselves, as it were, to float reclining on 
the gentle stream of the music." 

QUESTION 6 

On " shadows," so-called, and whether one should go to one 
man's dinner at another man's invitation, and on what 
occasions, and to what kind of host. 

Speakers : Plutarch, Florus, Caesernius 

1. Homer represents Menelaiis as coming uninvited 

* Phaedrus, 243 d ; cf. below, 7 1 1 d. 

" A magical formula : aoKiov, Kar6.aKt.ov, XL^, Terpd^, bapwa- 
fieverk, cuaia. See EE, s.v. " Ephesia grammata," W. Schultz, 
Philologus, Lxviii (1909), pp. 210-328. 

■* Pindar, frag. 208 Schroeder, 61 Bowra, line 10. Cf. 
above, i. 623 b, De Defectu Oraculorum, 417 c. Plutarch has 
a slightly different wording in each passage. 

55 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(706) ixarov eariwvTL tovs apiarels rep 'Aya/xeju-vovt 
TTapayLvofievov • 

yjSee yap /caret dvpLOv aSeA^eov co? eTroveiTO" 

/cat TTjV ayvoiav ov TrepietSev avrov Kara(f>avrj yevo- 
fi€V7)v oyS' jjXey^e tco /lit) iXdelv, coa-nep ol <f>iXo- 
fxcfMcftels /cat Sucr/coAot rat? TOtauTat? rcov <j>i\cov 
napopdaeai /cat dyvoiat? errLrWevTai, tco dfjieXeladat 
fJidXXov rj ra> TL/jbdadai )(aipovT€S, ottcos iyKaXeiv 

707 To Se Tcov eTTLKXrjTOiv edos, ovs vvv a/cta? KaXov- 

aiV, ov K€KX7]jJi€VOVS aVTOVS dXX VTTO roiv KC.kX'T]- 

fxevajv 6771 TO SeiTTvov dyo/jievovs, i^rjrclro TTodev 
eay^e rrjv dpx'>]v eSo/cei S' aTro T^coKpdrovs, 'ApiCTTO- 
S'qfiov dvaTTeLaavros ov KeKXr]{xivov els ^ Ayddojvos 
levai crvv avrcp /cat vadovra rt yeXolov eXade yap 
B Kara rrjv 686v VTToXeL^dels 6 TiOJKpdrrjg, 6 8e Trpo- 
eiarjXdev, drexvdJs cr/cia TTpo^abit,ovaa aojp,aTos e^- 
OTTiadev TO (f)cos exovros. varepov fievroi, Trepl rds" 
rcbv ^evcov VTroSoxds, fidXiara tcov rjyenoviKcov, 
dvayKalov iylvero tols dyvoovai tovs iTTop-evovs 
/cat TLixcofxevovg enl tco ^evco TToieZadai ttjv kXtjccv, 
dpidfjiov S' opit^eiv, ottcos p-rj irddcoaiv o TradeZv 
avveneae tco hexop-evco tov jSacrtAea OiAittttov evri 
Trjs x^P^^' V'^^ y^P dycov ttoXXovs, to Se SetTrvov 
ov ttoXXols '^v 7TapecrK€vaapL€vov I'Scov ovv dopv- 

^OVp^eVOV TOV ^€VOV 7Tepi,e7T€fJL7T€ TTpOS TOVS (f>tXoVS 

aTpep^a, p^ojpav TrAa/couvrt /caraAtTreiP' KeXevcov ol 

" Iliad, ii. 409. 

* The Latin is umbra ; cf. Horfice, Sat. 11. 8. 22, Ep. i. 
5. 28. 

56 



TABLE-TALK VH. 6, 706-707 

when Agamemnon entertained the chiefs : 

For he knew in his heart what cares his brother had." 

He did not fail to notice his brother's oversight, 
which was obvious, nor did he reproach him by stay- 
ing away, as censorious and touchy persons will fasten 
upon such oversights and slips of their friends. They 
are happier if neglected than if honoured, because 
that gives them a grievance. 

A question arose, however, as to the origin of the 
custom of the secondary guest, those whom they 
call nowadays " shadows,"^ persons who are not per- 
sonally in\ited but are brought by the in\-ited guests. 
We decided that it began \\'ith Socrates, who per- 
suaded Aristodemus, though not invited, to go along 
to Agathon's dinner with him.*^ Aristodemus had an 
amusing experience, for ^v•ithout noticing that Socrates 
had been left behind on the way, he went in ahead of 
him — the shadow literally going ahead of a person 
who had the light behind him. But in later times in 
the entertainment of guests from abroad, especially 
important personages, it became necessary for those 
who were ignorant who their followers and favourites 
were to leave the inviting of them to the principal 
guest. The host had to specify a number, however, 
so as not to get into the position of the man who 
entertained Philip in the country. ** He came with a 
large number, but dinner had not been prepared for 
so many ; so, seeing that his host was embarrassed, 
he passed the word quietly to his fi*iends to " save 
room for cake." Looking forward to this, they ate 

* Plato, Symposium, 174 a ff. 

** Cf. De Tuenda Sanitate, Mor, 123 f, Regum Apophtheg- 
mata, Mor. 178 d. 

57 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(707) 8e TrpoaSoKwvres uTrei^etSovro rcov irapaKeifievcov 
Kai TTaaiv ovrois e^rjpKeae ro heZTrvov. 

C 2. 'Eju-ou 8e ravra rrpo^ rovg rrapovras aSoAc- 
axovvTO?, eSo^e ^Xcopo) Kai aTTovSdaat rt, TTcpl tcDv 
OKiaJv XeyofJievcDV, Biavoprjaavras el Trpoa'qKCL rots 
KaXov[X€vois ovrco jSaSt^tiv Kai crvvaKoXovdeiv . 6 
IJL€V ovv yafi^pog avrov Kataepvtos" oAcos" direSoKri- 
/xa^e TO TTpdyfjia. juaAtcrra fjiev yap ro) 'HcridSo) 
Tr€Ldo[X€vovs €(f)rj -x^prjvai " rov <f>LXiovr* ctti haira 
KaXeZv " • et 8e /Lti^, yvcopipLOVS avTcov koL eTnTTjSelovs 
TTapaKaXeZv inl Koivoiviav OTTOvSrjg /cat TpaTTet,rjs 
Kol Xoycov ev otvo) yivopievcov koL (f)iXo(f)poavvrjg . 
" vvv 8' cocTTrep," elvev, " ol rd nXoZa vavXovvres, 
6 Ti dv (f)epr) Tt?, eii^dXXecrdai Trapexovatv, ovrws 

D rjfxeZs rd aviXTTOcria TrapaSovreg erepois TrXrjpovv 
d(f)Lep,ev e/c rdjv TTpoarvxovrojv , av re -)(apUvres 
(Lcriv dv T€ (f)avXoL. 

" Qavp-daaLfJii, 8' dv, el p^aptets" dvrjp i'TTiKXrjTOS 
d(f>LKOt.To, /xaAAov 8' dKXrjTos, ov ye TToXXaKis ovSe 
yivoiOKei TO TTapdrrav 6 SetTTVt^cov et 8e yivcoaKcov 
Kal ;i^/3to/xevo9 i^rj KeKXr]K€V, en ye fxdXXov alcrxvvr] 
^ahit,eiv rrpo^ rovrov axyrrep e^eXey^ovra Kai} fxer- 
exeiv Tcbv eKeivov rponov rtvd ^ia Kal aKovros. 

" "Eti Kal TTporepeZv t) drroXe iTreadai rov KeKXr]- 
KOTOS TTpos erepov e^ei rtvd hvaiOTTiav, Kal ovk 
doreZov eari fxaprvpcov Seojxevov rrpos tovs vtto- 
8e;(OjU.erou? ^ahil,eiv, ws ovk aKXr^ros^ dXXd cr/ctd 

E Tov heZvos enl ro heZTTVov -rJKei- Kal TrdXuv ro nap- 
eTTeadai Kal 'rTapa<j>vXdrreLv dXeifjifia Kal Xovrpov 

^ Kal added by Pohlenz. 
* OVK aKXrjTos Kaltwasser : ov kXtjtos. 

58 



TABLE-TALK VH. 6, 707 

sparingly of what lay before them, and in this way 
there was enough for everyone. 

2. I had been discoursing of all this to the company 
in a casual way, but Florus thought we ought to 
take some more serious notice of these so-called 
" shadows," and consider whether it is proper for a 
person who is invited in this way to go and be a 
hanger-on. His brother-in-law Caesernius thought 
such an action completely inadmissible. Best of all, 
he said, is to follow Hesiod's advice, " invite your 
friend to dinner,"" or, at least, to invite acquaintances 
and associates of one's own, to share in the libations 
and the food and the talk over the v^ine and the con- 
viviality. " But nowadays," he went on, " like those 
who let ships on charter and permit any cargo to be 
loaded, we make over our dinner parties to others to 
fill with whomever they please, whether they are 
pohte company or not. 

" I should be surprised to see a man of breeding 
come on a secondary invitation — or rather uninvited, 
since the host frequently does not even know him at 
all. Or if the host knows him and is on friendly terms 
with him and yet has not invited him, surely it is still 
more disgraceful to go to his house, as though to 
set him right, and to force oneself upon his hospi- 
tality, as it were, against his will. 

" Further, there is also a certain embarrassment 
in being earlier or later than one who has invited you 
to another's house ; and it is surely not a nice situa- 
tion, to stand before the host in need of a witness to 
certify that vou have not come to dinner uninvited, 
but as so-and-so's ' shadow.' Or, on the other hand, 
to dance attendance on another man and play the 

• Works and Days, 342. 

59 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(707) irepov Kal aypav ^paSvvovros rj raxvvovTos dveXev- 
depov €v ixdXa Kal Tvadcoveiov, el Srj Tvddcov yi- 
yovc Seivdraro? dvdpcoTrcov raAAorpia Senrvelv. 

Ert ye jji7]v ovk kariv ore fxaXXov dvdpcoTTOLS 

i(f)ldaiV €L7T€lv 

a>^ yXwaaa, jxirpiov et rt KofXTrdaai, deXeis, 

€^€t7T€, 

Kal TTapprjala TrXeiarri /xera TxaiStas' dvafiefiiKraL 
TOLS Aeyo/xeVots" eV otvo) Kal TrpaTTO/xevots ; ivravda 
Srj TTcos dv Tis" eavTOV p.era)(^eLpiaaiTO fir) yvqaios 
iov /X7^8' avroKXrjTOS , dXXd rpoTTov rivd vodos Kal 
F Trapeyyeypafiixdvos els to avp-TToaiov ; Kai yap ro 
)(p7)adai Kal ro fJLrj ^(prjadaL Trapprjaia irpos rovs 
TTapovras €vavKO(f)dvTr]Tov . 

Ov fiiKpov 8e KaKov oj3S' t] tcov dvopidrmv 
evx^peia Kal pcofxoXoxta rols p^r} hvax^palvovaiv 
aAA' VTTopevovai a Kids KaXeZadai Kal vrraKoveiv 
TTpoedl^ei,^ yap et? to, epya ro) alaxpd) to pahtcos 
VTTo rdiv pr]p,dra>v Trpodyeadai,^ 
708 " Aio KaXiov p,kv eraipovs ehcoKa tottov OKials, 
la^vpa yap r] rrjg ttoXccos avvqdeia Kal hvavapai,- 
T7]TOS' avTos 8e KXrjdel? v(f>* irepov Trpos erepov 
dxpi' ye vvv dvTexoj p,T] VTraKovaai." 

3. VevopLevrjs 8e p^erd rovs Xoyovs tovtovs rjav- 
X^^S d OAcopoj, " tout'," e<f)rj, " ro Sevrepov ex^t 

^ cS added by Wyttenbach. 

^ npoedi^ei. Post (c/. 531 a) : npoaedCCn- 

^ TrpodyeadaL Post : ayeaBai. 

* TOTTOV aKiais Reiske : irore OKias. 

60 



TABLE-TALK VIL 6, 707-708 

bodyguard while he anoints and bathes himself, and 
perhaps puts off or hastens the hour of arrival — this 
is do\^Tiright ser\-ility and Gnathonism, if it is Gnatho 
who holds the record as an artist in scrounging 
dinners." 

" Here is yet another point : is there not some- 
times more impulsion for a man to say, 

O tongue, if you will boast in moderation, speak up ! * 

Is there not a very great allowance of frankness and 
jesting in the conversation and the acti\ity of a 
drinking party ? Now at such a time how is one to 
handle himself, pray, if he is not a legitimate guest, 
personally invited, but, as it were, a bastard illegally 
enrolled in the register of guests ? Whether he 
speaks freely or not to the other guests, he is an 
easy mark for carping critics. 

" There is much to deplore, too, in the lack of refine- 
ment and dignity of those who are not squeamish, but 
tolerant of names, and allow themselves to be invited, 
and accept, as ' shadows.' It is preliminary training 
in deeds when you allow yourself to be readily led by 
words in the path of indignity. 

" This is why, although in inviting my friends I 
have allowed a place for shadows, on occasion, since 
the custom of the city is firmly established and excuse 
is not easy, yet if I am myself in\-ited by one man 
to another man's house, I have up to now been firm 
in declining." 

3. In the silence that followed this speech, Florus 
said, " It is more the latter point that raises a ques- 

" Gnatho the parasite is a stock character of the New 
Comedy, most familiar from Terence's Eunuch. 

" A fragment of an unknown comedy or tragedy : Com. 
Adesp. Frag. 1238 Kock, Trag. Adesp. Frag. 398 Nauck. 

61 



k 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(708) /xoAAov aiTopiav to Se KaXclv ovrcos dvayKalov 
eartv ev rat? raJv ^evcov u7ro8o;^ar?, ojaTTcp etprjrai 
Trporepov ovre yap dvev (f)i\cjov cgtI St^ iimeiKes 
ovre yivcocTKeiv ovs e^oiv -qKCt pahcov." 

Kayco TTpos avrov, " opa roivvv," €<f)r]v, " fir] ol 
KaXeiv ovro) SeScoKores tols iaTLwai Kal to ttcWc- 
B CT^ai rots' KaXovfxevocs Kal ^ahit,eiv BeBcoKaaiv ovre 
yap SiSovaL KaXov o alrelv^ ovr^ alrelv o SiSdvat firj 
KaOrJKev, ovd^ oXws TrapaKaXetv d fxrj Set rrapa- 
KaXeladai firjS^ opioXoyelv fxrjSe vpaTreiv. rd p-kv 
ovv TTpos Tjyepovag ^ ^evovg ovk e;\;ei kXtjolv owS' 
alpeoLv, dXXd Set Bexecrdai rovs /ter' avrcov irapa- 
yivop,€vovs. dXXios Se <j)iXov iari,d>vra ^iXiKwrepov 
fiev iari to KoXeiv axnov, (Ls ovk dyvoovvTa rovs 
yv(jjpip,ovs avTov /cat oui^T^^eis' ■») oIkciovs' /Ltet^cov 
yap rj rt/xi^ /cat tj xdpt-s, cos fir] XavddvovTos otl 
TOVTOvs (XCTTra^erat pdXioTa Kal tovtols i^Stara 
avveoTL /cat xS^Lpei Ti/xcoju.evots' ojxoiojs Kal rrapa- 
KaXovpivois. 
C " Oj3 prjv dXX eartv ore TTOcrjreov ctt' avrcp,^ 
KadaTTep ol dew dvovres a/u.a avfx^cofMots Kal avv- 
vaois Kotvais avveirevxpvrai, Kal KaO* eKaarov eKei- 
vojv p.7] dvofxd^ovreg- ovre ydp oi/jov ovr* otvos ovre 
fivpov ovrojs ^Beojs^ hiaridr^aiv d>s ovvhenrvos ev- 
vovs Kal TTpocrrjvqs . dXXd ro /xev oifjois Kal irep.- 
fjuaoLV otoi? o peXXoiv earidadat fidXiora xaipei Kal 
Trept oLvcjv Sia^opa? /cat fivpajv epcordv Kal Sta- 
TTVvddveadai (fyopriKov KOfXiSfj Kal veoTrXovrov (L Se 

^ o aiTetv added by Meziriacus. 
* avTw Amyot : avru) Kal. ' -qSecos Reiske : rjSeaOai. 

6i 



TABLE-TALK VIL 6, 708 

tion. To issue invitations in this way is inevitable 
when one entertains a visitor from abroad, as was 
said; for it is neither pohte to in\-ite him without his 
friends, nor easy to discover who is N^-ith him." 

" Consider, however," I replied to him, " whether 
those who have granted the host the privilege of in- 
viting in this manner have not also granted those 
invited the privilege of accepting. For it is neither 
fitting to grant what one ought not to ask, nor to ask 
what one ought not to grant ; nor in general is it 
right to encourage an action that one ought not to 
be encouraged or agree to do, or in fact to do. In our 
relations with dignitaries or foreigners " there is 
really no inviting or choice ; we have to receive who- 
ever is with them. But it is different in entertaining 
a friend ; it is more friendly to issue the invitations 
oneself, since one knows who his acquaintances and 
intimates are and the members of his family. We 
show him greater honour and kindness when it does 
not escape us that these are the men whom he likes 
most and whose company he enjoys, whom he rejoices 
to see honoured equally and invited along vnih him. 

" However, there are times when we have to leave 
the decision to him, just as those who sacrifice to a 
god pray also to all the deities who share in his altar 
or temple, even though they may not call on each of 
them by name ; for neither food nor \\ine nor per- 
fume is so conducive to comfort at dinner as a well- 
disposed and amiable companion. To put questions 
and make inquiries what kinds of food and pastries 
the prospective guest enjoys most, and his preferences 
in mne and perfume, is vulgarity itself and typical 
of the newly rich. But to invite a man who has many 

" Plutarch here refers to the Roman officials. 

63 



1/ 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(708) TToXXol <j>iXoL /cat OLKeloi Kal avvqdus elaiv, ainov 
TTapaKaXeiv eKeivajv, ols av ■^Sierra avyyivotro /cai 
D /x.e^' (Lv ev<f)paLV€Ta(, irapovrcov pAXiara, tovtovs 
ayeiv ovk drjSes ovS* otottov. ovre yap to avfi- 
TrXetv ovTC to avvoiKclv ovre to cryvSi/ca^etv fxed^ 
(Lv ov ^ovXeTai ti? ovtws drjSes cos to avvSeiTTvelv, 
Kal TovvavTLOV -qSv' Koivoyvia yap cotl Kal aTrovSrjs 
Kal TraiBids Kal Xoywv Kal vpd^ecov to avfXTToatov. 
odev ov Tovs TV^ovTas dXXd Trpoa^iXels €tvai Set 
Kal avvT^deis dXXijXoi?, oj? rjSews avv^aop^evovs' oipa 
p.kv yap ol fidyeipoi OKevdl^ovcnv ck ;^i;/zajv Sia(f)6- 
poiv, avarrjpd Kal Xnrapd Kal yXvKea Kal Spifiea 
avyKepavvvvTes; , avvhenrvov 8e ;^p7yCTT6v ovk av 
yivoLTO Kal KexapLafxdvov dvdpiOTTcov purj 6pi0(f)vXcx)v 
fifjS* ofJioioTradcov et? to avTo avfx(f>dap€VTa)v . 
E " 'Ettci 8', coaiTep ol IlepiTraTiqTLKol Xeyovai to 

fieV TTpdJTOV (f>VG€L KtVOVV {jLTj KLVOVflCVOV 8' etvat TO 

8' ea^xcLTOV Kivovfxevov fxrjBe €v 8e kivovv /xera^i) 8' 
dp,(f)olv TO Kal KIVOVV €T€pa Kal Kivovp-evov v<f)' 
€T€poiv, OVTOJS," €(f)'qv, " TTepl Sv 6 Xoyos TpidJv 
ovTCDV, 6 jxev KaXcov piovov 6 8e KaXovp,€vos 6 8e 
Kal KaXdJv Kal KaXovp,€v6? eaTtv, etpr^Tai piev Trepl 
Tov KaXovvTOS, ov )(€.Lpov 8' effTi Kal Trepi tcov 
dXXwv," €(f)'r]v, "ay' cpLol SoKel, SieXdelv. 6 /xev 
ovv KaXovpuevos vcf)' eTcpov Kal KaXcov eTepovs Trpco- 
F TOV, olpiai, TOV TrX-qdovs (fyeiSeadat. SiKatos cctti, pbrj 
Kaddrrep €k TToXepias opov Tracn rot? rrepi avTov 
€7TLatTLl,6p,evos p^r]B\ waTrep ol p^copa? /caraAa/x^Sa- 
vovT€s ev TO) TTCTTeveiv, del toIs ISlols ^iXocs tovs 

64 



TABLE-TALK VIL 6, 708 

friends and members of the family and intimates to 
bring those of them whose company he would most 
enjoy, and whose presence makes him the most jo\ial 
— this is neither offensive nor peculiar. To have the 
company of others forced upon one on a voyage, in 
the family, or in legal business, is not so unpleasant 
as at dinner, and there, too, congenial company is 
most pleasant. A dinner party is a sharing of earnest 
and jest, of words and deeds ; so the diners must not 
be left to chance, but must be such as are friends , 
and intimates of one another who \vi\\ enjoy being / 
together. Cooks make up their dishes of a variety of *■ 
flavours, blending the sour, the oily, the sweet, and /^ 
the pungent, but you could not get good and agree- \ 
able company at dinner by throwing together men \ 
who are different in their associations and sympa- 1 
thies. 1 

" Just as, according to the Peripatetic philosophy," 
I continued, " there is in nature a first mover which 
is not moved, and a last moved which does not move 
anything, and between these two the kind of mover 
which moves some things and is moved by others," so 
our discussion has three subjects, the man who invites 
only, the man who is in\ited only, and the man who 
both invites and is invited. Since we have spoken of 
the inviter, I should think it no less appropriate to 
give my opinion of the others as well. Now, I suppose 
the first obligation of one who is invited and himself 
asks others is to be careful not to ask too many. He 
must not seek provisions for everyone about him, as 
though they were an army living off enemy country, 
nor, like a player seizing squares in a game oi pettoi, 
always be squeezing out his host's men with his own 

» Cf. Aristotle, Metaphysics A 7, 1072 a 20 ff. 
VOL. ix D 65 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(708) Tov KoXlaavTOS iKKpovojv kol aTroKpovutv airavras, 
u)aTe rrdax^iv rovs Benrvi^ovras , a irdaxovaiv ol 
rfj E/car?^ /cat rots" dTTorpoTTaioi'; iK(f)epovT€s to. 
709 SetTTva, fjurj yevofxivovs avrovs fJirjSe rovs oikol, 
TrXrjv KaiTvov /cat dopv^ov p,eTexovTas. dXXoJS yap 
rfpuv TTpoGTTai^ovcrtv ot Xeyovres 

AeA^otat dvcras avTos o^covei Kpeas' 

dXrjdws Se tovto au/ujSatVet rot? ^evovs dyvujjxova'S 
T] (f)iXovs 8e;^o/LteVot? /xerd aKiwv ttoXXcov waTrep 
ApTTVLcvv hia^opovvras rd SetTrva /cat irpovo- 
fjLevovras . 

" "KmiTa Set jxr) p,ed' (Lv erv^^ jSaSt^etv Tipos 
ircpovg eirl SetTTVOv, dXXd p^dXiara fxev KaXelv rovs 
rov SetTTVL^ovros oLKeiovs /cat crvv^deLs, irpog avrov 
eKelvov d/LttAAco/ACVov /cat TrpoKaraXapL^dvovra rat? 
KXiqaeaLV el Se pbrj, rcJov ISlcov <j}iXo)v ovs dv /cat 
rjdeXev avrds iXeadat 6 Senrvl^ajv, eTneiKrjs d)V 
B eTTtet/cets" /cat (j>t,X6Xoyos (f)i.XoX6yovs ovras ■^ hvva- 
roifs BvvdfjLevos, irdXai /cat t,r]rd)v dfiojayeTraJS 
avroLS €v TTpoatiyopia /cat Koivcovia yeveadai. ro 
yap ovrcos €)(ovrL rrapahovvai /cat rrapaax^lv 
d/xtAtas' dpx'r)v /cat (j)LXo(f)poavvrjs evaro^ov eTneiKcos 
/cat do'Tetov'' d 8' davp,<j>vXovs /cat davvapp^oarovs 
indycov, otov vrjTrrLKcp TToXvnoras kol Xirco Trepi 
Slatrav dKoXdarovs /cat TroAureAets' rj veto ttoXiv 

" Pesseia or pessoi (Attic pett-) was a general name for 
certain board games rather like chess or checkers, in some of 
which, it appears, a piece hemmed in by two opposing pieces 
might be removed from the board. See Lamer in RE, s.v. 
" Lusoria tabula," 13 (1927), cols. 1900-2029, at cols. 1967 ff. ; 
Smith, Diet. Ant., s.v. " Latrunculi." 

66 



TABLE-TALK VII. 6, 708-709 

friends, or driving them all from the board." This 
would put the host in the position of people setting 
out suppers for Hecate and the hostile spirits : they 
never get a taste themselves, and their household has 
for its share nothing but smoke and tumult. Of 
course it is merely to make fun of us '' that people 
say. 

Who offers sacrifice at Delphi must buy meat for himself * ; 

but this is what really happens to those whose guests, 
whether strangers or friends, come with a lot of 
' shadows,' like Harpies, to carry off and make spoil 
of the feast. 

" In the second place, he ought to come to dinner 
not just with whoever happens to be at hand, but 
should, if it is possible, in\ite persons who are friends 
and intimates of the host, so as to rival and anticipate 
him in his own in\itations ; failing that, he should 
choose those of his own friends whom the host him- 
self would want to invite, if the host is a good fellow, 
choosing good fellows, if a scholar, scholars, if a man 
of influence, other men of influence, and men with 
w^hom he has long been seeking to converse and be 
friends. To offer and pro\ide the opportunity, under 
such circumstances, of beginning an acquaintance 
and a friendship is a very appropriate and polite act. 
But he who introduces people of different and in- 
compatible types, for example, heavy drinkers to an 
abstemious host, or intemperate and extravagant 
people to a man of simple life ; or, on the other hand, 

* Plutarch was a priest at Delphi. 

* The proverb may allude to the large number among 
whom the sacrificial meat must be divided, or to the greedi- 
ness of the Delphic priests. (Leutsch-Schneidewin, Paroemio- 
graphi Oraeci, i. 393 ; Com. AdUsp. Frag. 460 Kock.) 

67 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(709) TTOTLKO) Koi <f>iXoiTaiyfJi,ovi Trpea^vrag OKvOpoiTTOvs 
7] ^apv (f)deyyofi€vovg €k TTioycvvos aocfuards, 
aKatpog earcv di^Si'a (l)LXo(f)poavvrjv dyLietjSoyLtevos". 
Set yap o^^x ^ttov tjSvv elvai ra> Senrvl^ovTi rov 

C K€K\rjp,evov rj rco KeKXrjpieva) rov vrro^exop-evov 
ecrrat 8' rjSvg, eav p.rj /xovov eavrov dAAd /cat rov? 
crvv avTCp /cat 8t' avrov rJKOvrag eTTiSc^LOVS Trapexj) 
Kal 7TpoarjV€LS . 

" "0 ye ixrjv XoiTTos ert rwv rpLoJv ovtos 6 KaXov- 
jjievos V(f)' irepov Trpos erepov to fxkv rrjs aKids 
dvaLv6fji€vo9 ovofxa Kal Svax€palva>v dXr^dios oklov 
So^et (jyo^eZadaL, Setrat 8e TrXeiaTr)? euAa^etas" ovr€ 
yap TOLS Tvxovaiv dKoXovdetv iToipnus koXov ovd 
oTTCos ervx^v' Set 8e (TKoneLV Trpcorov ris 6 KaXa>v 
ecTTtv. et jLtep- yap ov^ ajyohpa avv-qOr}?, dAAd^ twv 
TxXovaicjv TtS" t) aarpaTTLKCJV, (Ls evrt aKr/vrj? Bopv- 
(f)opriijLarog Xap-Trpov Seo/xevo? rj Trdvv ;)^apt^ecr^at 
rfj kXt^ocl 77e7retcr/xeVo? Kal rifxav, eTrayerat, Trap- 

D aLTrjT€og evdvs' ei 8e i^tAo? Kal avvqdrjs, ovk evdvs 
inraKovareov , dAA' e'di^ Sokjj Selcrdat. Ttvo? dvay- 
Kaias ojLttAtas" Kal Koiviovias Kaipov dXXov ovk 
ixovcrr)?, iq 8td ;;(/)ovou iTodkv d<j>tyfX€Vo? r] fieXXojv 
dTTaipeiv ^avepos rj St' evvoiav eTTidvpLcov Kal ttoOojv 
avixTTepiev^xdfjvai , Kal ixiqre ttoXXovs I^'^t' aXXorpi- 
ovs dAA' avrov rj jxer' oXiyojv iraipcov iTTayo/xevos, 
rj fxerd ravra Trdvra TTpaypiarevofxevos dpx^jv riva 
avvrjdeias Kal ^tAta? 8t' avrov yeveaOai, rco KaXov- 

1 ov Basel edition : o. 
^ dAAd Basel edition : oAAa nr). 

68 



TABLE-TALK VII. 6, 709 

one who introduces to a young man, fond of wine and 
gaiety, gloomy old men or sophists talking solemnly 
through their beards — such a man is tactless, and 
replaces friendly entertainment with annoyance. The 
guest received ought to be no less pleasing to the 
host than the host to the man he has in\-ited, and this 
will be so if the in\-iter makes sure that not only he 
himself, but those who come \\ith him or by his 
action are suitable and congenial. 

" Now for the last of our three, this man who is 
in\-ited by one man to another man's house, if he 
rejects or resents the name of ' shadow,' he is in 
truth afraid of a shadow ; but, on the other hand, he 
does need to be very circumspect. It is not good 
breeding to accept at once an in\itation to go along 
■with just anybody or in just any way. The first con- 
sideration must be, who invites him. If it is not 
someone quite intimate who would take him, but 
some man of wealth or nabob who, hke an actor on 
the stage, wants a splendid retinue, or one who 
thinks that he is doing a great favour and honour 
by his invitation, we must at once ask to be excused. 
But even if it is a friend or close acquaintance, we 
must not at once accept, but only if he is found to 
desire our company and society for pressing reasons, 
and there ■will be no other chance, or if he has just 
returned from abroad, after a long absence, or is 
about to set out, and clearly has a friendly desire and 
longing for our company at parties ; and if, in addi- 
tion, those he is taking along are not numerous nor 
outsiders, but we are either the only one or one of a 
few close friends ; or if. as a final consideration, his 
object is to promote a friendly association between 
us whom he is inviting and the principal host, and the 

69 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(709) fievcp irpos rov KaXovvra -^priarov ovra koI ij)LXias 
d^Lov. €7ret rovs ye fjLoxdt^povs, oau) /uoAAov ctti- 
Xafi^dvovraL /cat avfiTrXeKovrai, Kaddnep ^drovs 

E Kal dnapLvas^ VTrep^areov iariv kov iirieiKcls ot 
dyovres Jjaiv Trpos eTneiKrj 8e p,r) dyojaiv, ov Set 
avvaKoXovdelv ouS' VTro/xeveiv, woTrep Std fieXiros 
<j)dpp,aKov Xafji^dvovras , p,oxd'f]pov Std XRV^"^^^ 
(fyiXov. droTTov Se /cat to Trpog dyvcbra Kop-ihrj /cat 
davvqdr] jSaSt^etv, dv /xi^ ris fj Sia<f)epajv dperfj, 
Kaddnep elprjTai, /cat rovro (fnXias TToi'q(j6p,€vos 
dp)(r]V /cat dyan'qacov to paSioj? /cat d^eAaj? d<^t- 
Keadai gvv irepco Trpos avrov. 

Kai /ATjv TcDv crui/T^^cuv Trpdj toutou? fjudXiara 
jSaStareov i5^' irepov KaXovfxevov, of? e^terat />te^ 
irepcov /cat aurot? jSaSt^etv Trpd? rj/Jids. ^iXitttto) 

F jLtev yd/3 eSo/cet to) ycAa»T07rota> to auTO/cAT^TOv evrt 
SetTTvov iXdelv yeXoiorepov efvat tou K€KXr)p,€vov' 
dyadoZg 8e /cat ^t'Aot? avSpdat irapd ^iXovs /cat 
dya^ou? acpvoTepov iariv /cat i^Stov, dv /X17 KoXi- 
aaai p/qhk TTpoaSoKOJGiv ev Kaipat napayivcovraL 
fierd (f>LXojv drepcov, €V(/)paivovT€s dfia rovs Sexo- 
710 piivovs /cat TLfi,d)VT€s Toifs dyayovras. rJKiara 8e 
TT/Do? rjyefxovas rj nXovatovs rj Swdcrra^ fir) KaXov- 
fxevovs utt' avToJv dXX' v<f>^ erepcDv TrpeVet jSaSt^etv, 
dvatSeia? /cat direipoKoXias /cat <f)iXoTifiias aKacpov 
So^av ovK dXoyov ^vXarropbivovg." 

^ dirapivas Hercher : avaipeiv koi. 



70 



TABLE-TALK VII. 6, 709-710 

latter is an excellent person, worthy of our friendship. 
For we have to avoid the ^^^cked like brambles or 
catchweed, so much the more when they trj' to seize 
and embrace us. If those who would take us are per- 
sons of character but not the one to whom they would 
introduce us, we ought not to accept, nor tamely let 
a good friend be the means of getting us a worthless 
one, as if we were taking bitter medicine in honey. 
It is bad form, too, to visit a person wholly unkno\\-n 
and unfamiliar, unless he is someone of outstanding 
qualities, as I have said, and someone who \vi\\ look 
on acceptance as an opportunity for friendship and 
will take it in good part if you turn up at his resi- 
dence simply and informally in company with another 
guest. 

" Of our own intimates, we ought surely to prefer 
to visit on another's invitation those "who have the 
same privilege of \isiting us by invitation of a third 
person. To Philip the jester it seemed more amusing 
to go to dinner self-invited than properly invited " ; 
but if those concerned are gentlemen and good 
friends, on both sides, it is a more impressive as well 
as a more pleasant experience if they arrive along 
with other friends, at just the right time, uninvited 
and unexpected. In such cases, they both provide 
pleasure for the host and do honour to their con- 
ductors. It is quite improper, however, to go to the 
entertainments of rulers or of rich men or dignitaries, 
\*ith an invitation not from themselves but from third 
persons — that is, if we are to avoid a not unjustified 
reputation for insolence and bad taste and unseason- 
able ambition." 

"* Xenophon, Sympotiumf i. 13. 

71 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

^^^^^ nPOBAHMA Z 

El Sei napa noTov avXrjrplcri ;^p^cr0ai 
Collocuntur sophista Stoicus, Philippus 

B We pi aKpoafjidrojv iv XaipcDveta Aoyot TTapa 
TTOTOV eyevovTO AtoyevLavov rov Ylepyaft'qvov Trap- 
ovTos, /cat TTpaypiar^ ei-)(opLGV dpivvofxevoL ^aOvnco- 
yoiva ao(f)iaTr}v oltto ttjs Urods, os ivqyayev rov 
YlXdrcova KarrjyopovvTa rGiV avkryrplai y^poi\iivoiv 
Trap oXvov, dAAT^Aot? 8e avyyiveadat Sid Adyou ju.17 
Bvvapievcov. Kairoi irapcov dTTo ttjs avrrjs TraXal- 
OTpas ^lXlttttos 6 Ylpovcrievs edv CKcXevaev rovs 
Trap* ^ Kyddojvi Satru/xdva? CKeLVovg TTavrog avXov 
Kal irrjKTLhwv iiTiTepTTearepa <j)deyyopiivovs' ov yap 

C avXrjTpiSa Trapovrcov eKeivcov eKTreaelv davpLaarov 
rjv, dAA' et pLTj Kal ttotov Kal airov Xridrj KareXdpi- 
^av€V V(f)^ rjSovT^s Kal KrjX-qaeo)? to avpTToaiov. 
Kairoi Sevo^dJv ovk Tjaxvvdrj, HoiKpdrovs Kal 
^Avriadevovs Kal dXXcov irapovrcov tolovtojv, tov 
yeXcoroTTOLov (f)€pcx)v OiAittttov, wanep "Opir}po5 to 
Kpopivov TToro) oipov,' UTToSet^at tols dvSpdai. 
JJXdrcov Be rov t' ^ ApiGTO(f)dvovs Xoyov rrepl tov 
epcoTOS CO? KcvpLcpSiav epi^efiXriKev els to HvpLTToaiov, 
Kal TeXevTcbv e^wdev dvaTreTdaas tt]V avXeiov 
errdyei Spd/ta twv TTOLKiXojTaTOJV, pceBvovTa /cat 
K(x)p,(x) ■)(^pa)pievov €aTe<f)ava)pL€Vov 'AA/ct^tdSi^v. eW^ 
ol TTpos ^oiKpdTTjv BiavX'qKTiap.ol TrepL Ayadcovos 

D /cat TO HcvKpdTovs eyKcopiov — cb (/n'Aat Xaptre?, 
dpd y' eiTTelv oaiov eoTLV otl, tov 'AttoAAcuvo? 

" Protagoras, 347 c, Symposium, 176 e. 
72 



TABLE-TALK VIL 7, 710 



QUESTION 7 

Whether the music of flute-girls is proper after- 
dinner entertainment. 

Speakers : A Stoic sophist, Philip 

When I gave a dinner party, in Chaeronea, for Dio- 
genianus of Pergamum, there was some discussion 
of tj-pes of entertainment, and we had considerable 
difficulty in beating off the attack of a long-bearded 
sophist of the Stoic persuasion, who brought up 
Plato's indictment of people who listen to flute-girls 
over their •wine because they are unable to entertain 
themselves by conversation." Philip of Prusa,** 
though a member of the same school, bade us dismiss 
from consideration Agathon's famous guests, whose 
talk was more delightful than any music of flute or 
lyre. The surprising thing was not, he said, that the 
flutist should be expelled from such a companv, but 
that the party was not so entertained and charmed 
as to forget both food and drink. " Nevertheless, 
Xenophon was not ashamed, in the presence of 
Socrates and Antisthenes and others of their t}^e, to 
introduce the jester Philip, "= like Homer's ' onion, • 
the spice of the drink.''* Plato has inserted Aristo- 
phanes' speech on love as a comic interlude in the Sym- 
posium,^ and finally opens the street door and intro- 
duces from outside an extremely gaudy spectacle : 
Alcibiades drunk and revelling, his head garlanded. 
Then comes his skirmish >nth Socrates over Agathon, 
and his encomium of Socrates — ye beloved Graces, 
is it really not blasphemous to say that if Apollo 

* Philip also appears elsewhere as a Stoic (notably in the 
De Defect u Oraculorum). ' Symposium^ i, \\, et passim. 

* Iliad, xi. 630. • 189 c ff. 

73 



l^ 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(710) riKovTos els to avfXTToacov rjpixocrfievrjv ttjv Xvpav 
€)(ovTos, iKerevGav av ol Trapovres eTnax^Zv rov 
deov, ecog 6 Xoyos avfx,7r€pavdfj Kal Xd^j] reXos ; efr' 
eKCLVOL fxev ol dvSpes," €(f)rj, " roaavrrjv iv to) 8ia- 
XeyeadaL X^P''^ cxovres opbois ixpcovro tols irreia- 
oStot? Kal SieTTot'/ciAAoy to. av/XTTocna TratSiatj 
Toiavrais, r)iJi(LS 8e ixefiLyfievoi, ttoXltlkoZs koI 
ayopaLOig dvSpdat., ttoXXols 8', orav ovtcd Ty;i(aj//.ev, 
lotcorats" Kal vTraypoiKOTepois CK^dXajpLev rrjv roiav- 

rrjV X^P*-^ '^^'- ^I'O-TpL^TjV €K TWV avpiTToaioiv 7] 

aTTLOJpiev, cjaTTdp Heiprjvas imovaag <j)evyovr€s; 
aXXd YiXeiropiaxos p^^v 6 ddXrjrrjg i^avLordpievos 

E Kat annov, et tls ipL^aXoL Xoyov ipcoriKov, edavpid- 
t,€ro, <f>LX6(TO(^os 8' dvTjp avXov e/c avp,TToaiov (f)€v- 
ycxiv Kal ijjaXrpias dppuit^opievrj? VTroSeladat^ ^ocov 
raxv Kal rov Xvxvovxov aTneiv ov KarayeXaaros 
can, ras d^Xa^eararas rjSovds, (oaTrep ol KdvdapoL 
rd pLvpa, pSeXvrropievos ; et yap dXXore, pLoXiara 
hr^TTOv irapd ttotov TrpoaTTaiareov earl tovtols Kal 
Soreov ils ravra rco deep rrjv ipvx'^v. d)s rd y' 
aAAa (f>tXos d)v KvpiTTLSrjs ip^e yovv ov TreVei/ce, irepl 
pLovaLKTJg vopLoderiov, (hs €ttI rd TrevOr] Kal rds 
^apvcfypoavvag pbcraKop-LcrTeag ovarjg- €K€l puev yap 

F ayaiTcp larpov €(f>i(jrdvai 8et voaovaiv eanovSaKOTa 

Kal VT](f>ovTa TOP Xoyov, rds 8e roiavras rjBovds rw 

Aiovvao) KarapLL^avras ev TratSta? p^epei rldeadai. 

^ vTToheiaOai Meziriacus : vTroSeirai. 

" On the self-discipline of this pancratiast cf. Aelian, De 
Natura Animal, vi. 1 ; Varia Hist. iii. 30. 

* Theophrastus, De Causis Plant, vi. 5. 1 (vultures are 

74 



TABLE-TALK VII. 7, 710 

himself had entered the party with his lyre tuned, 
the company would have asked the god to hold his 
music till the conversation ran its course and reached 
its natural conclusion ? Now," he went on, " con- 
sidering that those great men, whose dialogues are 
so charming, still used episodic interruptions and 
gave variety to their Symposiums \vith such comic 
interludes, shall we, who have among us both states- 
men and men of business, and a number, when it so 
happens, who are no one in particular and the least 
bit rustic — are we to expel such pleasant entertain- 
ments from our dinners, or retreat from them as 
though from the approach of Sirens ? Cleitomachus 
the athlete was indeed admired for getting up and 
leaving a party if anyone mentioned sex " ; but is 
not a philosopher ridiculous if he runs from a party 
to escape a flute, or calls for his shoes and shouts 
to his boy to light the lantern when he hears a harp- 
girl tuning up ? Is he to loathe the most innocent 
pleasures, as a dung-beetle loathes perfume ? ^ Surely 
it is especially appropriate over the after-dinner mne, 
if ever, to sport with such pleasures, and to surrender 
the mind to the god for their sake. In other respects 
I am a great admirer of Euripides, but I at any rate > 
have never accepted his legislation about music, that ' j 
it is something to be relegated to scenes of sorrow ■ I L/ 
and depression/ In those circumstances the physi- ' 
cian required at the bedside is a serious and sober 
discourse ; pleasures like music we should spice with 
the wine of Dionysus, and classify them as play, not 

repelled by the odour of perfume, dung-beetles by that of 
roses) ; cf. Non Posse Suaviter Vivi Secundum Epicurum^ 
Mw. 1096 A, 

* Medea, 190 ff. At Coniugalia Praecepta, Mor. 143 d, 
Plutarch expresses agreement with this sentiment. 

75 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(710) ;^api€v yap roi ro rov AaKcovos, os ^Ad'qvrjai Kaiva)V 
dyajvi^ofxevcov rpaycoScov deayfxevos ra? TtapaaKeva.'s 
Tcjv )(opT]ycov Kal ra? aTTOvha^ t(vv SiSacr/cctAtov /cat 
TTjv dfjLiXXav ovK e(f)rj aco(f)pov€LV rrjv ttoXlv jxera 
ToaavTT]? aTTOvSrj? Trai^ovaav. ro) yap ovn TraL- 
711 l,ovTa Set Trait^eiv Kal fiT^re SaTrdvqg TToAAry? p.'qre 
rajv TTpog aAAa -)(^priaipLO}V Kaipcov (Lvetadai to 
padvfjieiv, aAA' iv ttotco Kal avecet tcov tolovtojv 
OLTToyeveadai Kal aKoireZv dp,a TepTTO/xevov et rt 
^(^p'qGLpLov i^ avrwv Xa^elv eartv.' 

nPOBAHMA H 

Ti'ai fidXiara xp7)aT€ov aKpoafxaai napa SeiTTvov; 

CoUocuntur Plutarchus, sophista, Philippus, Diogenianus 

1. 'Ettci Se raOr' ipprjdrj, ^ouXofxevov avdis dvri- 
Xeyeiv rov ao(l)(,GTr}v iyoj StaKpovofjievog , " e/cetvo 
B jJidXXov," e(f)r)v, " aKeifjan^ dv ns, co Atoytrtave, 
TToAAciji' dKpoapbdrojv ovtcov ttolov dv ixaXiara yevos 
61? TTOTOV ivapfxoaetev, Kal Trapa/caAoi/Ltev eTTLKpivai 
TOVTOvl rov ao(f>6v drradrj'S yap ojv Trpos airavra 
Kal dKrjXrjros ovk dv a^aXeirj tt/jo rov ^eXrlovos 
iXiadai ro rj8t,ov." 

'Q.S ovv o re Aioyevtavos TrapcKaXei /cat -qixeig, 
ovSev^ pieXXrjaas eKelvos €(f)T] rdXXa jxev inl rrjV 
dvfxeXrjv Kal rr)v opx'^f^Tpav i^eXavveiv, eladyeiv Se 

^ ovSev Reiske : ov8e. 

" The story is given a rather diflFerent point in De Gloria 
Atheniensium, Mor. 348 f. 

" Obviously a close friend of Plutarch ; that his tastes and 
views were similar appears from the words attributed to him 
in several Table-Talk appearances (vii. 8, viii. 1, 2, 9). 

76 



TABLE-TALK VIL 7-8, 710-711 

work. What true wit the Spartan uttered at Athens ! 
When new tragic actors were to compete, he observed 
the equipment pro\"ided by the producers, the labours 
of the directors and the determination to ^^^n, then 
remarked that the city was mad to play in such dead 
earnest.'' It is true that we ought to play while 
playing, and not purchase our hours of ease at great 
cost, either in money or in time that is usable for 
something else ; but when the after-dinner wine 
provides relaxation we may well try the flavour of 
such entertainments, and also, as we enjoy them, con- 
sider whether some profit may not be gained from 
them." 

QUESTION 8 

What kinds of entertainment are most appropriate 
at dinner. 

Speakers : Plutarch, a sophist, Philip, Diogenianus 

1 . At the conclusion of this speech, I forestalled the 
sophist, who was intent on rebuttal, by saying, " Don't 
you think, Diogenianus,^ that it would be a better 
question, which of the many kinds of entertainment 
would be most in keeping with a dinner party ? Let 
us call upon this wise man here to give judgement on 
the point ; being free of emotion of all kinds, '^ and 
proof against enchantment, he would not be so misled 
as to choose the more pleasant in preference to the 
better." 

As Diogenianus joined me in this suggestion, the 
sophist replied without hesitation that he would 
banish all other forms of entertainment to stage and 
orchestra, and introduce a form of entertainment that 

* An allusion to the Stoic " apathy." 

77 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(711) TO vecoGTL fxev iv 'Pcofjur) TrapeLcrqyyiivov els ra 
avfXTToaia fxriTTOi 8' avaXdy^TTOv ev rols ttoXXols. 
tare yap," elTrev, " on rajv IlAaTcovo? StaXoycov 
C SirjyrjfjLaTLKOL rives etatv ol 8e SpafjuariKoi' tovtojv 
ovv rcov hpafMartKOJv rovs eXacfypordrovs e/cSiSa- 
(jKovrai TraZSes coar* (ZTro arofxaros Xeyetv rrpoa- 
eari 8' VTTOKpiais irpeTTOvaa tw rj9ei tcov VTTOKei- 
jxeviov TTpoaoiTTOJV Kol <f>(x)vrjs TrXdafxa /cat crxrjfici 
/cat Siadeaets eTTOfjievai, Tot? Xeyofievots. ravd ol 
fiev avarripol /cat ^^aptevre? rjydTrrjaav v7Tep(f>va)s , 
ol 8' avav8poi KoX SLaTedpvfifievoi rd cSra 8t' 
dpLovaiav /cat aTreipoKaXlav, ovs <f)rjaLV 'A/3ictto- 
^evos x^^V^ ifjLelv orav evapfMovlov aKovacoacv , i^- 
e^aXXov /cat ov Oavfxdcraifx dv, el to Trdfiirav 
eK^aXovaiv eTTiKpareZ yap r) drjXvr'qs." 

2. Kat o OiAtTTTTO? opcov VTToSvax^palvovTas 
D eviovs, " <f>€iSov," etrrev, " c5 rdv, /cat napa^dXXov 
XoiSopcov rjfids' rjfJLeZs ydp eapiev ol Trpcoroi rod 
Trpdypiaros elaayofxevov Svax^pdvavres iv 'PwfjLT) 
/cat Kadaipdfievoi rtov d^LOVvrcov HXdrojva Siayco- 
yrjv ev otvo) TToieZadai /cat rcov HXdrcovos BiaXoycov 
cttI rpayqfiaai Kat fivpois d/couetv 8ia7rtVovTa?^' ore 
/cat YiaTT(f>ovs dv dBofjievrjs^ f<al rdJv *AvaKpeovros 
iya> iJLOi 8o/ca> KaraSeadai ro TTorrjpLov alSovfievos' 
TToXXd 8' elireZv enLovra fxot 8e8ta /xri (xerd OTrovSrjs 
rivos ov iraiSids Xeyeadai Trpos ae So^j]- oOev, dis 

^ Stamvovras' Wyttenbach : Biareivovras. 

78 



TABLE-TALK VIL 8, 711 

had recently been brought in at parties in Rome but y 
had not yet become a popular vogue. " You areA^ 
aware," he said, " that of the dialogues of Plato, 
some are narrative and others dramatic. Slaves are 
taught the most lively of these dramatic dialogues, 
so as to say them by rote. They use a type of presen- 
tation appropriate to the personalities of the char- 
acters in the text, ynth modulation of voice and 
gestures and delivery suited to the meaning. Men 
of soUd character and culture gave it enthusiastic 
approval, but such as had no manly quaUty and were 
so unmusical and uncultured that their ear had lost 
its purity — those who (as Aristoxenus says) " vomit 
bile when they hear something in tune — would have 
banned it. It will not in fact surprise me if they get 
it altogether banned in the end, since effeminate 
taste is in the ascendant." 

2. Philip saw that some of the company were a bit 
offended at this. " Spare us, good sir," he said ; " an 
end to your abuse ! We ^ were the first to be dis- 
gusted when this movement was launched in Rome, 
and the first to attack those who thought fit to regard 
Plato as a bibulous pastime and to hear his dialogues 
rendered over their wine and dessert and perfume. 
Even when Sappho's poems are sung, or Anacreon's, 
I am moved to put down my cup respectfully. I have 
a good deal more I might say, but fear it might seem 
aimed at ^ou in a serious rather than a jesting 

» Frag. 85 Wehrli ; Frag. Hist. Graec. ii. 288. Plutarch's 
expression is actually somewhat more technical than this : 
" when they hear music with enharmonic intervals." The 
point is the contrast between old-fashioned and modern. 

' i.e., " we Stoics." 

* av aSofjievTjs Emperius, Hubert : dvab€xof*^vT]s. 

79 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(711) opas, ' TTOTijxcp Xoyw aXfjLvpav aKorjv ' /cara/cAuaat 
TO) (j>iXa) AioyevLavo) fxera rrjs kvXlkos SiSoj/mi." 

E 3. Ae^dfi€vos ovv 6 Aioyeviavos , " dXXa /cat tov- 
Tovs," ^<f>f)> " vri(j>ovras olkovco \6yovs- a)ad* 6 olvos 
rj/xas dSiKelv ovk €olk€v ovSe Kparelv. BeSia 8r) 
fXT] /cat avros evdvvas VTToaxoi' KairoL rd TroAAd 
TTepiKOTTrea rcov dKpoafidrcov iariv TTpiOTrjv rr]v 
rpaycphiav, ojs ov irdw n gvjjlttotikov dXXd ae/xvo- 
Tcpov jSocDaav Kal OKevcopovfxevrjv TTpayndrcov vtto- 
Kpicreis TTados ixdvrcDV /cat oIktov. d7T07r€p,7rco 8e 
TTJs opxTjcreajs ttjv IlvXdSeLov, oyKwSr) /cat Tradrj- 
TiKT]v Kal TToXvTTpoacoTTov ovaav alSoL §€ Toiv iyKCo- 
fiLiov e/cetVojv, a Sco/cparTjs" TTcpl 6p-)(ria€iDs StrjXde, 
Sexofiai Trjv BadvXXeiov avrod^v iTet,av tov Kop- 

F Sa/co? dTTTOjjLevTjv, 'H;^ou? rj rtvo? Ilavog ^ Tiarvpov 
avv "EpcoTt Ka)fxdt,ovros VTropxT^fxa ri Stari^e/xeVr^v.^ 
TcDv 8e KCoixcpSioJv rj fiev dp)(o.La 8ta rrjv dvct)- 
fiaXiav dvdpfioGTOS dvdpdynoL's ttLvovolv rf re yap 
iv rat? XeyofievaLs Trapa^daeaiv avrtov ottovStj /cat 
712 TTapp-qoia Xiav aKparog cart /cat avvrovos, 17 re 
TTpog rd aKojpuJiara /cat j3co/xoAo;;^ias' ei3;^€peta SetvcDj 
KaraKopos /cat dvaTrcTrrafievr] /cat yefxovaa p7][jid- 
Tojv dKoafxiov /cat dKoXdarojv ovop,dra>v ert S 
wGTrep iv rots "f^yepLovLKoZs Sclttvols eKdarq) Trap- 
doTTjKe rcbv /cara/cei^LteVcDV otvo;^dos", ovro) Serjaei 

^ inropxrjfid. tl SiariOefievT^v Wyttenbach, Casaubon (c/. 
Athen. i. 20 d) : imopx'quaToaaTidefifvTjv. 

" Plato, Phaedrus, 243 d. 

" Cf. Athenaeus, i. 20 b-e (citing Aristonicus), where, 
however, Bathyllus and Pylades are spoken of as partners 
in the development of the " tragic dance." Pylades was from 

80 



TABLE-TALK VIL 8, 711-712 

spirit. Therefore, as you see, I pass to our dear friend 
Diogenianus, along \\ith this cup, the duty of ' slui- 
cing the bitter brine from our ears ^\•ith fresh springs 
of speech.' " " 

3. Taking the cup, Diogenianus said, " These, too, 
sound Uke sober words to me ; the wine seems not 
to be harming us or getting the best of us. So I fear 
that I myself may be subject to correction. All the 
same, most kinds of entertainment must be trimmed 
from the list. First of all, tragedy : it is not at all 
appropriate to a party, with its majestic elocution 
and its elaborate representation of events that are 
moring and sorrowful. As for dances, I should dis- 
qualify the Pyladic,^ as pretentious and emotional 
and requiring a large cast ; but out of respect for 
Socrates' well-known praise of the dance, I will accept 
the Bathyllic. "^ It is a straightforward unaccompanied 
dance, verging on the kordax, and presents a danced 
interpretation of Echo or some Pan or Satyr revelling 
with Eros. 

" As to comedy, the Old Comedy is, because of its 
une Venn ess of mood, unsuitable for men who are 
drinking. For instance the so-called parabases are so 
serious and outspoken that they are too fiery and 
intense. Then too it has so little squeamishness in 
admitting jests and buffoonerj- that it is shockingly 
overloaded, nakedly indecent, and larded \\dth words 
and phrases that are improper and obscene. What 
is more, just as a special waiter stands by each guest, 
at the banquets of the great, so everyone would 

Cilicia, and the author of a book on dancing, Bathyllus from 
Alexandria, and a freedman of Maecenas. See further OCD, 
s.v. " Dancing," RE, s.v. " Tanzkunst," " Mimes," " Pan- 
tomimus," " Bathyllus." 

* Xenophon, Symposium, IL 15 fi. 

81 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(712) ypanfiariKov eKaarco ro Kad^ eKaarov i^rjyeladaL, 
Tt? o AataTroSia? Trap' EvTroAiSt Kal 6 KiVTjcrias' 
TTapa YiXdroyvL koL 6 AdfiTTcvv Trapa KpariVo), Kal 
Tcov KWfMcpSovfjievcov eKaoTos, uyare ypa/xpiaroSiSa- 
GKaXelov rjplv yeveaOai to avfiTToaiov ■^ Kco(f)d Kal 
darjua rd CT/caj/x/nara Sta^epecr^ai. 

B " He pi 8e rrjs veas KUipaphia^ ri dv dvriXiyoL ns; 
OVTO) yap iyKCKparai rot? avpTToaioLS, ws pdXXov 
dv oLVov ;(a)/3t? -q MevdvSpov hiaKv^epvyjaai rdv 
TTOTov. -q T€ yap Ae^t? rjheZa Kal ttc^t) Kareavaprai 
ru)v TTpaypdrcDv, co? p^jd' vtto vrj<f)6vT<DV Kara- 
<f>pov€lcrdai priT* oLvcopevovs dvidv yvojpoXoy lat re 
-^ -)(^prjaTal Kal d(f>eX€LS vrroppeovaai Kal rd aKXrjpo- 
^ rara rcov rjdcov cjoTrep ev irvpl rch olvcp paXdrrovat 
Kal KdpTTTOvai Trpos to eTTieiKeaTepov tj t€ ttjs 
aTTovhijs TTpds rrjv TraiSidv dvdKpaaig €77* ouSev ai' 

C neTTOirjarOai So^etev dAA' •^ TreTTCuKroTCDV /cat SiaKexv- 
pevwv r)Sovrjv opov Kal ox^eXeLav. e;^ei 8e /cat to, 
ipojTiKa Trap* avTco Kaipdv TreTTOiKoaiv dvdpcoTTOLS 
Kal dvarravaopevoLs perd piKpov aTnovai irapa ras 
iavTiov yvvaiKag- ovtc yap TratSo? epwg dppevos 
ioTLV iv ToaovTois Spdpaaiv, at re ^dopal tcjv irap- 
divoiv els ydpov eTneiKciJ? KaTaaTpe(f>ovaLv ra he 
TTpds Tds eTaipas, dv pev loaiv trapal Kal BpaaeZai, 
SiaKOTTTeTai aaxjypovLapoZs Tiaiv 7] peravoiais rdjv 
veiov, rat? Se xprjOTaXs Kal avrepcjaais -q Trarrjp Tt? 
dvevpLcjKeTai yviqatos rj xpovo? tls eTTcpeTpeiTai ru> 
epcoTi avp7TepL(f)opdv alSovs e^cov ^iXdvdpcoTTov. 
ravra 8' dvdpcoTTois dXXo pev tl Trpdrrovcnv lams 



<• Frag. 102 Kock. 
* The comic writer, frag. 184 Kock. 

82 



TABLE-TALK VIL 8, 712 

need his own scholar to explain the allusions : who 
is Laespodias in Eupolis," and Cinesias in Plato,* and 
Lampon in Cratinus,*^ and so on with all the persons 
satirized in the plays. Our dinner party would turn 
into a schoolroom, or else the jokes would be without 
meaning or point. 

" What objection, however, could anyone make to 
the New Comedy ? It has become so completely a 
part of the symposium that we could chart our course 
more easily without wine than without Menander. 
The style, pleasant and unadorned, is spread upon 
the action in such a way as to be neither too low for 
the sober nor too difficult for the tipsy. ^ Excellent 
unaffected sentiments are an undercurrent that can 
melt the hardest heart and with wine to supply 
heat, like the smith's fire, reshape and improve the 
character. The blend of serious and hiunorous 
would seem to have no other poetic end in \iew than 
to combine pleasure with profit for men relaxing 
over their wine. Even the erotic element in Men- 
ander is appropriate for men who after their wine 
will soon be leaving to repose with their wives ; for 
in all these plays there is no one enamoured of a 
boy. Moreover, when virgins are seduced, the play 
usually ends with a marriage ; while afiFairs with 
casual women, if these are aggressive and shameless, 
are cut short by some chastening experience or re- 
pentance on the young man's part, and good girls 
who give love for love either find again a father with 
legitimate status or get a further dispensation of 
time for their romance — an accommodation of con- 
science that is but charitable. For men who are 
occupied with some other business, all this is perhaps 

• Frag. 117. 57 Kock. 

8S 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(712) 

r\ ovoefjLids aTrovBrjs aft' eariv ev Se rw vriveiv ov 

davfidaaiix av el to repTTvov avrcjv /cat yXa(f)vp6v 

ajxa Kal TrXdaiv tlvo. Kal KaraKoapLrjcnv eTncfiepei 

avve^ojJLOLovaav to. tJOtj toIs eTneiKiai /cat <^tAav- 

dpCOTTOiS." 

4. '0 ix€v ovv Atoyevtavo? -q Travaafxevos '^ 8ta- 
XeiTTcov iaLcoTTTjaev €7Ti(j>vopiivov 8' avrit} rov ao- 
<f>t,(JTOv ttoXlv /cat piqaeis rtra? olop-evov 8etv rcvv 
Apiaro^avelojv nepatveiv, 6 OtAiTrrros' e/xe Tvpoa- 
ayopevcra^, " ouros' p-^v," €(f)r], " rrjv imdvpiLav 
ip,7T€7TXr)K€, Tov T^StcTTov avTw M.€vavBpov iiTaive- 
aas,^ /cat rajv dXXojv ovSev ert ^povri^civ eoiKev 
AetTTerat 8e TroAAa rcov a/cpoa/zarcDV i^/xtv dve^e- 
raara, vrept olv av rjSecog dKovaaipii aov rov Be rcov 

E l,(pBioyXv(f)ajv dydjva ^pa^evaop^ev avpLov, dv Boktj 
Tu> ^evcp /cat i^ioyeviava> , vri<j>ovres ." 

OvKovv," €(f)'qv iyo), " pZpoi rives elcnv, d)V^ 
rovg p,ev VTTodeaeis rovs 8e vratyrta KaXovaiv dpp,6- 
t^eiv 8' ovSerepov olpbai crvpLTToato) yevos, TCt? /xev 
VTTodeaeis 8ta rd p,T]K7] rcov Bpap,dra)v Kal to 
BvGXop'qyrjTov , rd Be Traiyvia TroXXrjg yep.ovTa jSoj/lao- 
Xox^o-S /cat one pp.oXoy tas ovBe roig rd v7roBrip,ara 
Kop,i.t,ovaL TTatSapiots", dv ye^ Br] BeaTTorcov fj crai- 
(f)povovvrcov , dedaaadai TTpoarJKef ol Be ttoXXol /cat 
yvvaiKcov ovyKaraKeup^evajv /cat rraiBoiv dvrj^tov 

F €7rt8et/cvuvTai pupiripLara 7rpayp,dr<ov /cat Xoycov, d 

Trdarjs pLeOrjs rapa)(coBearepov rds ipvxds BiarWrjcnv. 

'AAA' rj ye KiSdpa irdXai ttov /cat /ca^' "Op,r]pov 

^ firaiveaas Stephanus : napaiveaas. 
* wv Basel edition : cos. * av ye Bernardakis : are. 

84 



TABLE-TALK VIL 8, 712 

not worth serious attention ; but over the >nne-cups, 
I cannot regard it as surprising that Menander's 
polished charm exercises a reshaping and reforming 
influence that helps to raise morals to a higher stan- 
dard of fairness and kindness." 

4. Diogenianus fell silent at this point, whether he 
was merely pausing or had finished ; and the sophist 
launched another attack upon him, finding it neces- 
sary to recite some passages from Aristophanes. Then 
PhiUp turned to me and said, " Diogenianus has got 
everything that he wanted, since he has sung the 
praises of his darling Menander, and nothing else 
seems to interest him. But there are still many kinds 
of entertainment that we have not re\'iewed, which I 
should like to hear vou discuss. To-morrow, when 
we are sober, we shall judge the sculptor's contest, 
if this is satisfactory to Diogenianus and to the 
stranger." 

" Well," I replied, " there are certain mimes that 
they call hypotheseis (narrative representations), and 
some that they call patgnia (farces)," but I do not 
suppose that either kind is suitable to a dinner party. 
The hypotheseis have a too prolonged action and 
demand too much equipment ; and the paignia, 
which are packed with scurrilous and tririal low 
comedy, ought not even to be seen by the slaves 
that fetch our shoes, if their masters are prudent. 
The vulgar, even when women and young children 
are in the company, see exhibited stories and lan- 
guage that are more disruptive of an orderly mind 
than any tippling. 

" The Ijnre has been since ancient times, both in 

" E, Wust discusses this passage, RE, s.v. " Mimos," 
cols. 1739 f. 

85 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(712) Kol vvv^ €TL Tols xP^voLS yvoipiyur] rrjs hairos eariv, 
/cat fxaKpav ovtojs ^lAtav /cat CTW^deiav ov TrpeTTCL 
StaAuetv, aAAa Setcr^at rcjv KudapioScov [xovov, ottcos 
Tov voXvv dprjvov /cat yoov i^aipaxnv tu)v (hStov, 
ev(f>r]fia /cat npeTTovra daXLdt,ovaiv dvdpiOTTOts 
aSovres. tov 8' avXov oySe ^ovXop,ivois aTTcoaa- 
713 a^at TTJg TpaTT€t,r]s eariv at ydp aTTovhal ttoBovoiv 
avTOV ajxa rep aT€(f>dva) /cat avvcni^Qiyyerai rep 
TTaidvL ro deiov, efr' dneXlyave /cat Sie^rjXde rajv 
(Lrojv Karax^dfjievos (fxovrjv rjSelav dxpi Trjg fp^XV^ 
TTOLOvaav yaX-qvrjv war*, et ri rcov darjpiov /cat 
Tr€(f)povrL(Tfjievcov 6 aKparos ovk e^iaeiaev ovhk 8t- 
eXvaev, rovro rfj ;^a/3tTi /cat irpaor'qri rov p^eXovs 
vrroKaraKXivopievov rjavxdt,€LV, dv ye Br] /cat auro? 
ro pierpiov hia^vXdrrr] pbrj Tradaivopbevos /^''^S' ava- 
(ro^(jL>v /cat TTape^iards jSo/z^u^t /cat noXvxopSiais 
r'qv Sidvotav vypdv vtto rrjs p-idrjs /cat aKpoa^aXi) 
B yeyevrfpieirqv (Ls ydp rd 6pep,pLara Xoyov p-kv oi) 
crvvLTjaiv Stavotav exovros, aiypLols Se /cat ttottttv- 
ap,oLS epLpicXiaiv^ 7} avpLy^iv /cat arpopL^ois eyelp- 
ovat, /cat Kar€vvdt,ovGi TrdXiv ol vepiovres, ovrcos, 
daov cvean rfj fpvxfj ^op^aSi/cov /cat dyeXalov /cat 
d^vverov Xoyov /cat dvqKoov, p^eXeai /cat pvdpiois 
eTT^ipaXXovreg /cat KaravXovvres €v ridevrai Kai 
Kararrpavvovatv . 

Ov pLrjv dAA' €t Set ro y ipLol (f)aLv6p,evov enrelv, 
ovr* dv avXov irore /ca^' avrov ovre Xvpag /xe'Aet 
XOiplg Xoyov /cat <pBrjs eTnrpeifjaipbi ro avp^TToaiov 
ojarrep pevpuari ^ipeiv viroXapL^dvovri' Set yap 

^ KoX vw added by Post (iroAai irov KaB' '0[irjpov rots xpovots 
Koi Irt vvv Wyttenbach). 

* e/i/xeAe'atv Xylander : ofieXiaiv. 
86 



TABLE-TALK VIL 8, 712-713 

Homer's era and on down to our own, a familiar 
member of the banquet, and we ought not to dissolve 
an intimate association of such long standing, but 
simply request the singers to eliminate the frequent 
dirges and laments from their repertory and to sing 
cheerful songs that are suitable to men in festive 
mood. The flute we could not drive away from the 
table if we wanted to ; it is as essential to our liba- 
tions as the garland, and it helps impart a religious 
tone to the singing of the paean. As its piping note 
touches our ear, it suffuses us with a voice of sweet- 
ness that strikes calm to the mind itself, so that if we 
harbour any troublesome care, that the vdne has not 
dissolved or dispelled, this brings peace to the man 
who yields his spirit to its graceful and gentle melody 
— at least if the flute itself keeps due measure, and 
avoids emotional display, so as not to rouse into 
ecstasy, with low-register notes and a multipUcity of 
tones, a mind already moist with drink and easily 
stirred. Just as cattle do not comprehend speech 
that has meaning, but the herdsmen rouse them and 
quiet them again ^^ith niusical whistUngs and calls, 
or with pipes and conch shells, so, in so far as there is 
in our mental life something of the grass-fed herd 
that has no notion of reason and no response to it, a 
musician may with melody and rhythm, plucking the 
lyre or blowing on the flute, compose our minds and 
soothe our moods. 

" If I may express my owb opinion, I should never 
commit a party to the music of flute or lyre by itself 
without words to be sung, as if it were committed to 
the whim of a stream on which it floats. There must 

87 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(713) 

p ovrois idit,€iv Kal crTrovSd^oiTas Kal irait^ovTas ,^ 

CL)ar€ Koi ra? rihovas ck Xoyov Xafx^dveiv /cat rds 

BiarpLpds iv Xoyu) TTOLeladai, to Se fieXos Kal rov 

pvdfxov waTTcp oi/jov €TTL TO) Xoyco Kal fjir) Kad" avrd 

TTpoa^epeadat /X7]8e Ai;^veueiv. cos" yap rjSovrjv ev 

otvo) Kal oijjip rfj xpeta ttjs Tpo(f)7Js avveiaiovaav 

ousels' aTTco^eiTat, rrjv 8' irrl rot? jxvpois ovk dvay- 

Kaiav Kal TrepUpyov ovaav 6 HiOKpdrrjs enl Kopprjg 

pa7TLt,U)V i^e^aXXev, ovtco ipaXrrjpiov (jxjDvrjs Kal 

avXov Kad^ iavT'r]v rd (Lra KOTrrovar]? fxr] vrraKovoj- 

fX€v, dv 8' eTT'qraL pLCTa Xoyov Kal wSrjs iaridjaa 

D Kal repTTovaa rov iv rj/juv Xoyov, eiadyiopiev , oto- 

jxcvoi Kal rov Mapavav eKelvov vtto rov deov KoXa- 

adrjvai, on cfyop^eia Kal avXoXs eTnaropbLaas eavrov 

iroXprjaev i/jiXo) piiXei hiayojvi^eaBai rrpos (pSrjv 

Kal Kiddpav. 

" MoVOV," €(f)rjV, " aK07TWfJi€V OTTCDS ovpiTTorais 8ta 

Xoyov Kal <j>LXoao(f)Las dXXrjXov? €V(f>paiveiv Svvapie- 
voLS pi'qScv errd^op^ev roiovrov dvpadev o KwXvp-a 
BLayojyrjs p^dXXov t] Siaycoyq ns earai. ov yap pLO- 
vov daoL rr)V arcDrrjpiav olkol Kal Trap* avrchv exovreg 

dXXrjv deXovaiv elaaywyipLOV AajSetv, 

CO? ^vpiirihris elTrev, d^eXrepoi elaiv, dXXd Kal oaoi, 

TToXXrjg €v avroLS ev(f>poavvr]s Kal dvpLrjhias Trapov- 

E (y^S, e^codev endycLV rd repirovra (jyiXoripLOVvrai. 

Kal yap r) rov picydXov ^aaiXecos pi€yaXo(f>poavvr] 

^ Kal naC^ovras added by Reiske, Bernardakis. 

" The word Xoyos in this passage, as often, reflects the two 
senses of (a) word, verbal expression, speech, and (6) reason, 
rationality. 

88 



TABLE-TALK VIL 8, 713 

also be words — that is, song. We must form the 
habit, whether working or playing, of enjoying the 
words and including words " in our pastimes. We 
should regard melody and rhythm as a sauce, so to 
speak, added to the words, rather than use or prize 
them for their own sake. For just as no one refuses 
the pleasure in the wine and in the relish that we eat 
with our principal food, but Socrates did reject con- 
temptuously the enjoyment of scents as unessential 
and artificial,^ so let us not answer the voice of the 
lyre or flute when it knocks at our ear unchaperoned ; 
but if it comes in company with words and song, pro- 
viding a feast to delight our rational part, then let us 
usher it in. We must suppose that Marsyas' punish- 
ment by the god in the old story was for the crime 
of bridling himself ^^Ith mouthpiece and flutes and 
making bold to compete with instrumental music 
alone against the combination of song and lyre.'' 

" One thing we must watch out for," I continued, 
" is, when our fellow guests are capable of entertain- 
ing each other ^\■ith philosophic discourse, not to 
introduce from outside something that ^^^ll put a stop 
to entertainment instead of being entertainment. 
They are a silly lot who have the means of safety at 
home but (as Euripides says) 

Consent to take some other from abroad ■* ; 

but so are people who have a fund of joy and gladness 
in themselves, yet take pride in introducing amuse- 
ments from other sources. So too the Persian king's 
la\ish thought was horribly tasteless and boorish, 

* Xenophon, Symposium, ii. 3 ff. 

' Marsyas contended in music against Apollo, was de- 
feated, and flaved alive. 

* Frag. 984"Nauck. 

89 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(713) 77/30? 'AvraA/fiSav tov ActKcova Seiv^cDs' dneipoKaXos 
€(f)dv7] /cat dypoLKog, orrrjvtKa p68wv Kal KpoKOV 
fiepLiynevcov crT€(f)avov els fivpov ^dipas eTrepufjev 
avTO), TO avficfiVTov /cai tSiov KaXov dTTOcr^iaas Kal 
Kadv^piaas roZ'S dvdeaiv oixolov ovv eari to, avpi- 
TToaiov x^P'-^ e^ovTos iv iavrcp Kal jxovaav IBiav, 
KaravXelv Kal Karai/jdXXetv e^codev, d(f>aipovfjL€vov 

Tip aXXoTptCp TO oIk€LOV. 

MaAtCTr' dv ovv dKpoap,dTOJv e'lrj Kaipos iv 
F avpiToaicp Kvp^aivovTi Kal Kopvaaopevo) Ttpos epiv 
T] <f)iXov€iKLav, oiOTe Aoi8o/3tav Tim KaTaa^iaai koX 
'C;f]T't]oeui'S els dpiXXav dTepTrrj Kal dycova aof^iOTiKov 
eK(f)epop,ev'qs eTTiXap^dveadai Kal Trpo'Covarjs^ Trpos" 
dydjvas eKKXrjaLaaTLKovs Kal dyopaiovs eTriCT^eiv, 
dxpi dv avdis €^ ^PXV^ ddopv^ov Kal dv'^vep.ov 
yevTjTaL to avpLTTooLov." 

nPOBAHMA 
714 'Ort povXevfaOai napa ttotov ovx ^ttov fjv ' ¥lX\y}viKov fj YVtpaiKOV 
Collocuntur Glaucias, alii 

Wepl d)v epeXXov eKKX'qaidt^eiv ^Adrjvaloi Xoyos 
■^v trapd TO helnvov, eaTicovTos rjpds ^iKooTpaTov 
Kai Tivos eliTOVTOS (hs " UepcrtKov 7Tpdyp,a ttoiov- 
pev, CO dvSpes, ^ovXevopbevoi Trap' otvov," " ti 

^ TTpo'iovarjs added by Post. 

"In the Lives of Pelopidas (30) and Artaxerxes (22), the 
honour conferred by this act is emphasized, not its taste- 
Icssness. 

90 



1 



TABLE-TALK VIL 8-9, 713-714 

when, before he sent Antalcidas the Spartan a wTeath 
made of roses and crocuses, he dipped it in scent, so 
as to drown the native and special beauty of the 
flowers, and do them \iolence.'' It is a similar action, 
when a party has in its own circle a special Grace and 
Muse of its own, to suppress it with pipe and zither 
from ^vithout, and to make use of the foreign to 
abohsh the domestic. 

" The best occasion for musical entertainment is 
a party where the waves of strife or rivalry are rising 
toward a crest. There it can droAVTi out name-calling ; 
it can check a discussion that is deviating into an 
unpleasant squabble or a contest in sophistry ; or if 
the discussion is moving in the direction of political 
and legal controversy, it can keep it in hand until 
the company settles down to a fresh start quiet and 
free from gales of eloquence." 



QUESTION 9 

That deliberating on public affairs over wine was no 
less a Greek than a Persian custom. 

Speakers : Glaucias, others 

At a dinner given for me by Nicostratus,* there was 
some conversation about matters to be taken up 
in the Athenian assembly ; and when someone re- 
marked, " This is a Persian custom we are following, 
gentlemen, in deliberating over our wine," " Glaucias** 

* The host does not speak in this dialogue, but does in 
10, below. He is onlv known from these passages. 

« Herodotus, i. 133. 

* Apparently an Athenian and an intimate of Plutarch. 
See also 10, ii. 2, ix. 12, 13. 

91 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(714) /LtoAAov," e<f>r) 6 TXavKias VTToXa^cov, " •^ 'EAAt;- 
viKov; "EAAt^v fiev yap rjv 6 elrrcov, 

yaarpos cltto TrXeir^g ^ovXr) /cat fJiiJTig dfjLeivwv 

KXX-qve^ 8e avv ^ Ayap.ip.vovi, Tpoiav eTToXiopKovv , 

B ot? (fyayovai Kal ttiovolv ' 6 yepojv TrdpuiTpiorov 

V(f>aiv€iv rjpx^TO prJTiv,' €77' avro tovto rrjs KXijaecos 

Twv dpiaroiv elarjyrjTrjg rep jSaaiAet y€v6p,€Vos' 

Saivv Salra yepovcri,' ' ttoXXcov ' yap rot, (fyrjalv, 

aypopL€va)V rip TTeiaeai, 6s k€v dpiar'qv ^ovXrjv 

^ovXevar].' Sto Kal rd TrXeLarrj ■)(p'qodp,€va ttjs 

EAActSo? €vvop.ia yevrj Kal /xaAtara (jyiXoxojp'qaavra 

7T€pl rovg dpxoiiovg eBiapLovs iv oivcp rds dp^ds 

avv€LX€. rd ydp TTapd Kprjalv 'AvSpela KaXovp-eva, 

TTapd 8e UTTapridrats <I>t8tTta, ^ovXevrrjptojv dnop- 

prjTOJV Kal avveSpicuv dpiaroKpariKcov rd^iv etx^v, 

wairep otpiat Kal to ivddSe Upvravelov Kal QeapLo- 

C derelov ov rroppco 8e tovtwv 6 vvKreptvds avXXoyos 

TTapd YlXdrcovL rcbv dpicrrcjv Kal TToXiriKajrdTOJV 

dvSpcov eoTiv, e«^' ov avaTre/LtTrerai rd pieyiara Kal 

vXeLanqg d^ia ^^povrihos . ol 8e rtp ^pp-jj ' TTvp-drcp 

arrivhovrcs , ore pLvqaaiaro Koirov,' dp' ovk els rd 

avro avvdyovatv ra> oLvcp rov Xoyov; a*? yovv 

rrapovri /cat avve-maKOTTOvvrL rep (f)povip.corara) dew 

TTpwrov drraXXarropievoi TTpoaev^ovr at. ol 8e 

" Fragment from an unknown poet, also quoted at 700 e. 

* Homer, Iliad, ix. 93. ' Thid. 74. 

"* Cf. Dosiadas, frag. 2 Jacoby {Frag. Gr. Hist, iii b, p. 
458) : 1 Miiller (Frag. Hist. Graec. iv. 399) (Athenaeus, iv. 
143 a-d). Cf. Willetts, Aristocratic Society in Ancient Crete 
(London, 1955), pp. 21 flf. 

92 



TABLE-TALK VH. 9, 714 

retorted, " How is it any more Persian than Greek ? 
It was a Greek who said. 

From a full belly come better counsel and wisdom." 

They were Greeks, too, who were besieging Troy 
with Agamemnon, before whom, when they had 
eaten and drunk, ' first the old man began the weav- 
ing of counsel ' * ; and it was for this very purpose 
that Nestor had proposed to the king to smnmon the 
nobles. ' Provide a feast for the elders,' he said, and 
' when many are gathered together, you will be 
guided by him who gives the best counsel.' " This also 
explains why the peoples vnth the best governments, 
among the Greeks, and those that have sho\vn the 
most love of country' in the maintenance of ancient 
custom, kept their rulers together over wine. For 
the so-called andreia(men's halls) "* among the Cretans, 
and the pkiditia (common messes) * among the Spar- 
tans had a place as secret councils and aristocratic 
caucuses — as did also, I suppose, the Prytaneum and 
Thesmotheteum here. And not much differently 
from these, the Nocturnal Council of Plato ^ is a 
group of the best and most statesmanlike men to 
which are referred the most important matters, and 
those which require the most careful consideration. 
Wlien Homer's heroes ' poured libation to Hermes 
last, when their thought was of bed,' ' were they not 
bringing reason and wine into one gathering ? Just 
before departing, at least, they pray to the cleverest 
of the gods, believing him to be there with them and 
a partner in their dehberations. And in very ancient 

• See Life of hycurgus, 12 ; OCD, s.v. " Syssitia." 

' Laws, xii. 968 a. 

' Homer, Odyssey, vii. 136-138. 

93 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(714) TfafiTTav dpxcuoi, d)s ovSe toC 'Eipfiov Seop-evov rov 
Atovvaov avTov Kv^ovXea /cat rrjv vuKra 8i' eKctvov 
€V(f>p6vrjv ' TT poaeiTTOv ." 



D nPOBAHMA I 

El <caAa>s ewoiovv povXevofievoi irapd ttotov 
CoUocuntur Nicostratus, frater Plutarchi (Lamprias ?) 

1. Tavra tov TXavKLov Sie^eXdovros, eSo^av 
rjpZv eTneiKOJS ol dopv^coSets eKeivoL KaraKeKoifMrj- 
adac Xoyoi, /cat ottcos €ri fidXXov avrojv dfivTjuTia 
yivoiro, ^'qr-qaiv irlpav iirdyoiv ^iKoarparos e^ 
TTporepov ov ttolvv /Lte'Aeiv aura) YiepaiKov rov mpdy- 
/xaros elvai Sokovvtos' evret 8e vvv 'EXXrjVLKov ov^ 
7T€(f)a)paTai, SeZcrdai Xoyov ^otjOovvtos avra> Trpos 
rrjv avTodev (j>aivopL€vrjv droTriav. " 6 re ydp 
Xoyio-fjios wcrTTip 6(f)6aXfji6s iv vypcp adXov exovri 
SvGKivrjrov rfpuv /cat hvaepyov can, rd re Trddrf 
E TTavraxodev axnrep cpTrerd tt/do? tJXcov aaXevofieva 
vpog TOV olvov /cat dvaSvofxeva ttjv yvwfjbrjv ctti- 
(T(f)aXrj TToiei /cat dKardararov. odev woTTcp rj 
kXlvtj Tot? 7TLVOVGL Trjs KadeSpas dfieivcov, on to 
CTcu/xa KaT€-)^eL /cat drroAuet^ KLvqaews aTTaar]s, 
ovTOJS ^x^iv drpefia Trjv ifivx^jv dpiaTov el Se fit], 

^ ov Reiske : tlvai. 

* T« iradj) Reiske, Bernardakis : 8' inaxdr). 

* dnoXvei Stephanus : aTroAauei. 

° This name for night is euphemistic : " the kindly one " ; 
but the word might also mean, as Plutarch seems to intend, 
" the wise one." 

' Plutarch cannot be referring here to the previous Ques- 
tion, which has no " tumultuous arguments," unless he means 

94 



TABLE-TALK VIL 9-10, 714 

times, men regarded Dionysus as not even needing 
the help of Hermes ; they spoke of him as Euhuleus 
(Good Counsellor), and on his account they termed 
night eupkrone (good thinking)." " 



QUESTION 10 

Whether it was a good custom to deliberate over wine. 

Speakers : Nicostratus, a brother of Plutarch (perhaps 
Lamprias) 

1. With this speech of Glaucias, we concluded that 
those earlier, tumultuous argimients had been pretty 
well put to rest '' ; and that we might forget them 
even more completely, Nicostratus introduced a new 
question. In the past, he said, he had not been 
greatly concerned about the matter, because this 
•was held to be a Persian custom, but that now, since 
it had been investigated and found to be Greek, 
there was need of a discussion in defence of it, in 
view of its apparent absurdity. " For reasoning, like 
the eye, if it is surrounded by a surging humour, is no 
easy thing for us to move as we would, or keep at 
work ; moreover, the emotions which are stirred by 
the >\'ine, hke reptiles emerging when stirred by the 
sun, make our judgement precarious and unstable. 
Thus for men who are drinking, just as a couch is 
better than a chair, because it retains the whole 
body, and relieves it of all acti\'ity, so it is best to 
hold the mind steady. FaiUng that, we must not 

the potentially disturbing topics mentioned at the beginning 
of Question 8. Hubert suggests that by oversight he refers 
to Question 8 (in which, however, Glaucias does not appear). 
The confusion may be due to an editorial rearrangement of 
the Questions, perhaps by the author himself. 

95 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(714) SoTcov, a>a7T€p iraialv drpefielv fXT] Svvafievois , ov 
86pv Kal ^i(f)os, aAAo, TrXarayrjv Kal atfialpav, o)arrep 
6 deos Tov vdpdrjKa rols jxedvovaiv eveyeipiae K(x)(f}6- 
TOTOV ^eXos Kal jxaXaKioraTOV dfivvT'qpLov, ovcos, 
enel rdxi-crra Traiovaiv, -qKiara ^XdrrrcoaLV Set yap 
yeXoia rd a(f)dX[xara rot? fiedvovaL vrotetv, o'uk 

F OLKrpd Kal rpayiKa Kal jxeydXa? dTTorev^eis 
e)(ovTa. 

" Kai /xtJv, OTTcp earl iieyiarov iv rats irepl rtov 
jxeylcTTCOv OKeipeai, rov ivSed vov Kal vpaynarcDv 
dneipov eTreaOaL rols (f>povovai Kai rtov efiTreipcov 
dKovetv, d^aipelr at rovg jjiedvovras 6 olvos' coarc 
715 Kal rovvofxa yeveadai ^rjalv 6 WXdrwv ' on oXeadai 
vovv e^civ TToiel ' rovs ■nivovras' ovre yap iXXoyifios 
ovre KaXos ovre ttXovglos^ ovro)S oterai, Kanrep 
olo/xevog, elvat rwv TTLVOvrcov eKaaros to? (f)p6vifJiOS' 
Sio Kal TToXv<j)covos d olvo'S ean Kal XaXids dKaipov 
Kal (jtpovrjpiaro? -qyepioviKov Kara'uip.TTX'qaLV , cds 
OVK dKoveLV oAA' dKoveadai p,dXXov rjfilv Kal dyeiv 
ov)( eneadaL TTpoarJKov. dXXd ydp," e(f)rj, " rd p-kv 
els rovro paStcos dv rt? avvaydyoi, SrjXa ydp iariv 
rd}V S' evavrioiv dKovareov e'i ns rj veos TTpoaearrj- 
K€v rj TTpea^vrepog." 

2. 'ETTtjSouAoj? 817 Trdvv Kal aocf>LariKd)S d 

B aSeA^o? ripd)v, " otet ydp dv," e<f)7], " rivd rovs ev- 
Sexopievovs Xoyovs evpeiv iv ra> Trapovri Kaipw 
TTpos rd Trpo^Xrjpia; " rov he NiKoarpdrov rrdw 

^ iXXoyifios . . . KoXos . . . vXovaios Basel edition : Aayia/xoc 
. . . KciXXog . . . ttAouto?. 

" Crati/lutt, 406 c : olvov from oieaOcu vovv exetv (as one -M 
might say that whiskey is wit's key). • 

96 



TABLE-TALK YU. 10, 714-715 

gire tibe tqppleis sword and lanee, but a latde and a 
ball, as we give titan to dnUbren who cannot keq» 
stilL So too tlie god pot tlie leed in llie hands at 
tiiose fired widi wine, which is the bfamtest of mis- 
siles aundtiie most liable of wcaqians, so that when 
thej are qnichest to stnke, th^ can do least haim. 
For it is proper to see that cnors of the tqsj diall be 
comic rather than deplorable and tragic amd a source 
of great disaster. 

" Forthennare, wine d e put e s die intoxicated at 
the Tcry thing that is most Tital in the consideration 
at the greatest issues. It makes the man who has 
less intdKgence or practical expexienee lodi to fctOaw 
tibe prudent and lend an ear to die aqperienced. 
Hence in fact Flato says diat the toj word ' wine ' 
(fliaoff) denres from ' weenii^ ' to have sense (p ieM m 
aaas adkm).* For each at those drinkiiy smyus e s 
hiiawilf, not so much inqwrtant or h a ndsom e or rid^ 
dioB^ he does sup pose all that, as he fan d e s l i i miiii If 
pmdent. Tins is why wine is loud-^vioed and mfeds 
fc f cijon e widi the uige to chatter at random and the 
notion that be is a great leader. It is not fittii^ tar 
him to take orders but rather to give diem, to lead, 
not IbDow. Bat in £iMt," he concluded, " a man eould 
easiij gadier evidence on this side ; it is plain to see, 
bat we most hear the other side as vrdi, if there is 
anyone, joung or old, to stand op lor it." 

2. At this mj bvodier* most maficiousfy and 
triddh^ inquired. " Do jou think, dien, that anyone 
would be hkdy now, on the spar at the mnment, to 
d ae o w q such aignments as are powriHe to brii^ to 
bear on die qnestian ? " N k us lial us rqiBed that he 



> C oi m i ai ii^ t 13S B bdopw. fiUnt um i ulmtA iSmt Ik 
biolliu' hoe is the am 



^OL. iz K 97 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(715) (f>TJaavTOS oieadai, roaovrcov <f)iXoX6ya}v /cat ttoXltl- 

KOiv TrapovTCov, uTTo/netSiaCTa? cKetvos, " elr* ," €(f>r], 

" TTepl TOVTCDv jx€v oiei Koi aeavTOv LKavaJs o.v 

cIttclv 77/30? Tjixas, TTpos 8e TTpayfjLariKrjv /cat ttoXiti- 

KTjv aKeijjLV ddercos ^^clv Std rov olvov; 7] rovd 

ofioLov iari rep yopit,eLV on rats oijjeaiv 6 ttlvcov 

Trapopajv ra fieydXa, rd fxiKpa. vTripev^ ixera^XeTrei, 

a^^i? Se rols coal TrapaKovec twv ivrvyxoLvovTOJV 

Kal biaXeyoixevcov, rcbv 8' aSovTwv /cat avXovvrcov 

aKpi^cos olkovcl; co? yap ivravda p^ciXXov et/cd? ecrrt 

C Tcov yXa(j)vpcx)v rd )(peia)87j rrjv aiadriaiv eTncrrpe- 

<f>eiv, ovTOJS /cat rqv Sidvoiav ov davixdaaLfxl y' dv 

€t Ti TCOV ^iXoa6(f)Cov /cat TrepirrCov eK^vyoi irap 

otvov, el? Se Trpay/xart/cds' (JKeijjeis dyofxevqv ttvk- 

vovadai /cat GwioTaaOai rat (f)povelv eiKos eariv 

cooTTep 6 OiAiTTTro? ev yiaipcoveia, TToXXd Xrjpcov vtto 

fieO-qs /cat KarayeXacrros cov, dp,a tco irpoaTTeaetv 

avTcp rrepl crnovScov /cat elprjvrjs Xoyov eGrrjae to 

vpocrcoTTov /cat awqyaye Tds o(f)pvs /cat to pep,- 

PcoSes^ Kal dKoXaaTov eKdo^'qcras ev p,dXa ^e- 

^ovXevfMevrjv Kal vr](f)ovaav eSco/ce rots A^r/vatot? 

dTTO/cptcriv. 

D " KaiTot TO TTLveiv Tov p,edveiv Sta^epet, /cat tovs 

pedvovTas cooTe Xrjpelv olopeda Selv dTTLovTag Kad- 

evSeiv, otvcp Se -)(^pcopievovs enl rrXeov Kal Siairivov- 

Tas, dXXcos vovv e^ovTas dvSpas, ovk d^iov SeSteVat 

p,r) a(f)aXcbaL tco Xoytapw Kal ttjv epLTTeipiav airo- 

PdXcoaiv, 6pd>VTas^ 6px'>]0'Tds re /cat KtdapiaTds 

^ irivoiv napopcov to. /LtcyaAa, to fiiKpa vnepev Bernardakis, 
after W3^tenbach : -nivcov yap ev. 
* pefi^Sfs Turnebus : /Jo/xjScDSes. 

98 



TABLE-TALK VIL 10, 715 

certainly did, with so many scholars and statesmen 
present, and my brother answered with a smile, " So 
you think, then, that you would yourself be quite 
capable of discoursing to us on this subject, but that 
because of the ^«ne you are drinking you are not in 
a fit state to talk about a matter of practical pohtics ? 
Is this not like thinking that a man in his cups sees big 
things blurred but can focus on small ones very well, 
or that his ears fail to catch what those whom he 
meets and speaks to are sa}ing, but hear the singers 
and flute-players perfectly ? For just as, in the latter 
case, it is more likely that what is useful to us would 
intensify our perception than what is polished and 
smooth, so I should not be surprised if our minds too 
were to miss some subtlety of philosophy under the 
influence of wine, whereas if they were applied to the 
consideration of practical matters, they would be 
more likely to gain firmness and consistency by the 
stimulus of thought. Remember PhiUp at Chaeronea : 
he talked a lot of nonsense, in his drimkenness, and 
made a fool of himself, but the moment he was 
approached with a proposal for an armistice and 
peace, he set his face firmly, knitted his brows, and, 
brushing aside his casual and careless air, gave the 
Athenians a deliberate and sober answer. 

" Surely it is not the same thing to be drinking 
and to be drunk. WTien men have drunk till they 
ramble, it is time, we assume, for them to go off to 
bed ; but with men who can take a good deal of wine 
and go on drinking, who are, apart from that, men of 
sense, there is no reason to fear that they \n\\ miss 
the mark in reasoning, or be divested of their prac- 
tised touch. We see that dancers and harpists do 

* opcMTos added by Xylander. 

99 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(715) ouSeV Ti ;^€r/X)v iv avfxiToaCois "q dedrpois irpdr- 
Tovras' rj yap ep-Treipia irapovaa Kal to awfxa rats 
evepyelais opdovfjievov Trapex^i Kal avyKLvovfievov 
dar(f)aX6js . 

rioAAot? 8' LTafjLOTTjra ddpaovs avvepyov 6 
aKparos, ov ^SeXvpdv ovS* aKparov dAA' ev^^apiv 
Kal TTidavqv, TTpoaridriaiv waTrep Kal rov AlaxvXov 

E laropovat rds rpaycohias e/XTriVovra TTOcelv, Kal 
ovx, (J^S Fopyta? eiTTCv, ev rcov hpap^droyv avrov 
' fMecTTov^ "Apecos '* efvat, rovs "Ettt' i-nl Qrj^as, 
dXXd TTavra Ai.ovvaov. ' depfiavriKos ' yap cjv 
Kara rov IIAaTCOva ' rr^? ^v^^s fjierd rov acofjuaros 
6 olvos ' evSpojxov to crcD/xa Troiet Kal iropovs pfjy- 
vvcTL ^avTaaLcx)v e^eA/co/LteVcov /xera tov dappelv tov 
Xoyov evLOL yap evpeTiKrjv (f>vaiv e^ovTCs, iv Se Ta> 
vrj(f>€i,v aToA/xoTcpav Kal TreTrrjyvlav , orav els to 
TTivetv eXdoiOLV oiairep 6 Xi^avcoro? vno depjjiOTrjTOS 
dvadvp,i(x>VTai. tov Se hrj <j)6^ov ovhevos '^ttov ep,- 
■TToSojv ovTa ^ovX€Vop,€VOLS i^cXavvei, Kal TroAAd 

F Tujv dXXojv TTadojv d(f)LX6Tip,a Kal dyevvi] Kara- 
a^ivvvai, Kal to KaKorjdes Kal ro vttovXov waTrep 
TLvds StTrXoas dvaTTTvaaei ttjs ijjvxrjs, Kal TravTOS 
rjOovs Kal rrddovs TTotet /cara^avetav iu tols Xoyois' 
CCTTt Se TTapprjGLas Kal St' avrrjv dXrjdetag yovipdi- 
716 TttTo?- rjs py] TTapovarjs ouSev epLTreipias ouS' dyx^-- 
voiag 6(f>eXos. dXXd ttoXXoI tco iniovTi ;)^/36tj/xevoi 
fiaXXov KaTopdovGLV ■^ €1 KpvTTTOvaiv eTTi^ovXcos Kal 
Travovpyojs to TTapi(TTdp,evov . 

" OuSev ovv Set SeSieVat Kivovvra rd Trddr] tov 

^ HeoTov Reiske : fieyiGTOv. 
* 'Apeios Aldine edition : dpaicjs. 

100 



TABLE-TALK VIL 10, 715-716 

not perform less well at parties than they do in the 
theatre ; for the practised skill is there, which enables 
the body to be accurate in its activities and to co- 
ordinate its movements with precision. 

" Wine gives many people a forwardness that joins 
forces v\ith self-assurance, but not offensively or ex- 
cessively so much as vvittily and eloquently. They 
say that Aeschylus composed his tragedies while 
taking wine. It is not so true that one of his plays 
(the Seven against Thebes) is ' full of Ares,' to quote 
Gorgias," as that all of them are full of Dionysus. 
For as Plato says, ' wine heats the mind as well as 
the body ' ^ ; it makes the body lively and breaks 
open passageways for fancies that, aided by a con- 
fident mood, bring discourse in their wake. Some 
people, who have a talent for invention but are too 
diffident and stiff when sober, will, when they immerse 
themselves in wine, find their spirits rise within them 
like incense, when heated, diffusing its essence. Wine 
drives out the timidity that is the greatest handicap 
in deliberation, and drowns out many another mean- 
spirited and ignoble emotion ; it shakes out the folds 
as it were, where duplicity and rancour lurk in the 
mind, and reveals every trait of character and every 
secret feeling in transparent language. It is the most 
fertile seed of frankness and thereby of truthfulness ; 
and if truth be not present, neither practical skill 
nor quick insight do any good. No indeed, many 
do better using whatever words come into their 
heads than craftily or treacherously conceaUng their 
minds. 

" There is no need, therefore, to fear wine as a 



• Diek-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok.*, 82 B 24. 
* Timaeui, 60 a. 



101 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(716) otvov Kiv€L yap ov ra <f>avX6Tara, TrXrjv ev roXs 
KaKiOTOts, tov ouSeVoTe vry^et to ^ovXevofjievov 
dAA' coCTTTep TO. Kovpela Qe6<j)paaTos elcodec KaXetv 
aoiva avpLTToaia 8ta rriv XaXtdv, ovrois doivos o.€l 
fxedr) Kal aKvdpcoTTT] ralg tcov aTTatSevTiov ivoiKel 
ijjvxcus, iTTiTaparTOfjievr] vtt* opyrj'S tlvos rj hva- 
fxeveias rj ^iXoveiKias •^ dveXevdepias' cov 6 otvos 
dfJL^Xvvcov rd iroXXd p,dXXov •»} irapo^vvcov ovk d(f>po- 
B vas oi)8' rjXidiovs aAA' aTrAous' Trotet Kal drravovp- 
yovs, ovhk TTapopaTLKovs tov avp^^epovTOS dXXd 
Tov KaXov TTpoaLpertKovs. ol Se rrjv iravovpyiav 
SeivoTTjra Kal (f)p6v'r](nv rjyovp-evoi rrjv ifjevho^o^iav 
Kal dveXevdeplav elKorojs d^eXrepovs dTTo<^aivovai 
Tovs iv oLvcp Xeyovras d(f>€X6js xal dSoXcos to (f)aivo- 
fxevov TovvavTcov 8' ol rraXaiol tov deov ^KXevdepda 
Kal Avaiov €KdXovv Kal pLavTiKrjs ttoXXtjv ex^tv 
rjyovvTO fjLotpav, ov 8ta ' to ^aKx^vaipiov Kat 
[xavicoSes ' uxmep ^vpnrihrjs eiTrev, aAA' oVt to 
SovXo7Tp€TTes Kal TTepiSee? /cat aTnoTov e^aipojv /cat 
dTToXvoiv TTJs 4^vxT)S dX-qOeio. Kal Trapprjaia ^^pija^ai 
TTpos dXX'qXovs SiScoaiv." 



102 



TABLE-TALK VIL 10, 716 

stimulus to the feelings. It does not rouse those that 
are lowest, except in the wicked — and their dehbera- 
tive faculty is never in a sober state anyway. Theo- 
phrastus used to call barber shops ' wineless symposia ' " 
because of the talk that goes on there ; just so a grim 
and ' wineless drunkenness ' is always lurking in the 
mind of an uncultured man. This may be roused by 
any burst of temper or ill will or contentiousness or 
meanness of spirit, most of which moods are blunted 
rather than whetted by wine, so that it makes people, 
not foohsh and stupid, but simple and guileless, and 
though alert to their ovm advantage, yet partisans 
of honour. Naturally, those who mistake lack of 
scruple for cleverness, or consider dissembling and 
meanness of spirit to be good sense, ^\^ll class as fools 
those who, in their cups, say plainly and guilelessly 
what they think. But the ancients did just the oppo- 
site, when they named the god Eleuthereus (Liberator) 
and Lysios (Releaser). They thought that he had a 
great gift of diWnation not because of the ' bacchic 
and mad ' element, as Euripides said,* but because 
by taking from the soul its sla\ish and timorous and 
suspicious nature and freeing it from these, he grants 
us the boon of treating each other with truthfulness 
and frankness." 

" Frag. 76 Wimmer. » Bacchtu, 298-299. 



103 



TABLE-TALK 

(QUAESTIONES CONVIVALES) 
BOOK VIII 



INTRODUCTION 

This book is devoted largely to rather serious ques- 
tions, over half of the problems being concerned with 
philosophy, science, or medicine. Especially inter- 
esting, from this point of view, are those on Plato's 
geometrician-god (2) and on the Pythagorean sym- 
bola (7 and 8). The etymologies of 6 and the long dis- 
cussion on new diseases in 9.. like the argument on 
swallowing in Book VII, Question 1, cast interesting 
Ught on the level of scientific and philological sophis- 
tication in Plutarch's circle. 

Two pairs of dialogues are connected in dramatic 
situation (1 and 2, 7 and 8). All except 5, and perhaps 
9, give the impression of being intended to sound 
like authentic reports. 

On the treatment of the text see the introduction 
to Book \ll. 

Edwin L. Minar. Jr. 



107 



(716) STMriOSIAKQN 

BIB A ION OrAOON 

D Ot <f)iXoao(f)Lav , c5 Soo-ate HeveKiajv, eV tcov 
avfjLTToalcov eK^dWovres ov ravro iroiovai rots to 
(jyios dvaipovoiv, dAAa ;^et/)ov, octo) Xv-)(yov fiev 
dpdevros ot ixerpLot. /cat Ga)(f)pov€g ovdev eaovrai 
KaKLovs, TO alheladai tou ^AeVetv aAAi7Aoi;s" /Act^ov e- 
XovTes, dixadias Se St) /cat dfxovaias criiv olvco irap- 

E ovarjs ovS' o ttj? ^Adrjvds -x^pvaovs Xv-)(yos eKelvos 
exj-^o-piv dv TTOTov /cat Koapnov Trapaaxpi. aioJTTOJV- 
ras" fJi€V yap e/LtTrtVAacr^at /xer' aAAi^Acov Kopuhrj av- 
cDSe? /cat laois dSuvarov o Se Aoyov /xer aTroAtTra/v 
ev crvpLTToaio), to 8e TeTayfJ-evco? ;^p7^CT^at Aoyo) /cat 
d)(f)eXt[jiOjg ov 7Tpoai4pi€vos ttoXv yeXoiorepog ioTiv 
Tov TTiveiv fxev olofievov Selv^ /cat rpwyeiv tovs 8ei- 
TTVovvTag, a/cparov Se ror ofvov aurot? iyx^ovTos 
/cat Tovifjov dvriSvvTov /cat dKddaprov irapaTidevTos. 
ovre yap ttotov ovhev out' eSearov ovtids drjSes 
/cat pXa^epov icTTLV put] depaTrevdev ov irpoariKCi 

F TpoTTov, CO? Adyo? dKaipois /cat dvoTjrojS' ev cru/u.- 
TTOcrto) 7T€pi(f)€p6pi€Vos. TTjV yovv fxedrjv ot AotSo- 
povvTCs (f)tX6(JO(f>ot, Xriprjaiv Trdpoivov dTTOKaXovaiv 

^ Setv Stephanus : del. 

108 



TABLE-TALK 
BOOK EIGHT 

People who would banish philosophy from the sym- 
posium, Sossius Senecio, are even more at fault than 
one who would take away the lights. For if the 
lamp is removed, moderate and prudent men will not 
be any worse behaved than before, since they have 
in their self-respect a greater safeguard than seeing 
and being seen ; but if ignorance and lack of culture 
keep company with wine, not even that famous 
golden lamp of Athena " could make the party refined 
and orderly. Of course for a group of men to say 
nothing at all, while stuffing themselves with food, 
would be downright swinish — perhaps even impos- 
sible. Still, one who permits conversation in a 
drinking-party, but makes no move to see that the 
conversation is orderly and profitable, is much more 
ridiculous than the man who approves of ser\ing 
wine and dessert at dinner, but pours the wine vm- 
mixed and sets on food unseasoned and uncleaned. 
For no drink or food is so disagreeable or unwhole- 
some, for lack of the right treatment, as is conversa- 
tion that drifts about randomly and foolishly at a 
partj'. At any rate, those philosophers who wish to 
give indulgence in wine a bad name define it as 

* See Homer, Odyssey, xix. 34, where Athena, though in- 
visible to Telemachus, lights the way for him and Odysseus. 

109 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(716) TO 8e X-qpetv ovSev eariv oAA' r] Aoya> Keva> ;(p'j]a0ai 
/cat <f>Xvapa)8€f AaAta? 8' dra/CTOu /cat ^Xvapias els 
aKparov efXTrecrovarjs v^pis /cat Trapotvt'a reAo? 
apLovaoraTov /cat axapiaroraTov . 

Ov (fyavXoiS ovv /cat Trap' i^/xtr ev TOt? 'AypiO)- 
717 viot? TOP' Aidvucrop' at yuvat/ces a»? aTToSeSpa/cora 
l,T]Tovai,v, etra TravovraL /cat Xiyovaiv on Trpos ras 
M.ovaas KaTa7T€(f>€vy€v /cat /ce/cpuTrrai Trap' e/cct- 
rai?, /act' oAtyov 8e, tov SetWou reXos exovros, 
aivty/Ltara /cat ypi^ovs dAAT^Aai? Trpo^aXXovaiv, tov 
pbvaTTjpLov StSdcr/covTO?, oVt Aoyoj re Set ■)(^priadaL 
TTapa TTOTov decoplav tlvo. /cat p.ovaav e^ovTi /cat 
Aoyoy TOiovTov tjj p-edj) irapovTos aTTOKpvTTTeTai to 
dypLov /cat ixaviKOv, vtto TOiv MouctcDv gv/mcvcos 

KaT€XOp,€VOV . 

"A TOLVVV iv Tols HXaTOJVos ycvedXloLS rrepvai 
/cat OLKOvaai /cat elTretv cruveTUX^v 'qp.lv, TVpcoTa 
TOVTo Treptep^et to ^v^Xiov eoTL Se tcDv Hvp,7Toaia- 
KU)v oyhoov. 

nPOBAHMA A 

Ilepl 'qfiepcHv iv als yeyovaai rives rcov eTTt<f>ava>v ev tfj koI 
nepl rrjs XeyofievTjS eV deiov yeveaecos 

Collocuntur Diogenianus, Plutarchus, Florus, Tyndares 

B !• Tfj eKTTj TOV QapyrjXicJvos loTap^ivov ttjv 
HoiKpoLTOvs ayayovTes yevedXiov ttj e^Sopirj ttjv 

" A Stoic definition ; c/. von Arnim, 5. V.F. iii. 643. The 
same definition is cited for a somewhat different purpose at 
Mor. 504 B. 

* The festival was apparently celebrated differently in 
Chaeronea and in Orchomenus. In the latter place, accord- 
ing to Plutarch {Mor. 299 r), the priest of Dionysus pursued 

110 



TABLE-TALK VIII. 1, 716-717 

" vinous babbling," <* and babbling means, precisely, 
engaging in empty and frivolous conversation. The 
outcome of undisciplined chatter and frivolity, when 
it reaches the extreme of intemperance, is \-iolence 
and drunken behaviour — an outcome wholly incon- 
sistent with culture and refinement. 

It is not an accident that in the Agrionia, as it is 
celebrated here, the women search for Dionysus as 
though he had run away, then desist and say that he 
has taken refuge •with the Muses and is hidden among 
them, and then after a while, when their dinner is 
over, quiz each other with riddles and conundrums.* 
The meaning of the ritual is that when drinking we 
ought to engage in conversation that has something 
speculative, some instruction in it, and that when 
conversation like this accompanies indulgence in wine, 
the -wild and manic element is hidden away, benevo- 
lently restrained by the Muses. 

Well, what I happened to hear and say last year at 
the birthday celebration for Plato supplies matter 
for the first chapter of this book, which is the eighth 
of the T able-Talk. 

QUESTION 1 

The days on which certain eminent persons were bom ; 
also, stories of birth from divine parents. 

Speakers : Diogenianus, Plutarch, Florus, Tyndares 

1. On the sixth of Thargehon * we celebrated the 
birthday of Socrates, and on the seventh that of Plato, 

with a sword the women of the family descended from the 
daughters of Minyas, who had been punished for rejecting 
the worship of Dionysus. 

* The month of Thargelion corresponds roughly to our 
May. 

Ill 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(717) YlXdra>vos rjyofjiev, /cat tovto rrpuyrov Xoyovs rjfuv 
'iTap€i)(€ rfj avvTVX^o. TrpeTTOvras, d>v Karrjp^ev 
Aioyeviavos 6 Ilepyap,rjv6s. et^r) yap ov (f>avXa>s 
elnelv "loiva Trepl rijs tv^'^s otl ttoXXo. rrjs ao(f>ias 
hia^epovaa TrXelar* avrfj ofxoia TToieZ' tovto fievroi 
fiovaiKws eoiKCv aTTauTO/xaTtaat to pLT] [xovov ovtco 
avveyyvs, dAAa /cat trpoTepov ttj ra^et^ yeyovevat 
Tov vpea^VTCpov Kal KadrjyrjTrjv . 

*E^ot 8e TToXXa Xeyetv eTrfjei toXs Trapovai tcov els 
TavTO Kaipov crvvSpafMOVTCov olov -^v to Trepl Trjs 
C EyptTTtSou yeveaecos Kal TeXevTrjs, yevopAvov pev 
rjpepa Kad^ rjv ol "EAAr^ves' evavpo-xovv ev HaXaplvt, 
Trpos TOV M'^Sov/ OLTTodavovTos 8e xra^' t]v eyevv^drj 
Aiovuaios 6 TTpea^VTcpos tcov ev HiKeXia Tvpdvvoiv 
dp,a TTJg TVXf]S, CO? Tt/xaio? e(l>rj, tov pLp.rjTrjv e^- 
ayovarjg tcDv TpayiKwv Tradcjv Kal tov dya>viaT7]v 
erteiaayovcrris . 

^Epv^adrjcrav be Kal ttjs ^AXe^dvSpov tov ^a- 
aiXecjs TeXevTTjS Kal ttjs Aioyevovs tov Kuros" 
r)p,epa pia yevopevrjs. Kal tov p,ev "ATTaXov ev 
roLS eavTov yevedXiois tov jSacrtAea rcAeuT'^aat 
avve(f)a)V€LTO' Hoprrijiov 8e Mdyvov ol p,€v ev rot? 
yevedXioLS e(j>aaav, ol Se TTpo pids rjpepas tcDv 
D yeveOXioiv dirodaveiv irepl AtyvTTTov. '^Kev Se Kal 

^ rd^ti Meziriacus : So^j). * MrjSov Xylander : Srjfiov. 

" Diels-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok.^ 36 B 3 ; cf. Nachtrage, i. 
501. 41. 

113 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 1, 717 

and this coincidence of dates furnished us with our 
first topic of conversation. The first to speak was 
Diogenianus of Pergamum ; he praised Ion's remark 
about fortune, that though very different from wis- 
dom, it brings out many similar results." Certainly 
this fortuitous conjunction seems charmingly appro- 
priate, not only that their birthdays came together 
as they did, but that the older man and the teacher 
should have come first in order. 

I myself was inspired to mention to the company 
a good many chronological coincidences, like the 
stories about the birth and death of Euripides, who 
was born on the day the Greeks fought the naval 
battle against the Mede at Salamis,^ and died on the 
day when Dionysius, the elder of the two SiciHan 
tyrants, was born.*' At the same moment, as Timaeus 
says,** fortune ushered from the stage the man who 
devised imitations of tragic events and ushered in the 
man who acted a tragic part. 

Someone mentioned also the death of King Alex- 
ander and of Diogenes the Cynic, which took place 
on the same day. There was general agreement, too, 
that King Attains died on his own birthday ; but 
there was a difference of opinion about the death of 
Pompey the Great in Egypt, some sapng that he 
died on his birthday and some on the day before his 
birthday.' Pindar came to mind, too, born during 

* The naval battle against Xerxes in 480 b.c 

* A slip of Plutarch, who apparently meant to say " the 
day that Dionvsius became tyrant." This was in 406 b.c. 

'' Frag. 119"Muller {Frag. Hist. Grate, i. 223), 105 Jacoby 
{Frag. Gr. Hist. iii. b, p. 632). 

* The last two examples are also cited in Life of Camillus, 
xix, where Plutarch is apparently drawing on his lost work 
On Days. 

113 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(717) IlivBapos inl [xm^ixrjv iv IlvOiots yevd/xevos", ttoAAcDv 
/cat KaXwv vfiviov ro) dew xoprjyos. 

2. *0 Se ^Xcopos ovSe K-apvedSrjv aTra^Lovv €(f)r) 
pivrip/qs iv rots IlAaTcavos' yevedXiois , avSpa rfjs 

AKaSrjfiLas evKXeeararov opyt.aaT'qv' 'AttoAAcovos' 
yap ap,<j)oripovs ioprrj yeveadai, rov fxev^ Qapyrj- 
Xlois ^Ad-qprjaLV, rov Se K.dpv€ia l^vprjvaCcov dyov- 
Twv " i^Sofir) 8 dp.<j>oT€pa? eoprd^ovatv, Kai rov 
deov CO? ravrrj yev6p,evov iifxels," elTrev, " ol irpo- 
(fyrjrat Kal lepeZs 'K^Soixayevrj KaXelre. 8to rovs 
'AttoXXcovl ttjv nAarcovos" reKvcoaiv dvaridevras 
ovK av otfjiai TLva (f>dvai Karaiaxvveiv rov deov, iirl 
E p,eit,ova Trddr) Kal voaripxira rovrov rjfuv Sid Soj- 
Kpdrovs larpdv woTrep irepov Xetpcovos" aTTCipya- 
a/xevov." dfia Se t'^S' Xeyoixevrjg ^ Apiarcovi rep 
nActTCOvos" TTarpl yeviadai KaO' vttvov oijjeojg /cat 
<f>a}V'fjs aTTayopevova'qs p^rj avyyeviaQai rij yvvaiKl 
^TyS' difjaadai 8e/ca prjvwv ifxvrjpovevcrev. 

3. 'YTToXa^djv 8e TvvSdp'qs 6 AaKcSaLpovios , 
" d^Lov [X€V eartv," ^(f>f], " vrept YlXdroivos aSeiv 
/cat Xiyeiv to 

OVO€ €<pK€l 

dvSpos y€ 6vr)Tov vdis e/i/ievat dAAd deoZo- 

^ /tev Bernardakis : /iev yap. 

' Apollo was called Hebdomagenes (as here), Hebdomeios, 
and Hebdomagetes. Perhaps the legend of his birth on the 
seventh of the month (also mentioned Mor. 292 e) arose 
because, as a god of seasons and months, he was connected 
with the division of the lunar month into weeks of seven days 
(Roscher, Lex. d. gr. u. r. Myth, i, p. 425). See also Calli- 

114 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 1, 717 

the Pythian games to be the author of many a 
beautiful hymn for Apollo, the god of the festival. 

2. Florus said that on Plato's birthday we ought 
not to disdain to mention Carneades, a very celebrated 
adherent of the Academy, since both were bom 
during a festival of Apollo, one during the ThargeUa 
in Athens, the other while the Cyreneans were cele- 
brating the Cameia. " They celebrate both on the 
seventh," he said, " and you interpreters and priests 
give the epithet Seventh-born to the god because he 
was born on that day." Therefore I do not think 
anyone would say that those who attribute Plato's 
parentage to Apollo are bringing disgrace on the 
god. Mho made him, through the agency of Socrates 
(as if he had been a second Cheiron), a physician to 
heal greater ailments and sicknesses than those 
healed by Asclepius." * He also mentioned the 
vision which is said to have appeared to Ariston, 
Plato's father, in his sleep, which spoke and forbade 
him to have intercourse with his wife, or to touch her, 
for ten months." 

3. Tyndares the Lacedaemonian ** replied, " It is 
fitting to celebrate Plato with the hne, 

He seemed the scion not of mortal man, but of a god. * 

machus, Hymn. iv. 249 ff., where swans circle Delos, singing, 
seven times at the birth of Apollo. 

* The words " those healed by Asclepius " are not repre- 
sented in the Greek, but they are implied. (Reiske proposed 
to add the words ^ 'AaKXqmov in the text.) Asclepius the 
hero was, like Achilles, a pupil of the centaur Cheiron, and 
became the patron of medicine. Plato's philosophy is medi- 
cine for the soul or mind. 

' For this legend of Plato's birth see Diogenes Laertius, 
iii. 2. 

■* A Platonist, as appears also from his speech in Question 
2 below (718 c). C/. 728 e. • Homer, Iliad, xxiv. 258. 

115 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(717) Tov 8e^ deiov SeSia firj So^rj rw a<j>d6.pT(x)^ [xdx^aOat, 
TO yewcbv ovx ^ttov rj to yevvwfJLCvov fiCTa^oXr] 
F yap Ti? Kal avrrj /cat Trddos' a>s ttov /cat 'AAe'^ar- 
hpo£ VTrevorjaev, cIttwv p^aXiara Ovtjtov /cat <f>Bafyr6v 
€7nyLVcocrK€iv iavrov iv rai avyyiveaOai yvvaiKi /cat 
KadevBetv, (hs rov jxev imvov evSocret yivofjLevov vrr^ 
aadevecag, yeveaiv 8e Trdaav oIkclov tivo? ei? erc- 
718 pov eKaraaiv Kal <f)dopdv^ ovaav. dvadappaj Se 
TTCtAtv avTov IlXdrcuvos dKovcov Trarepa /cat TTocrjrrjV 
TOV T€ KoajjLOV Kal Twv ttAAcuv yewi^Toiv tov dyeVv?^- 
Tov Kal dt'Stov ^eoi' drojad^ovTOS", ov Sid OTrepyLaTOS 
Stjttou yevofMevoiv, dXXrj Se hvvdpxc tov deov ttj 
vXrj yovtfiov dpx'TjV, V(f)* "^s €7ra^ev /cat fxeTc^aXev, 

ivTCKOVTOS' 

X-qdovai* ydp tol Kaveixcov Ste^oSot 
d-qXcLav opvLV, TrXrjv orav Traprj tokos. 

Kal ouSev otofiai Setvdv, el fir] TrAr^aid^cDr d deos 
watrep dvdpoiTTos, dAA' CTepats Tialv ct^at? 8t' 
€T€pa)v Kal ijjavaeai TpeTrei Kal v7T07rtp,7TXr]ai deio- 
Tepas yovrjg to Ovtjtov. ' /cat ovk e/xd? d fivOos,' 
B cIttcv, " dAA' AlyvTTTtot TOV T ^Attiv ovTiog Xox^iJ€- 

^ he Meziriacus : yap. 

* d<f>ddpT(p Xylander (in his translation) : <}>dafyTa>. 

* Kcu <f>dopa.v Reiske : KaTa<l>6opdv, 

* X^^dovm Gomperz {cf. Diog. Laert. iv. 35) : TrXijdovai. 

" Cf. Life of Alexander, xxii. 677 b, Mor. 65 f. 

^ e.^., Timaeus, 28 c. 

' Sophocles, frag. 436 Nauck, 477 Pearson ; also cited by 
Diogenes Laertius, iv. 35. Sophocles seems to be alluding to 
the notion that " wind-eggs " (laid without previous copula- 

116 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 1, 717-718 

But I suspect that begetting is no less inconsistent 
with the immortality of the dixine than is being be- 
gotten. For it, too, is a kind of change, and a vicissi- 
tude. This seems to have been in Alexander's mind, 
also, when he said he recognized most clearly that 
he was mortal and perishable during the time he lay 
vrith a woman or slept," because sleep comes as the 
result of a \ielding, through weakness, and all genera- 
tion is the destruction and transformation of some- 
thing of one's own into something different, I am 
reassured when I hear Plato himself naming the un- 
created and eternal god as the father and maker of 
the cosmos and of other created things.*" They were 
created not through semen, surely ; it was by a dif- 
ferent potency that God begot in matter the principle 
of generation, under whose influence it became re- 
ceptive and was transformed. 

The hen knows not the passing of the winds. 
Except when brooding-time is near. ' 

And I do not find it strange if it is not by a physical 
approach, like a man's, but by some other kind of 
contact or touch, by other agencies, that a god alters 
mortal nature and makes it pregnant with a more di- 
vine offspring. ' Not mine the tale,' " ^ he said in con- 
clusion, " but the Eg)-ptians say that Apis is brought 

tion) were the result of impregnation of the female by the 
winds. (The " passing of the winds " is through the hen's 
body.) This explanation is apparently not accepted by 
Aristotle, De Gen. Animal, iii. 1 (749 a So S.), Historia 
Animal, vi. 2 (560 a 5 fF.). Plutarch is, of course, comparing 
the hen's unawareness with that of a mortal woman impreg- 
nated in a mystical or spiritual way, by a god. (It is doubtful 
whether Sophocles also had in mind the Orphics' primal 
wind-egg, Aristophanes, Birds, 695.) 
•* Euripides, frag. 484 Nauck. 

117 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(718) odai (f>aaiv i7Ta(f)fj rrjs aeXi^vrjs, Kal oXcos dppevi 
deep TTpos yvvalKa dvqrrjv dnoXeiTrovaLV opLiXiav 
dvaTTaXiv 8' ovk dv otovrai dvqrov dvSpa drjXela 
deep TOKOV /cat Kvqaews dpx^v 'napaa)(elv hid ro 
TO,? ovaias^ rtov Oecov iv dept /cat TTvevpLaaiv Kal 
Ttcrt Oepp.orqai /cat vyporrjai, rideadai." 

nPOBAHMA B 

Hois' UXaTwv eAeye tov dfof dei yeto/ierpetv; 

Collocuntur Diogenianus, Plutarchus, Tyndares, Florus, 
Autobulus 

1. 'E/c 8e rovTov yevofMevrjg atiOTTrjg, TrdXiv 6 
Aioyeviavos dp^dfievos, " ^ovXead^ ," elirev, " enel 
C XoyoL 7T€pl decov yeyovaatv, ev roZs WXdTOJVos 
yevedXioLS avrov WXarcova kolvcdvov 7rapaXd^cx}p,ev, 
€7naK€i/jdp,€voi riva AajScuv yvujp/qv dTT€<j)iqvar^ act* 
yeatpierpelv tov deov; et ye Sr) deriov elvai ttjv 
d7T6(f>aai,v TavTTjv YiXdrcovos." 

'E/xoy 8e ravT eirrovTos dis yeypaTrrai p,ev iv 
ovSevl Ga(j>u)S rdjv CKeivov ^v^Xlcdv, €)(€(, he iriariv 
iKavTjv /cat TOV UXaTCuviKov ^apaKT^jpos ccttiv, 
evdvs VTToXa^ojv 6 Tvv8dp7}s , 

" Oiei yct/>/' eiTTev, " a> Aioyeviave, tcuv Trepir- 
TcDv Tt /cat SvaOetop'qTcov alviTTeadat, tov Xoyov, 
ovx drrep avro? €Lp7]K€ Kal yiypa(f>ev TroXXaKis, 

^ ovaias Junius : dvalas. 
* del added by Meziriacus, 

" Apis was the sacred bull, the earthly incarnation of 
Osiris. On his birth cf. Plutarch, De hide, xliii. 368 c, and 
Herodotus, iii. 28. He was sometimes identified by the 
Greeks with Epaphus, the son of the cow-maiden lo and of 

118 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 1-2, 718 

to birth by a touch of the moon,'* and in general they 
allow sexual intercourse mth a mortal woman to a 
male god, but in the contrary case they would not 
think that a mortal man could impart to a female 
dixinity the principle of birth and pregnancy,* because 
they think that the substance of the gods consists of 
air and breath, and of certain heats and moistures." 



QUESTION 2 

What Plato meant by saying that God is always 
doing geometry. 

Speakers : Diogenianus, Plutarch, Tyndares, Floras, 
Autobulus 

1. After this a silence fell. Diogenianus, making a 
new start, said, " If you please, let us on Plato's 
birthday take Plato himself as partner in the con- 
versation, and since we have spoken about the gods, 
consider what he had in mind when he asserted that 
God is always doing geometry — if indeed this state- 
ment is to be attributed to Plato." 

I remarked that while this statement is not made 
expUcitly in any of Plato's wTitings, it is well enough 
attested and is in harmony wth his character, and 
Tyndares immediately took up the argument : 

Do you think, Diogenianus, that this saying con- 
ceals a reference to some recondite or difficult doc- 
trine, and not merely to what he himself said and 
wrote many times, when he sang the praise of 

Zeus ; c/. Plutarch's word enauftij (" touch ") here, and note 
Aeschylus, Prometheus, 848 f. 

*" Plutarch rejects this distinction, Life of Numa, iv. 4, on 
the ground that " intercourse is a reciprocal matter, and . . . 
both parties to it enter into a like communion." 

119 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(718) , . , , , . c . 

y. Vfwcov YCCDfjueTpiav (09 aTToaTTcoaav rjfias Trpoa-iaxo- 

ixevovs^ rfj alad-qcret /cat arroaTpi^ovaav cttl ttjv 

vorjTrjv /cat diSiov (f)vaiv, ■^s dea reXos earl (fttXo- 

ao<f)las olov eTroTrreta TcXeri]? ; 6 yap rjSovrjs 

/cat dXyrjSovos '^Ao?, <L Trpos to crcbixa ttjv i/jv)(7)v 

vpoarjXol, pbiyiarov /ca/cov ^yeLv colkcv to to. al- 

adrjTa TToielv ivapyearepa rcbv vo-qrcov /cat Kora- 

Pidt,€adaL TTadei^ p,aXXov 'q Xoyo) Kpiveiv ttjv 8id- 

voiav edityOpAvr) yap vno rov a(f>6Spa voveiv /cat 

yjSeadai rat Trepl rd acofiara TrXavrjTcp /cat fiera- 

^XrjTU) TTpoai-xjeiv ws ovtl rov dXrjdcos ovros 

TvcfyXovrai /cat to ' [xvpicov ' dvTo^iov ' ofijxdTCDV ' 

E opyavov ^v^^s Kal <f>eyyos dTToXXvaiv, <L fiovco 

deaTov ecrrt to delov. irdai p,kv ovv rot? KaXov- 

fjLevois fjuad'^ijiaaiv, a>a7T€p doTpa^iai /cat Aeiot? 

KaTOTTTpoLS, €/>t<^atVeTat T'qg ruiv vor^Tcbv dXrjdeLas 

Lxvrj /cat etScoAa- [xdXiaTa Be yew/JLeTpta Kara tov 

OtAoAaov' dpxr] Kal pLrfTpoTToXis ovaa tcov dXXcov 

€7Tavdy€i /cat arpe^eL ttjv Sidvoiav, olov CKKadaipo- 

fj,4v7]v /cat dTToXvofJuevTjv drpe'/za ttjs alad-qaecos . 8to 

/cat riAarcov auro? iixepupaTo Tovg Trepl EySo^or 

/cat ^ApxvTav Kal Merat;^/Ltov ets" opyavtKas Kal 

[MT^xo-viKas /caracr/ceua? rov tov arepeov StTrAaaia- 

^ TTpoaiaxofj-evovs Turnebus : ■npourxofievovs. 

' TrdOei Xylander : »cat irdBei. 

' (DiXoXaov Hubert : ^D^wva previous editors : <f>iXaov T. 

" As the celebrant passes through lesser rites to ascend to 
the highest initiation, in which he is privileged to " view " 
the sacred secrets, so the philosopher passes, with the help 
of geometry, from study of physical objects to the vision of 
the ideas. 

* Phaedo, 83 p ; " Every pleasure and pain has a kind of 

120 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 2, 718 

geometry for dra\sing us away from the world of 
sense to which we cling, and turning us toward the 
intelligible and eternal level of existence, the con- 
templation of which is the goal of philosophy, as 
being a ' \iewer ' is the goal of a mystery-rite ? " 
For the nail of pleasure and pain, by which he repre- 
sents the soul as fastened to the body,'' seems to have 
this as its greatest disadvantage, that it makes the 
objects of sense-perception clearer than those of 
intellectual knowledge, and forces the understanding 
to judge by emotion rather than by reason. Being 
habituated, through the experience of intense pain 
and pleasure, to paying heed to the shifting and 
changeable aspects of physical things, as though they 
were true being, the understanding is bUnded to 
truth and loses that organ — that Ught A^ithin the 
mind, worth ' thousands of eyes,' " by which alone 
the divine may be contemplated. Now in all of the 
so-called mathematical sciences, as in smooth and 
undistorted mirrors, there appear traces and ghost- 
images of the truth about objects of intellectual 
knowledge ; but geometry especially, being, as 
Philolaiis says, the source and mother-city of the 
rest,** leads the understanding upward and turns it in 
a new direction, as it undergoes, so to speak, a com- 
plete purification and a gradual deliverance from 
sense-perception. It was for this reason that Plato 
himself reproached Eudoxus and Archytas and 
Menaechmus for setting out to remove the problem 
of doubhng the cube into the realm of instruments 

nail, and nails and pins her [the soul] to the body, and gives 
her a bodily nature, making her think that whatever the 
body says is true " (tr. Church). 

* Plato, Republic, vii. 527 e. 

'' Diels-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok.', 44 A 7 a. 

121 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(718) ceiJLov aTTayeiv inix^ipovvras, oiOTtep^ Tretpcofievovs 
Six'^ Aoyou* Svo fxeaas dva Xoyov, ^' TrapeiKoi, Xa- 
¥ jSetv (XTroXXvadat yap ovrw /cat Sia(f)deLpea6at, to 
yewpLerpias dyadov avdis cttI rd aladrjrd TraXivSpo- 
pLovarjs Kal jxrj (fyepopLevrjs dvo) /xt^S' dvTiXapL^avo- 
puevrjs Twv o.iStcoi' Kal dacopidrajv eiKOVOJV, irpos 
alcnrep aJv 6 deos del deos iariv." 

2. Mera Se rov Tvv8dpr]v 6 ^Xwpos, iralpos wv* 
719 oiVTOv Kal TTpoGTroLovpLevos del fxerd TratSta? ipaarrjs 
elvac Kal (j>daKO)v, " covrjaas," e^f], " rov Xoyov ov 
aeavTov TToirjadpevog dXXd kolvov iXey^at yap 
eSca/ca? avrov dTToSeiKvvovra firj deols ovaav aAA' 
7]filv dvayKaiav rrjv yecopberpiav ov yap tl ttov Kal 
deo? Setrat pLad-rjixaTos olov opydvov aTpe<j>ovros 
diTo Tcov yevrjTiov Kal Treptdyovros cttI rd ovra t7]v 
Sidvoiav iv avTcp yap eariv eKeivco Kal avv avrcp 
Kal 7T€pl avrov. dAA' opa pLX] rt aoi TrpoorJKOv 6 
IlAaTCDy Kal oIk€lov alvcrrofievos XeXi^dev, are Srj 
TO) HcoKpdrei rdv AvKovpyov dvafiiyvvs ovx '^rrov 
rj Tov Hvdayopav, cu?* cpero AiKatap^os- 6 yap 
AvKovpyog oiada SyjTTovdev on ttjv dpidp,7]rLKr)v 
B dvaXoyCav, (Ls SrjpiOKpaTLKT^v Kal oxXlktjv ovaav, 
i^e^aXev €k rrjs AaKeSaipLovos , iTreLcrrjyayev Se rrjv 

^ wairep Turnebus : orrep. 

* St'xa Xoyov Wilamowitz : SiaXoyov T : 8i' dXoyov Holwerda. 

' ^ Herwerden : firj. * cuv Basel edition : ijv. 

* ci? added by Osann. 

» Cf. Diels-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok.^, 47 A 15; Plutarch, 
Life of Marcellus, xiv. 

* With the last clause cf. Plato, Phaedrus, 249 c : -npos 
otaiTfp dfos wv deios iariv (" those things a god's nearness 
whereunto makes him truly god," Hackforth). 

" Tyndares is a Spartan. ** Frag. 41 Wehrli. 

122 



TABLE-TALK VIII. 2, 718-719 

and mechanical devices, as if they were trying to 
find two mean proportionals not by the use of reason 
but in whatever way would work." In this way, he 
thought, the advantage of geometry was dissipated 
and destroyed, since it slipped back into the realm 
of sense-perception instead of soaring upward and 
laying hold of the eternal and immaterial images in 
the presence of which God is always God." * 

2. After Tyndares, Florus, who was his close com- 
panion and kept humorously pretending to be in love 
with him, said, " Thank you for not monopolizing 
your argument but sharing it. You have granted us 
the power of refuting it, since you prove that geo- 
metry is necessar}- not for the gods, but for us. For 
surely a god does not need mathematics as an instru- 
ment to turn his understanding from created things 
and bring it to bear on what really exists ! For it is 
in him they exist, by his help, and by connexion 
with him. But consider now whether Plato may not, 
without your noticing, have been hinting at some- 
thing close and familiar to you," because, I mean, he 
combined ^nth the spirit of Socrates that of Lycurgus 
no less than that of Pythagoras (whom Dicaearchus 
suggested).** You know, of course, that Lycurgus 
expelled arithmetical proportion from Lacedaemon, 
because of its democratic and rabble-rousing char- 
acter. He introduced the geometric proportion," 

• On these two kinds of proportion see especially Plato, 
Laves, vi. 757 b, Aristotle, Politics, m. v. 8 ; v. i. 7, Nicoma- 
chean Ethics, ii. vi. 7 ; and cf. Mar. 484 b, 643 c. In the 
arithmetical (like 1 : 2 :: 2 : 3), the terms on both sides differ 
by the same amount ; in the geometric (like 1 : 2 :: 2 : 4), 
they differ by the same proportion. Isocrates {A reopagiticus, 
xxi) maintained that the geometrical proportion was the 
governing principle of the Athenian democracy in its great 
days. 

123 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(719) yecofxerpiK'qv, oXiyapx^a a(x)<f>povi Kal ^aaiXeia 
vofXLfjLrj irpeTTovcrav' rj fxev yap dpLdp,u> ro taov rj Se 
Xoyo) TO /car' d^iav OLTTovefiet' Kal ov vdvd^ ofxov 
fiiyvvcnv, aAA' eariv ;(p7yCTTa>v /cat TTovrjpcjv evarjfjios 
€v avrij Sta/cpicrts', ov l^vyols ovSe KX-qpois dpeTrjs 
8e Kal KaKLas hia<j>opa ro otKelov del SiaXayxa- 
vovriDV. ravrrjv 6 deos cTrctyet ttjv dvaXoycav rols 
TTpdyfxacri, SiKrjv Kal vepbeaiv, c5 (^I'Ae Tvvhdpr], Trpoa- 
ayop€vop,€vrjv Kal BiSdoKovaav rjixas to hiKaiov 
Xaov, dXXd pLT] TO taov helv iroieZadat SiKaiov t^v yap 
C ol TToXXol Slmkovolv laoTirjTa, Traacov dhtKicov ovaav 
p,eyiaTrjv, 6 deos e^aipcbv, (Ls dvvarov eari, to /car' 
d^iav St,a(f>vXdTT€t, yetofierpiKaJs rco Kara Xoyov 
t6^ KaTOL vofiov 6ptt,6nevos." 

3. Taf}^' rjixels iTrr)vovp,€v. 6 8e TvvSdpr]? 
(j>doveiv €(f)aaK€v Kal TrapcKaXei tov Avto^ovXov 
dijjaadat OAcopou /cat /coAacrat rov Xoyov. 6 8e 
TovTO fiev drretTTCv, Ihiav hi rti^a ho^av dvTiTTapij- 
yayev. €.(f>7] yap ovtc ttjv yeco/xeTpLav^ dXXov tlvos 
"q t<x)V TTcpl rd rripara o-y/iTrrco/xaTCoy /cat Tradoiiv 
elvat decoprjTLKrjv, ovt€ tov deov eTepo) nvl Tpono) 
KocrfxoTTOieLV 'q irepaTOVVTa Tfjv vXr]v aTreipov ovaav, 
D ov fjLeyedet Kal TrXriOei, Sta §' dra^iav /cat TTXrjp,- 
fieXciav avT7]s to dopiOTOv /cat aTTepaTOJTov dveipov 
elojdoTcov KaXclv tcSv TraAatcDv. /cat yap r] fxop(f)rj 

^ TO Wyttenbach : koI. 

* ovre Tr]v yfcufxeTpiav Xylander : ovtottov yeai/xcTpcti' T : 
ovre ro yecoixeTpelv T*. 

" One of the three sons of Plutarch known by name. He 
124 



TABLE-TALK VIII. 2, 719 

which is appropriate to a moderate oUgarchy or a 
lawful monarchy. The arithmetical distributes an 
equal amount to each, measuring by number, where- 
as the geometric distributes to each an amount 
corresponding to his worth, measuring by proportion. 
It does not mix ever^-thing together, but has within 
it a clear principle of distinction between good and 
bad ; people receive their due not as the balance or 
the lot directs, but always by the distinction of good 
and bad in them. This is the proportion that God 
appUes in the judgement of our actions, my dear 
T}'Tidares. It is given the names of justice and retri- 
bution, and teaches us to consider justice equal (fair) 
but not to consider equality justice. The equaUty 
which the mob seeks, which is in reality the greatest 
injustice of all, God roots out, as far as is feasible ; 
and he maintains distinction by worth, setting the 
proportionate relation, in geometrical fashion, as the 
standard of la\\'fulness." 

3. When the rest of us applauded this speech, 
Tyndares pretended to be jealous, and called upon 
Autobulus " to tackle Florus and chastise him for his 
words. This he declined to do, but he brought 
forward a contrary argument of his o^\'n. He said 
that geometry has no other subject than the proper- 
ties and characteristics of limits, and that God in the 
process of world-making uses no other method than 
that of imposing limitation on matter, which is by 
itself unlimited. The ancients used the term " un- 
limited " of the unbounded and indeterminate char- 
acter of matter, not "with reference to size or number 
but because of its lack of order and harmony. For 

had at least five children {RE, s.v. " Plutarchos (2)," cols. 
648-651). 

125 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(719) Kal TO axVH'^ Trepan earl rod iMefjiop<f)OJ[jievov^ /cat 
eaxfJIJ-OLTLaixevov Travros, cov aTepi^aei Ka9^ avTTjv 
dfiop^os '^v Kal dax'^P'O.r LOTOS' dpidpitov Se /cai 
Xoyoiv iyyevofievcov, olov Se^etaa /cat TrepiArj^^etaa 
ypaixpLOLS e/c Se rcDr ypa^fxojv eTTCTTeSoLS /cat ^ddeatv, 
etSr) TO. TTpcoTa /cat Sia(f)opds crcofxaTcov warrep 
defieXiiov Trapeax^v irpos yiveaiv depos /cat yijs 
vSaTos T€ /cat TTvpos' OKTaeSpcov yap Kal eiKoaa- 
ehpotiv, €Ti Se TTVpafMiScov Kal kv^cov laoTi^Tas iv 

E TrXevpats Kal ojxotoTTjTas iv ycoviais Kal dpfiovias 
dvaax^iv i^ vXrjs drct/CTOu Kat TrXavrjTrjs dvev tov 
rrepLopit^ovTO? Kal hiapdpovvTOS e/cacTa yeaz/xerpi- 
/coD? aTTopov rjv Kal dSvvaTov. odev dTreipcp TrepaTOS 
iyyevojjiivov to irdv rjpfxoafjievov Kal KCKpafxevov 
apiOTa Kat ireTrepacrixdvov yeyovev re Kat ytverat, 
rrjs jxev vXr)g del ^ta^o/xevT^s" els to doptOTov dva- 
SvvaL Kal <f)€vyovar)s to yeix)p,eTpeZadai, tov Se 
Xoyov KaraXan^dvovTos avTTjv Kal 7T€pt,ypd(f>ovTos 
/cat hiavifiovTos els ISeas Kal Sia(f>opds, e^ oJv ra 
(f)v6fjieva Trdvra tt^v yeveaiv eax^v Kal avoTaaiv. 
4. 'Em TOVTOLS prjdeZaiv r^^iovv Kal ifie auftjSaAc- 

F CT^ai Tt TTpos TOV Xoyov avToXs. eycj Se Tas fiev 
etprjixevas So^as d)s WayeveZs Kal iSia? avTCOv 
CKeivcov errifiveaa Kal to elKos e^i)v ex€i,v iKavcos' 
" oTTcos S'," elTTov, " eavToJv [xt] KaTa<f)povrjTe ffJ^S' 
€^6t) pXe7rr)T€ TravTctTraCTtv, d/coucraTe tov jxaXioTa 
TTapd TOLS KadrjyrjTals rjucov evBoKLfxovvTa Trepl 
720 TOVTOV Xoyov. ecrrt yap iv tols yecopierpiKajTaTois 

^ fiefiop<f>u)nevov Stephanus : fiop<f>ovntvov. 
126 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 2, 719-720 

shape or arrangement is always a limit imposed on 
the material that is shaped or arranged. Without 
this process it was, by itself, shapeless and dis- 
organized. WTien numbers and ratios have been 
generated in it, matter is imprisoned, as it were, and 
encompassed by lines and by the figures generated 
by lines, that is solid figures, so that it furnishes the 
primary' kinds and distinct forms of bodies, which 
are the foundations, so to speak, for the genesis of 
air and earth, water and fire. Octahedra and icosa- 
hedra, as well as pyramids and cubes, have equalities 
among their sides and similarities among their angles, 
and proportions which could not possibly have arisen 
from disorderly and erratic matter ^^ithout that 
which defines their shapes and articulates their parts, 
by geometrical rule. Thus from the time when hmit 
was generated within the unlimited, the universe has 
been and is being perfectly harmonized and blended 
and defined. Matter is always struggling to break 
out into unboundedness, and seeking to avoid being 
subjected to geometry ; but reason seizes upon it 
and encloses it in lines and marshals it in the patterns 
and distinctions which are the source and origin of 
all that comes to be." 

4. After this speech they asked me also to con- 
tribute something to the argmnent. I praised the 
views expressed as genuine products of their own 
conception, and said that they had sufficient plausi- 
bility. " But," I said, " that you may not neglect 
your own school, nor depend entirely on others, listen 
to the explanation of this phrase which is most highly 
approved among our professors. Now among the 

» The cosmology of this paragraph is derived from Plato's 
Timaem. For the " regular solids " see especially 53 c. 

127 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(720) decop-qfiaaiv, /zoAAov 8e TrpojSAi^/xaCTt, to Svelv elScbv 
BodevTOJV dXXo rpiTov^ irapa^aXXeLv rat {xev taov 
Tip S' o/jLolov i(f)' (L /cat <j>aaiv e^evpeSivTL dvaai 
Tov Ylvdayopav ttoXv yap dfjueXcL yXa<f)vpa)T€pov 
TOVTO /cat fjLovoLKioTepov €Keivov TOV decoprjjjiaTog, 
o TTjv V7TOT€LVovaav (XTTeSet^ev rat? Trepl Trjv opdrjv 
laov 8vvap.€vr)v." 

Kv Xiyeis," elrrev 6 Aioyeviavos, " dXXd Tt 
TOVTO TTpos TOV Xoyov; " 

EicrecT^e paSicos," eiTTOv, " dvafjivqaavTes avTOvg 
TTJg iv TtfiaLCp SiatpecreaJS", f) StetAe Tpi)(f} ^d trpchd^ , 
v(f>^ c5v TTjv yevecTLv 6 Koapios ea)(ev, cov to p,€V deov 

B TU) SlKaiOTOLTCp TWV OVOpO-TOiV TO 8' vXfjV TO 8' 

ISeav KoXovpiev. rj p,€V ovv vXrj Ta>v UTro/ceijLtevojv 
dra/CTOTaTOV eoTiv, rj 8' tSea tcov TrapaSeiypaTcov 
KaXXiOTOV, 6 Se deos tcov acTLcov dpiOTOV. e^ovXeT 
ovv p.Tjdev, CO? dwoTov rjv, v7toXl7T€lv dxpi^cTTov^ /cat 
dopiGTOv, oAAd Koaprjaat Xoycp /cat jxeTpcp /cat 

dpidpL(h TTjV (f)VCn,V, €V Tl TTOtdJV e/C TrdvTCOV OflOV Tlt)V 

v7TOK€tp,€vcov, olov Tj t8ea /cat oaov rj vXr] yev6p,€vov. 
8td TOVTO TTp6^Xrjp,a 8ov? avTcp, hveZv ovtojv TpiTov 
iTTOLfjae /cat TTotet /cat ^uAarret 8td TravTOS to taov 
TT] vXt] /cat opioiov T7^ t8ea tov Koafiov del yap d)v 
Std TTjv avpxf)VTOv dvdyKTjv tov acofiaTos iv yevecrei 
/cat peTaTpoTTrj /cat Trddeat TravToSaTrols vno tov 
TTaTpos /cat hrjpLiovpyov ^orjdeiTaL Tip Xoycp Trpos 

^ oAAo rpiTov Xylander : aXXorpiov. 
* dxpyjorov Post : opiarov. 

" Euclid, Elements, vi. 25. 

' Not simply a reference to Timaeus, 48 e ff. (as Hubert), 
where the three elements are the pattern, the copy, and space, 

1S8 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 2, 720 

most characteristic theorems, or rather problems, of 
geometry is this : given two figures, to construct a 
third equal to one and similar to the other." They 
say, in fact, that Pythagoras offered sacrifice when 
he solved this problem ; for it is surely much more 
elegant and inspired than that famous theorem which 
gave the proof that the square on the hypotenuse is 
equal to the sum of the squares on the sides enclosing 
the right angle." 

No doubt," said Diogenianus, " but what has it 
to do with our discussion ? " 

" You will easily see the point," I repUed, " if you 
recall the threefold di\'ision, in the Timaeus,^ of the 
first principles from which the cosmos came to birth. 
One of them we call, by the most appropriate of 
names, God, one matter, and one form. Matter is the 
least ordered of substances, form the most beautiful 
of patterns, and God the best of causes. Now God's 
intention was, so far as possible, to leave nothing un- 
used or unformed, but to reduce nature to a cosmos 
by the use of proportion and measure and number, 
making a unity out of all the materials which would 
have the quality of the form and the quantity of the 
matter. Therefore, having set himself this problem, 
these two being given, he created a third, and still 
creates and preserves throughout all time that 
which is equal to matter and similar to form, namely, 
the cosmos. Being continuously involved in becom- 
ing and shifting and all kinds of events, because of its 
congenital forced association with its body, the cosmos 
is assisted by the Father and Creator, who, by means 
of reason, and with reference to the pattern, gives 

but reminiscent of the account of creation by the Demiurge 
in 29 E fF. 

VOL. IX F 129 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(720) TO TTapaSeiyixa ttjv ovaiav 6pit,ovros' fj Kal kolXXlov 
Tov avfJi/jLerpov to Trepl jxcrpov^ roJv ovtcov." 

nPOBAHMA r 

Collocuntur Ammonius, Boethus, Plutarchus, Thrasyllus, 
Aristodemus 

1. Qopv^os Ti?, iartiDpievojv rjp,cov ^Ad-qvrjai Trap' 
^Ap,fjicovLCp, rrjv oLKtav 7TepLr]-)(rjaev, e^codev eVt^oco- 
fjievcov TOV (JTpaT7]y6v' iaTpaT-qyeu Se to TpiTOv 6 
D ^ ApLiioiVLOS . eTTcl Se TTejjUpas tcov irepl avTOV Tivas 
CTTavae tt^v Tapax^jv /cat Trape-nepL^av tovs avdpo)- 
TTOvs, il^rjTovpbev -qpLels, Sta tL tojv e^codev ^ocjvtiov 
avve^aKovovaiv ol evTog ol S e^co tcov ivTog ov^ 

OpiOLCxiS. 

Kat o 'A/x/i,c6vto? e(f)ri tovto p.ev vtt 'ApiOTOTC- 
Xovs XeXvcrdai- ttjv yap (fxjivrjv tcov evSov e^io 
<l)€pop4v7]v €1? depa ttoXvv Kal avaTTCTTTapivov evdvs 
e^apavpovadai Kal hiaoTTelpeadai, ttjv S' e^codev 
etooj K-aTtoOoav ovhev tolovto 7rao;\;e(,v aAAa avv- 
€)(eaQaL Kal 8ta/xeVetv evarjpov CKetvo Se pdXXov 
Xoyov Setcr^at, to vvkto? rjxojSeaTepas elvac Tas 
(fxjjvas Kal TTpos Tcp peyedei ttjv TpavoTrjTa Kadapcos 
avvhLa<f>vXaTTGi,v . " ipol pev ovv," €L7T€v, " ov 
E (f)avXa>9 rj Trpovoia So/cet pep-qxavrjadac ttj aKofj 
aa(jirjveiav , ot€ ttjs oipeojg ovSev -q KopiSfj Tt piKpov 

^ TO nepl fierpov Jones : to irepifieTpov. 

" On text and sense of the last sentence see R. M. Jones, 
Class. Philol. vii (1912), pp. 76 f., Plato, Philebus, 66 a-b. 

* An Athenian, head of the Academy and Plutarch's 
teacher in philosophy. {RE, s.v. " Plutarchos (2)," cols. 

130 



TABLE-TALK VIII. 2-3, 720 

limits to that which exists. Thus the aspect of 
measure in things is even more beautiful than their 
symmetry." " 

QUESTION 3 

Why sounds carry better at night than in the daytime. 

Speakers : Ammonius, Boethus, Plutarch, Thrasyllus, 
Aristodemus 

]. Once when we were dining at Ammonius'* house 
in Athens, the noise of some disturbance sounded 
through the house. A crowd outside was shouting 
for the general. (Ammonius was serving his third 
term in this office.) After he had sent some of his 
attendants and put an end to the disturbance by 
sending the people away, we discussed the question 
why those inside hear clearly people shouting out- 
doors, while persons outside do not hear those inside 
so well. 

Ammonius said that this problem had been solved 
by Aristotle.*' The voice of persons indoors, he said, 
moving out into a large mass of air and spreading out, 
is at once obscured and dissipated, but a voice from 
outside coming in is not so affected, but is kept intact 
and remains intelligible. The fact which needed ex- 
planation, continued Ammonius, was rather that 
voices are more sonorous at night and preserve not 
only their volume but the precise articulation. " To 
me," he said, " it seems a fine stroke of Providence 
to have given accuracy to our hearing at the time 
when we have no use — or at most very little — of our 

651-653.) On the office of strategos (" general "), see note to 
ix. 1. 736 D. 

« Problemata, 903 b 13 ff. 

131 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(720) epyov eari' ctkotcivos yap lov 6 d'qp /car' 'E/iTrc- 
So/fAea ' VVKTOS eprjixairjs dXacoTTtSos,'^ oaov rojv 
oybp^drcov d^aipetrat rod Trpoataddveadai , Bid tcDv 
ajTOJV dTToSiSojaiv . €7ret Se Set /cat rd 8t' avayKrjs 
(f>vaet TTepawopLGva rwv alriojv dvevpiaKeiv /cat 
TOVTO Tov (f)vaLKov iStov ioTiv, 'q TTepl TO.? uAi/ca? 
/cat opyavLKag dp^dg Trpay/xareta, rt? av," e(f>'q, 

TTpcoTos vfiatv evTTop'qaetev Xoyov rd TTtOavov 
exovros; " 

2. 'HCTu;^tas' Se yevofxevqs BorjOos ecfyrj veos /xev 
c5v en /cat aocfuGrevcov aTro yecoixerpias ainqp^aai 
XprjaQai /cat Xap,^dveiv dvaTToBecKTovs VTToOeaeLS, 
F fuj^t 8e ;^/37^CTeCT^at rtai roiv TrpoaTroSeSeiy/xeVcDV utt 
'ETTt/coypoy. " ^e'perat to, ovt' ev roi JL117 ovTf 
TToAii ya/) /cevov ivSieaTrapTai /cat [xefiLKrai, rdls tov 
depos aro/Ltot?' orav yitev ouv 17 8ta/ce;^f)U,eVos' K'at 
TrActTO? e;(a>v /cat Trepihpop/r^v vtto ixavorrfros , jjuKpd 
/cat AeTTTCi TCt p.era^v rcbv /xoplcov /ceva AetTrerat 
721 /cat TToAA-i^v at drofxoi KaTeaTrapjxevai ;\;c6pav' gtt- 
exovaiv orav 8e avaraXfj /cat iriXrjais eis" oAtyov 
auTcDv yevqrai /cat avp.7Teacoacv d-no^iaadeZaaL Trpos 
aAAT7Aas", ttoAAt^v cvpvxojplav e^co Kal SiacrTdaeis 
fieydXag TTOiovaiv, rovro Se yti'trai vu/cro? utto 
i/jvxpdrrjros' rj ydp depixoTTj^ X^^9- '^^^^ hUarrjacv 
/cat Au€( ra? TTVKVtoaeLs, 8to irXeiova tottov ra 
^eovra /cat ^aAacrcrd/xeva /cat Tr)K6p.€va tcx)v aoi- 
fiaTiov eTTtAa/x^avef /cat Tourai^Tt'ov ay TraAtv ra 
Tnjyvvjxeva /cat ifjvxdpi^va avyx<^p€L Trpos dXXrjXa 

^ aXaa>in8os Xylander : dyXacoiriBos. 

" Frag. 49 Diels-Kranz. 

' These things are accomplished because of the will of 

132 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 3, 720-721 

vision. For the air when it is dark (as Empedocles " 
says, ' in the desolate, blind-eyed night ') repays us 
through our ears for whatever it takes away from our 
eyes of their power to see ahead. But since we must 
also investigate the causes which operate by the in- 
evitable process of nature,* and since the proper 
task of the physical scientist is to study material and 
instrumental principles, which of you first," he said, 
" will supply us with a convincing solution ? " 

2. When silence fell, Boethus '^ said that when he 
was still young and occupied with academic pursuits, 
he had been accustomed to using postulates and 
adopting unproved assumptions, after the manner of 
geometry, but that he would now employ some of the 
demonstrated doctrines of Epicurus.** " Existing 
things are borne about in the non-existent. There is 
a great deal of void interspersed and mingled with 
the atoms of air. Now when air is dispersed and has 
scope and motility because of its loose structure, the 
empty spaces left between the particles are small 
and narrow and the atoms, being scattered, fill a good 
deal of space, but when it is compressed and the 
atoms are crowded into a small space, and are forced 
close together, they leave plenty of space outside 
and make the intervals large. This is what happens 
at night, under the influence of cold. For warmth 
loosens and separates and dissolves concentrations, 
which is why bodies when boiling or softening or 
melting take up more room, while on the other hand 
the particles in freezing and cooling bodies join to- 

Providence, but through intermediate, material causes, 
which may be investigated by the scientist. 

' An Epicurean, and apparently a close friend of Plutarch. 
See above, v. 1 : De Pythias Oraculis, Mor. 396 d. 

'' Frag. 323 Usenet. 

133 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(721) Kai avvdyeraL /cat aTToAeiTrei^ Kevorrjras iv rols 
7T€pi€xovaLV ayyeioL'S Kal tottovs^ e^ &v uttokc- 

B x^priKGV . rj 8e (fxovrj 7Tpoa(f)€pofX€V'q Kal Trpoarvy- 
XO-voucra acofiaoL ttoXXoIs Kal ddpooig ■^ rv(j>Xovrai 
TTavTaTTaaiv •^ StaCTTracr/Ltara Xa/JL^dvei jxeydXa Kal 
TToXXdg dvTtKpova'€LS Kal Siar/st^Sas" iv Se /cevoj /cat 
acofidrcov iprjixco StaCTTTy/Ltart Aetov hp6px>v exovaa 
Kal avvex'fj xal aTrraiarov e^t/cvetrai Trpos" Tr]v 
aKO'qv, VTTo rd^ovs afxa rip Xoyco Siaacpt,ovaa rrjv 
aacf)rjV€Lav. opas yap on Kal rcbv dyyeicnv rd Keva 
TrXiqTTopLeva fidXXov VTiaKovei rats'* TrXrjyaZs Kal rov 
rixov aTTOTetVet /ixa/cpav, TroAAa/cis' Se /cat kvkXco 
7T€pi(f)€p6pi€Vov 8iaStSa;crt ttoXv' to 8' dyyelov e/x- 

C TrXiqadev iq arepeov acoparos rj rivos vypov Travrd- 
Ttaaiv yiverai Kco(f>6v Kai dvavhov, ohov ovk exovat]'; 
ovhk x^P^^ fi Stetcrt rrjs (f)a)vrJ5. avrcov 8e ra)v 
aojpdroiv XP^^^^ P'^'^ '^<^^ Xidos vtto TTXrjpoTrjTos 
laxvo(f>cx)va Kal hvarjxri Kal raxv Karaa^evvvai tovs 
(f)d6yyovs €v avTOLS- evcfxjovos 8e /cat AaAos" o X^^~ 
Kos, fi TToXvKevos Kal oyKov eXa<j)p6s Kal Acttto?, ov 
TToXXols avvredXipup^ivos eTraXXiqXois Gwpaaiv, aAA' 
d(f)dovov excov ro rrjs TrapcLKovar]?* Kal dva<f>ovs 
pepiypevov ovaias, rj rat? t' d'AAat? Kiviqaeaiv ev- 
TTopiav hihwuL r-qv re (J)wvrjv evpievcos vnoXap^d- 

D vovaa TrapaTrepTreL, p^XP'' ^^ dijjdpevo? rig ayairep 
€v oSo) KaraXd^Tj Kal rv<f)Xd)U'rf • ivravda 8 kaTT] 
Kal aTTeTravaaro rov rrpoaoi ;)^a>petr 8ia rr^v dvri- 
(f)pa^LV.^ raur'," €(f)rj, " 8o/cet poL rrjv vvKra TToietv 

^ aTroAeiVct Basel edition : diroActVet Kal. 
* Tonovs Doehner : tottois. ' rats added by Doehner. 

134 



TABLE-TALK MIL 3, 721 

gether more compactly and leave vacuums — spaces 
from which thev have withdrawn — in the vessels 
which hold them. A sound which approaches and 
strikes a large number of particles collected in a mass 
is either silenced completely or undergoes serious 
convulsions and many collisions and delays. But in 
an empty stretch, void of atoms, it travels a smooth, 
continuous, and unimpeded path to the organ of 
hearing, preser\ing, by its velocity, not only the 
sense of the message but its fine detail. You have 
noticed, too, that empty vessels when struck are 
more responsive and send the sound a long way, and 
often the sound goes round and round and there is 
much communication of it ; but a vessel filled either 
yrixh solid matter or -nith some liquid becomes com- 
pletely mute and soundless, since the sound has no 
way or passage by which to go through. Of physical 
bodies themselves, gold and stone, because of their 
compactness, are weak-voiced and dull-sounding, and 
quickly extinguish sounds >\'ithin them, but bronze 
is melodious and vocal, because it has much empty 
space A\'ithin its structure and is light and fine in its 
spatial mass, not constricted by crowding particles, 
but containing an abundance of yielding and impal- 
pable substance. This gives easy passage to other 
motions and especially to sound, recei\ing it hospitably 
and speeding it on its journey, until someone, like a 
highway-robber, seizes and detains and blindfolds it. 
There it comes to a halt, ceasing to move on because 
of the obstruction. This," concluded Boethus, " is 
in my opinion what makes the night sonorous and the 

■• TTCLpeiKOvoTjs Uscncr : tTrieiKovs. 

* TiMf>Xcoar] L sener : t. to kcvov. 

* aini<l>pa^iv Xylander : dyrinpa^iv. 

135 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(721) rjxcjoSrj, TTfV 8' rjfjLcpav -^ttov, dep^oTqri koX 8ia;^u- 
a€t} Tov dejoos" fitKpa' to. SiaarTJuara rcov dro- 
fjLOiV TTOLOvaav (jiovov," €(f)rj, " [MrjSels ivtaTdado) 
TTpos rds TTpoiTas VTTodeaeis." 

3. KdyaS, tov * A/jifxcoviov KeXevovros emeiv ri 
irpos avTov, " at [xev Trpajral croi rcov inrodecreiov," 
€(f>rjv, " c5 ^t'Ae BoTjde, KaiTrep ttoAu' to k€v6v 
€)(ovaai [xeveraKjav rfj Se (f>a)vfj to k€vov ovk 
opQcb? TTpos acoTrjplav Kal KivrjULV VTrorideade. 
aLOJTTrjs yap oIk€lov /cat rjavx^OLS to dva(f)€.s koI 
E dnades Kal aTrXrjKrov, rj 8e cf)covr) TrXrjyrj acofjiaros 
Sl7]xovs, St7y;^e? 8e ro avfiirades avrco Kal CTvp.<f>ve.s 
evKLVTjTov Se Kal Kov(f)ov Kal o/xaAov /cat VTrrfKoov 
TOV ttXtittovtos* 8t' evToviav Kal avvex^i'O.v, otb? 
fiovos^ €(7tI Trap' -qfxlv 6 drjp' Kal yap vScop Kal yrj 
Kal TTvp d(f)cova Kad^ eavTa, (f)deyyeTai 8e TTvev- 
fxaTOS ejXTTeaovTOS dnavTa Kal ip6(f)ov£ /cat TraTayou? 
draSiScocrtv ;^aA/cai 8e Kevov' p,€v ovSkv jueVeaTtr, 
ofxaXo) 8e TTvev^aTL Kal Aet'o) /ce/cpa/xeVos" evTrXrjKTOS 
i(jTi Kal rjXio^'f]?' €L Be Set tj] oi/jci, TeKfiaipeadai, 
(fyaiveTai fxoiXXov 6 aihripog exojv ti aadpov /cat 
F TToXvKevov Kal TevdprjvcoBe?, eoTi Se /ca/co0a»ro? 
a(f)6Bpa Kal tcDv /xeTaAAt/cdiv /cax^OTaTO?.' ouSev 
ovv eSei TTJ vvktI Trape^^i'V TrpayjxaTa avaTTctJVTas 
avTTJs TOV de'pa /cat crvvTeivovTas iTepcodi 8' av 
Xiopo-S Kal KevoTrjTas aTToXeLTTovTas, coaTrep epbrro- 
Sojv ovTa TTJ (f)covfj TOV dipa Kal cfidelpovTa ttjv 
ovaiav, rjg avTos ovaia Kal aco/xa* /cat SwajUt? eo"Ttv. 

^ Sia^vCTei Usener : SioAuaet. * /juKpa Usener : fiaKpa. 

' KoiTTep TToXv Meziriacus, Paton : nepl ttoXv. 

* irXijrTovTos added by Wyttenbach. 

* fiovos added by Post. 
* Ktvov Basel edition : Kwovfifvwi. 

186 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 3, 721 

day less so. Daytime, by its warmth and the expan- 
sion of the air, makes the intervals between the 
atoms small. Only let no one interpose a veto of my 
basic assumptions." 

3. Ammonius urged me to say something in answer 
to Boethus, so I began, " Let your basic assumptions 
stand, my dear Boethus, though they do have in them 
a good deal of ' emptiness.' But you are incorrect in 
regarding void as a source of the preservation or 
movement of sound. For absence of contact and 
effect and impact is characteristic of silence and in- 
activity, but sound is an impact on a sound-conducting 
body, and a sound-conductor is a body whose parts 
are affected together and are cohesive, but also easily 
moved and volatile and uniform and, because of its 
tension and coherence, responsive to an impact. The 
only example of such a body, an\ong things we know, 
is air. For water and earth and fire are all soundless 
in themselves, but each gives forth with a roar or a 
rattle when struck by a breath of air. There is no 
void in the structure of bronze, but an admixture of 
even and smooth air gives it sensitivity to impact, 
and resonance. If we may judge by appearances, it 
is rather iron that is found to have in its structure an 
element of weakness or porousness or honeycombing, 
and it is most cacophonous, and the least vocal of 
metallic substances. There was no need, accordingly, 
to trouble the night with contraction and increased 
tension of its air, so as to leave passages and vacuums 
elsewhere, as though the air were a hindrance to 
sound or destroyed its substance. Air is itself the 
substance and body and power of sound. 

' Kto^oTttTO? Xylander : Kotxfxuraros. 
* acifia Reiske : axfJiJKi. 

137 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(721) " "Avev Se tovtcdv eSet Srj ttov ras dvcofJidXovs 
vvKTag, olov o/xt;^Ac68ei? /cat hva)(eiyiipov£ , rjxojSe- 
CTrepa? elvai tcov aldpicov /cat KeKpafxevcov ofiaXcos 
722 {Sid TO Sevpo fjLev avvwdeZv rds dropuovs e/cei S' 
odev fieOiaravrai ^((Lpav ep-qpov drroXeiTrecv crcopid- 
rtov), Kal TO Srj irpoxeipoTaTOv, rjpiepav ijjvxpdv 
rj^coSeoTepav efvat vvktos dXeetvrjs /cat depcvrjg- cov 
ov8eT€pov dXrjOes eaTiv. 

" "09ev^ Tov Xoyov tovtov a.TToAeAotTrcos' CTTt- 
^dXXoi TOV ^ Ava^ayopav , vtto tov rjXiov XeyovTa 
KLveladat tov depa KivrjaLV Tpopicodr] /cat naXpiovs 
e^ovcrav, cbs SijXov ecrrt rots" Sta tov ^cotos det 
StaTTOucri ijjTJypiaat piLKpols Kal 6pavp,aatv, d Sij 
Ttve? TiAa? KaXovcnv raur' ovv ^i^crtv o avT^p tt/sos" 
T')7V OeppLOTTjTa GitjOVTa Kal ijiocfyovvTa St' rjpiepas 

B SucrT^/cdou? to) ilf6(/)cp Ta^ (j>Oivds TToieiv, vvktos S 
V(f>UadaL^ TOV adXov avTiov Kal tov rj-)(ov." 

4. 'EjLtoi} Se raur' €L7t6vtos 'ApipLcovLos e07j* 
yeAoioi jLtet' tcrcos" (jyavovpueda, Kal dnqpLOKptTOV 
eXeyx^iv olopuevoi, Kal ^Ava^ayopav eTravopdovodai 
deXovTes- ov pirjv dAA' d^atpereov ye TOiv 'Ara^^a- 
yopov acDpidToyv tov criypiov ovt€. yap indavos ovr 
dvayKatos, dAA' d TpopLos dpKel tcov acopidTCov Kal 
7} KLvrjOis iv Tip (JxjdtI KXovovpievcov Tas <f>ci>vd9 Sta- 
CTTTav /cat Sta/jptTrreiv TvoAAd/cis'. d ydp ary/a, ojarrep 
€Lpr)TaL, CTCu/xa ttj? (j)a>vrjg Kal ovaiav ipLTTapdxoiV 
iavTOV, e'ctv pikv fj ot ad epos, evdvrropa Kal Aeta /cat 
avvex^j TCI tcuv i/j6^a>v pbopta /cat KivrjpiaTa nop- 

C pcodev StaSiSojo-f vrjvrjpLia yap -qx^jSes Kal yaXrjvq, 
138 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 3, 721-722 

" Apart from these points, inequable nights, for 
example cloudy or stormy ones, ought to be by your 
theor}' more sonorous than nights that are clear and 
uniform in composition, because then the atoms are 
forced together in one place, and leave the place 
they are driven from empty of matter. It is also very 
obvious that a cold day would be more sonorous than 
a hot summer night. But neither of these things is 
true. 

" So now I shall leave this argument of yours and 
cite Anaxagoras, who says that the air is moved by 
the sun with a quivering, \ibrating motion, as is clear 
from the little bits and fragments always dancing in 
the sunlight, which some call motes. Anaxagoras *• 
says that these, hissing and buzzing in the heat, by 
their noise make other sounds hard to hear in the 
daytime, but that at night their dancing and their 
noise abate." 

4. When I finished, Ammonius said, " We shall 
doubtless seem ridiculous if we not only suppose that 
we have refuted Democritus but want to correct 
Anaxagoras as well. Still, we must deprive Anaxa- 
goras' bodies of their hissing, for it is neither probable 
nor necessary. The \ibration and movement of the 
atoms set churning in the light is often sufficient to 
split the sounds and scatter them. For if the air, 
which as you said is the material basis of sound and 
provides its essence, is calm, it passes on the particles 
and waves of sound straight and smooth and con- 
tinuous from a distant source. A windless calm trans- 
mits sound, and the opposite condition does not, as 

" Diels-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok.* 59 A 74 ; cf. Aristotle, 
Problemata, 903 a 8 ff. 

^ oBev Turnebus : 6. * wf>Ua6ax Doehner : fjxuvfoBai. 

139 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(722) /cat rovvavriov, ojs HtfxoJVLSrjs (firjaiv, 

ouSe yap €woaL(f)vXXos di^ra ror (Lpr* dvefjuvv, 
d Tts" KarcKcoXve Ki^vajxiva /xeAiaSea ydpvv 
apapelv aKoalai ^porojv 

TToAAa/ct? /u.€v yap ovSe to o-;^7^/xa rrjs ^covrjs 6 tov 
depos adXos evapdpov id irpos ttjv atadrjaiv i^iK- 
veladat /cat hiapLepiop(f>(ji}p,4vov , del jxivroi rt, tov 
TrXrjdovs (jidiipGL^ /cat tov fieyedovs. rj fxev ovv vi)^ 
avTTj Kad" eavTTjv ovBev ex^i klvtjtlkov dipos, rj 8' 
r][j,€pa jue'ya/ tov tJXlov, ojOTX^p avTos o 'Ava^ayo- 
pa's eLprjKev." 

5. 'Y-TToXa^chv 8e QpdovXXos 6 'A/Lt/zcuvt'oy vtos, 
D " efr'," €(f)r), " tl TradovTes, c5 Trpos ^tos, eKaoTOTe 
va> deajprfTa.^ KivijixaTa tov depos olofMeda Setv atna- 
cr^at, TOV 8' ep^aviy adXov /cat OTrapaypLOV avTOV 
7TapopcbfX€v; ' 6 yap Srj fxeyas r^yep^cbv iv ovpavu) 
Zj€vs ' ovTos ov Xavddvcov oi38' dTpefxa SiaKtvaJv ra 
afXLKpoTaTa tov depos aAA' evdvs e/c^avet? dviaTf]- 
aiv /cat KLvel Travra TTpdypuaTa 

he^id crqpiaivcDV, Xaovs 8' e77t epyov iyeipajv 

ol 8' eTTovTai, KadaTTcp e/c TraXiyyeveaias ' via e^' 
rjf^ipr) (f)poviovTes ,' c5? (f)rjo-i A'qfxoKpiTog, ovt* d- 
<f)(x)VOLS ovT^ drrpaKTOis evepyeiais' fj Kat tov op- 
dpov 6 "Y^VKos ov /ca/ccos" ' kXvtov ' irpoaeiTTev, ev 
<L /cAuetv yjSrj /cat* ^diyyeadai avix^i^rjKev. ttjs 

^ (f>6elpei Wyttenbach : (^epet. 
^ /xe'ya Basel edition : /icra. 

' eKaaTOTf vu) 0fojp7]Ta Post (vo) Bases) : ra ddewpnTa Reiske : 
del TTore radeiLmTa Kronenberg : etiras rtSt deojpTjra T. 
* ■^St) Koi Meziriacus : koX tjStj. 

140 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 3, 722 

Simonides says " : 

Nor had there then risen a leaf-shaking breeze. 

Such as, spread abroad, would prevent a honey-sweet 

voice 
From coming fitly to mortals' ears. 

Often the turbulence of the air prevents even the 
pattern of a sound from reaching us articulate and 
well-defined, but in any case it always diminishes 
somewhat its volume or extent. Night has, in and of 
itself, nothing to cause movement in the air, but day 
has one important thing, the sun, as Anaxagoras 
himself has said." 

5. Ammonius' son Thrasyllus ^ replied to him, 
" Why, in the name of Zeus, do we always think we 
must attribute these phenomena to movements of 
the air seen by mind alone and ignore its visible 
tossings and convulsions ? ' The mighty leader of 
the heavenly train, Zeus,' * he does not secretly or 
gently stir the particles of air, to rouse all things and 
set them moving, but by showing himself from the 
first. 

With signs on the right, and rousing the peoples to labour. '' 

Men follow him, as though born anew, every morning, 
' thinking fresh thoughts for each day,' in the words 
of Democritus,* with actions that lack neither voice 
nor fulfilment. Thus Ibycus ■^ aptly addressed early 
dawn as ' loud,' because at that time of day we first 

" Frag. 41 Bergk, 52 Edmonds (Lyra Graeca, ii. 312). 

* Not mentioned elsewhere. 

' A quotation from Plato, Phaedrus, 246 e. 

■* Aratus, Phaenomena, 6. 

• Diels-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok.* 68 B 158. 

' Frag. 7 Bergk. 

141 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(722) 

•g Se vvKTOs OLKVfjiwv TO, TToAAd Kal aKXvaros^ cov 6 

arip, avaTravofievcov aTravrcov, etKOTCos rrjv <f)OJvrjv 

ddpavarov avaTTefiTreL Kal oLKepaiov Tipos rjixdg." 

6. Hapwv ovv 'ApiGToSrjfios^ 6 K.V7TpLos, " dAA' 

opa," elTTCv, " (b OpctCTuAAe, pbr^ rovro fxev at vv- 

KTo/xaxLOii' Kal vvKTOTTopiai Toit' pi€yaXiiiv arparo- 

TTehcov iXeyxovaiv, ovBev tJttov Tixojhearipag ttol- 

ovaat ret? ^covct?, Kalnep iv rapaxfj Kal adXcp 

rov depog ovrog. e;^et 8e rt Kal to 77a/>' rjfjids 

atrLov avTol yap wv (f)deyy6ixeda vvKrojp rd rroXXd 

dopv^oihrj Kal [xerd TTadovg eTTciyovros eyKcXevo- 

fxevoL TiGLV r) hiaTrvvQavo^icvoL avvrovovs TTOLovpLeda 

rds ycycovT^aeis . to ydp, iv cp pLdXiara Kaipcp 

F 7T€(f)VKap,€v 7)(TvxiO-v dy€LV, i^aviardv rjfjidg errl rrpd- 

^ei? Kal Xoyovs ov fiLKpov ouS' drpefxaiov iariv, 

dXXd /xe'ya Kal jjLeydXrjs rtvog avdyKj] ;)^petas' €7n- 

raxvvofxevov, cucttc Kal rds <j>CDvds (f)€pea9aL aj)o- 

Sporcpag." 

723 ITPOBAHMA A 

Aid Ti Toil' Upwv dyuivctiv aXXos dXXov e;fet cn'e(f>avov, rov Se <j)oi- 
viKa ndvTfS' ev cp Kal 8td Tt rds fieydXas <f)oivi.Ko^aXdvovs 
NiKoXdovs KoXovaiv 

Collocuntur Herodes, Sospis, Protogenes, Praxiteles, 
Caphisias 

1. ^YadpiidiV dyofievcov iv rfj Sevrepa rcov 
ScuaTTtSo? dyajvodeoLcov rds puev dXXas eandaeL? 
Si€(f)vyoiJLev, icTLCJvros avrov ttoXXovs piev dpui 
^evovs TTavras 8e TToXXaKig rovs TToXiras' dna^ Se 
Tovs pbaXiara <j>iXovs Kal (f)iXoX6yovs oIkoi S^xo- 

^ a/cAnoTOS Turnebus : dKXvros. 
^ ' ApicrroBrjfios Wyttenbach : 'A. npos rjp.ds. 

142 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 3-4, 722-723 

hear and speak. But at night the air, being mostly 
motionless and waveless, when everything is resting, 
naturally conducts sound to us unbroken and intact." 
6. Aristodemus of Cyprus," who was also present, 
said, " But Thrasyllus, don't you think that night- 
battles and night-marches by large armies refute 
your \iew ? They do not make sounds any less loud, 
even though the air is in great turmoil and vibration. 
A part of the cause of the phenomenon we are dis- 
cussing lies within ourselves. Most of the speech that 
we ourselves emit at night is related to some distur- 
bance or prompted by some emotion ; we are shout- 
ing commands or questions at someone and raise our 
voices. For what rouses us to words and deeds at the 
time when we are usually at rest is never anything 
insignificant or unexciting, but something important, 
urging us with the compulsion of some great need, so 
that our voices too travel with greater force." 



QUESTION 4 

Why at the various athletic festivals different kinds of wreaths 
are awarded, but the palm-frond at all of them ; also, 
why large dates are called " Nicolaiises." 

Speakers : Herodes, Sospis, Protogenes, Praxiteles, 
Caphisias 

1, During the Isthmian Games, the second time 
Sospis '' was exhibitor, I avoided the other banquets, 
at which he entertained a great many foreign \-isitors 
at once, and several times entertained all the citizens. 
Once, however, when he entertained in his home his 

" Not otherwise known. . . . . . 

* Probably a Corinthian, best known from this passage. 
Cf. ix. 5, 12, 13, below. 

143 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(723) , 

g jxevov Kal avrol vaprjfMev.^ aTrrjpfxeviov 8e twv 

TrpojTOJV rpaTTe^ojv i^/cev ti? 'UpcoSr^ rco pr^ropi 

TTapa yv(x>pLpLov vevLKrjKoros ey/cco^to) (f)oiviKa /cat 

aTe(f>av6v riva tcov TrXiKrcov Kofxit^cov. 6 8e raura 

IX€V he^Lcoadp,evos (XTreTre/Ln/re vraAiv, e^rj S' dTTopelv, 

TL hr^TTore tci)v dycovcov aT€(f)avov dXXos dXXov ex^c, 

TOP 8e (f)OLVLKa KOLvfj TTavres. " ov yap e/x€ yovv," 

ecfyr], " Treidovaiv ol rrjv laoTTjTa tcov ^vXXcov, otov 

avravicTTaixevcov del /cat crvveKTpexdvrcov, dycbvi /cat 

a/iiAA7y TTapaTrXiqaiov tl ttolclv (f)daKovTCS avri^v t€ 

rrjv ' viKrjv ' trapd to purj cIkov (hvoixdadaf /cat ydp 

dXXa TrdfiTToXXa [xovovov fieTpois tlgI Kal aTa6p,ols 

C dKpi^cos TTjv Tpo(j>T]v SiavcfMovTa Tols dvTLt,vyois 

TTCTaXois laoTTjTa davfjLaaTTjv Kal Ta^cv dTToStScacrtv. 

67761 mdavcoTi pot, TOVTCOV elcrlv ol to KdXXos Kal 

TTjv evcfivtav dyaTTTjaai tovs naXaiovs, to? "Ofirjpov 

' epve'C <f)oivLKOs ' diTeLKdaavTa ttjv topav ttjs Oai- 

a/CiSo?, VTTovoovvTes' ov ydp dyvoevre B-qnovdev, 

OTi Kal poSois Kal Xv)(yiaiv, evtot Se /cat fX'qXoLS 

Kal potat? e^aXXov ct»? KaXolg yepatpovTcg del tovs 

ViK'q<j>6povs . dXX ovhev ovtcjs €7Ti,(f)ava)S CKTrpeve- 

OTepov e;^€i rear dXXtov 6 <f>oZvL^, aTe purfhe KapTTOv 

iv TTJ 'EAAaSt <^€pcov iScoSLfxov dXX' dTeXrj Kal 

aTTeTTTOV. el ydp axxTrep ev Tivpla Kal iv AlyvTTTO) 

D TTapetx^ Trjv ^dXavov oi/jei re deap.dTCx)v Kal yXvKV- 

TTjTi Tpayr)p,dTa)v TrdvTcov rjSiaTOV, ovk dv -^v 

CTcpov avTip TTapa^aXeiv 6 yovv ^aaiXevs, cos 

^ iTap^(j,ev Basel edition : wap' ij/u.ii'. 

•• In ix, 14, Herodes appears as a member of the circle of 
Ammonius at Athens. * Nausicaa, Odyssey, vi. 163. 

144 



I 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 4, 723 

closest friends, all men of learning, I was present too. 
At the clearing away of the first course, someone 
came in to present Herodes the professor of rhetoric," 
as a special honour, with a pahn-frond and a plaited 
WTeath sent by a pupil who had won a contest with 
an encomiastic oration. After accepting them, he 
sent them back again, remarking that he did not 
understand why, of the various games, each one has 
as prize a different kind of wTcath, but all use the 
palm-frond. " I for one am not convinced," he said, 
" by the explanation that the equality of the leaves 
is similar to a contest or a race, because they spring 
up in opposition to each other and run along together, 
and that the word nike (' victory ') itself is derived 
from the fact that they do not ' yield ' (ine eikon). For 
there are many other plants as well which accurately 
distribute nourishment to leaves in opposing pairs, 
all but doUng it out by measure or weight, and 
achieve an amazing evenness and regularity. There 
is more plausibility in the view that the ancients 
admired the beauty and shapeliness of the tree, like 
Homer when he compared the beauty of the Phaea- 
cian maiden * to ' the shoot of a palm tree.' Inci- 
dentally, you are doubtless aware that some used to 
pelt the victors with roses and rose-campion, too, and 
some even with apples and pomegranates, in each 
case with the idea of honouring them with beautiful 
things. Still, the palm has nothing to set it apart so 
obviously from other trees, since in Greece the fruit 
it bears is not even edible, but remains immature and 
unripe. If, as in Syria and Egypt, it bore dates, the 
most pleasant of all sights to see and the sweetest 
of all dried fruits, there would be no other tree to 
compare with it. The king, they say, being very 

145 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(723) (f>aat,v, ayarrr^aas hia(f>ep6vrais rov HepnTaTrjTLicov 
(j>L\6ao(l>ov NtKoAaov, yXvKvv ovra ro) rjdeL paSivov 
8e Tcp ixrjK€i Tov aiofxaros SkxttXccov 8e ro irpoacDTrov 
i7n(f)oivLGaovTog epvdrjpiaro'S , to.? ixeyiaras Kat. 
KaXXtaras rcov (f>OLVLKO^aXdvcov Nt/coAaous' djvojxa- 
^€v, /cat P'^xpi- vvv ovTOJs 6vofxdt,ovTaL." 

2. Taur' etTTcuv d 'HpcuSTj? ovk drepTTearepov ifi- 
jSaAAeir eSo^ev rod ll,r)TOViJievov ro rrepl rov Nikto- 
Xdov. " 8l6 Kal fjidXXov," €cf)7], " TTpodvfirjreov," 6 
E SaJCTTTtS'/ " COS €Kaarov avrco ri^ avveTreiaeveyKeiv 
els ro t,'qrovfj.€vov. iyd) 8' €la(f)epa) rrpwros, ori 
Set rrjv ru)V vt,K'q<f)6pa)v So^av d^dirov, (hs dvvarov 
eari, Kal dyqpco Sta/xeVeiv d Se <f>dlvL^ jua/cpdjSiov 
pLev ianv ev rots jxaXtGra ra>v (f)vra)V, ojs ttov /cat 
Tct '0/5<^t/ca ravra fxeixaprvprjKev 

^dJOV S' LOOV aKpoKopioiaiv 
<f>oiVLKajv epveaaiv, 

fiovip 8' avrip cr;^eSdv tnrdpx^i' ro Kara TroXXoiv ovk 
dX7]6d>s XeyopLevov ri 8e rovr eari; ro ' e/x7re8d- 
(f)vXXov ' elvai Kal deL(f>vXXov ovre yap Sdcjivriv ovr* 
iXaiav ovre fxvpaLvrjv ovr^ dXXo ri rdv p/x] cf)vXXop- 
poeZv Xeyop,€V(xjv opcopbev del ravra (f)vXXa Siarrj- 
povv, dXXd rots TrpcLroLS arroppeovaiv erepojv 
F eTTi^Xaaravovroiv , oiairep iroXeis eKaarov deit,oiov 
hiap,evei /cat a.8iaAei7rTov^' d 8e (f)OLVi^, ovOev (itto- 

^ o ScDffmj added here by Hubert, after i(fyq by Leonicus. 

* T^ Hubert : ti?. 

* dStoAeiTTTOv Kronenberg : afieiXiKrov. 

<• Plutarch plays on the etymological identity of eVt^oiria- 
aovros (" ruddy ") and ^Ivi.^ (" palm "). 

146 



TABLE-TALK VIII. 4, 723 

fond of the Peripatetic philosopher Nicola iis, who 
was sweet in character and slender and tall physically, 
and whose face was overspread \\ith a ruddy glow," 
dubbed the largest and handsomest dates ' Nico- 
laiises,' and so they are called to this day." ^ 

2. In this speech we thought that Herodes' digres- 
sion about Nicolaiis was not less pleasing than the 
main question. " All the more reason," said Sospis, 
" for each of us to be eager to add to the main dis- 
cussion some extra contribution of his own. I vnW 
contribute first the remark that the fame of \'ictors 
ought to remain unfading and exempt from old age, 
as far as is possible. Now the palm is one of the most 
long-Uved of plants, as the Orphic poems somewhere 
attest : 

They lived as long as the high-fronded shoots of the palms. * 

To it alone, practically, belongs a characteristic falsely 
attributed to many others, namely that of being 
' firm-leaved ' and always in leaf.** For we observe 
that neither the laurel nor the olive nor the myrtle, 
nor any other of the trees that are said not to shed 
their leaves, always keeps the same leaves, but as the 
first are shed others are gromng in their place ; like 
cities, each is ever-living and continuous. But the 

* The king mentioned here is apparently Herod the Great 
of Judaea, for whom Nicolaiis of Damascus performed many 
services. There are also traditions (erroneous, according to 
Jacoby) that Augustus called dates (or a certain kind of 
cakes) after Nicolaiis because he frequently used to send 
them to him as gifts. On Nicolaiis see Jacob v, Frag. Gr. 
Hist., ch. 90, esp. T 1, 10, 13. 

' Kern, Orphicorum Fragmenta, 225. 

' Empedocles, Diels-Kranz, Frag, d^r Vorsok.^ 31 B 77 
(from 649 c, above). The palm does in fact, however, lose 
its leaves. 

147 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(723) ^dXXcov d^' avTOV rcov (l>vo[j,€va}v, ^e^aiojs dei^uA- 
Ao? ianv, /cat rovro hrj to Kpdros avrov /xdAtcrra 
rrjs VLKTjs TO) lcrxvpu> avvocKeiovaiv." 

3. Ylavaafxevov 8e tov HioamSog Yipojroyevrjs 6 
ypanfiaTLKos 6v6{xari. KoXiaas Yipa^LTeXriv tov 
TreptrjyTjTrjv, " ovtoj Srj tovtovs," €<f>r], " tovs^ p-q- 

724 Topas idaop,€v Trepaiveiv to olkcZov, i^ elKonov kol 
Tndavwv eTTix^i'PovvTas, avTol 8' d^' laTopiag ovSev 
av €)(otix€v TO) Xoycp avjJb^dXXeadai; KaiTOi Sokco 
fioi fivrjijiov€V€i,v iv toIs ^Attikol? dveyvcoKojs evay- 
Xos, OTi TTpcoTos €v At^Ao) QiTjCFevs dycova voicov 
aTTecTTTaae KXdSov tov lepov <j)oiviKos' fj /cat awdBt^ 
oivopidaOy]." 

4. Kat d Ylpa^LTeX-qs, " ecm^ raur'," elrrev, 
" dXXa /cat TOV Qr)G€OJS avTov TTVvddveaOai (fy-q- 
aoucrtv, (Ltlvl Xoyo) <f>oivLKo?, ov hd(f}vrjs ovS* eAata?, 
KAdSor aTTcaTTaaev dywvodeTcvv . cr/coTret 87^, jxr] 

B IlvdlKOV €(7TL TO VLK7]Tll]pLOV , COS ^ AfJb(j)iKTVOVOS 

claayayovTOs' Kd/cei TrpcoTov irrl Tipirj tov deov 
(f>OLVLKt^ Tovs VLKwvTas e/cocT/xTjCTav, are 817 /cat rot 
deu) jxr) Bd(f)vas /X7^8' eAatas" dAAd <j)oivLKas dvart- 
6evT€S, OJ9 iv ArjXu) Nt/cia? ■)(oprjy'qaas ^AOrjvalojv 
/cat iv AeA^ot? ^AdrjvaloL /cat KvipeXos npoTepov 
K.opiv6ios. ivel /cat (f)LXadXos dXXcvs /cat* (f>t,X6vi- 

^ eoTi added by Wilamowitz. 

* elaayayovTos added by Hubert. 

* (f>oiviKi Herwerden : 8a.<f>i>rj kol (f>oivi,Ki. 

* oAAws Kal Basel edition : dXX' cos. 

" Also a speaker in v. 3, above. 

* For this story of Theseus cf. Pausanias, viii. 48. 3. 

* Cf. Life of Nicias, in. Nicias dedicated a bronze palm 

148 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 4, 723-724 

palm-tree, which sheds none of the leaves that grow 
on it, is truly always in leaf, and it is this strength 
that it has which people particularly associate -with 
the ^igour that brings \"ictory." 

3. At the conclusion of Sospis' remarks, Protogenes, 
the professor of Hterature, addressed Praxiteles the 
geographer," " Shall we let these rhetoricians ply 
their own trade like this, making conjectures on the 
ground of likelihood and probability, without ourselves 
ha\lng something to contribute to the discussion from 
our researches ? I seem to recall reading recently in 
a history of Athens that Theseus, when he was first to 
hold an athletic festival in Delos, tore off a branch of 
the sacred palm tree, which is why such a branch was 
called spadix." ^ 

4. " You are right," answered Praxiteles, " but 
they \^ill say they want to know of Theseus himself 
why he tore off a branch of palm rather than of laurel 
or oUve when founding the games. Consider whether 
the prize is not proper to the Pythian games, because 
Amphictyon introduced it and it was at the Pythian 
games that people first, in honour of the god, decked 
victors ^\ith laurel and palm. Indeed, people used to 
dedicate to the god not laurel nor olive but palm — 
Nicias, for example, did so when performing sacred 
ceremonies on behalf of the Athenians at Delos," the 
Athenians did so at Delphi <* and, in earlier times, so 
did Cypselus the Corinthian.* Our god is fond of 

tree as a thank-offering to Apollo. At the time of the 
Athenian disaster in Sicily, the golden dates dropped from 
it, according to Mor. 397 f. 

** A bronze palm-tree, with golden fruit, was dedicated by 
the Athenians after the Persian Wars. Cf. Life of yicias, 
xiii ; Pausanias, x. 15. 4. 

• Cf. Mor. 164 A, 399 f. 

149 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(724) Kos 'f]iuv 6 deos, avros /xev^ Kidaptaei Kal wStj Kal 
^oAat? Slgkcov, cos 8' evcoi (f>aaL, Kal TTvyfJij] 
a/xiAAco/xev'os', dvdpa)7Tois 8e Trpoaaixwcov dycovi^o- 
fxevois, (x)S "Ojjurjpos ipiaprvp'qaev, top jxev 'Ap^iAAe'a 
Xeyovra TTOtTjcra? 

avSpe Svo) TTcpl rcovhe KeXevofxev, wrrep dpiarco, 
7TV^ fidX' dvaaxofievco TreTTXrjycfiev <1> 8e /c' 

'AttoAAoiv 
Scot) KajjbfMovirjv, 

C Tcov 8e ro^oTcov rov pikv ev^dpLCvov rep deep Karop- 
Qtbaai Koi Xa^elv rd Trpcorela, rov 8e yavpov dcrro- 
■)(riaaL rov okottov pt,r) ev^dpuevov. Kai pirjv ovB' 
*AdrjvaLOV£ eLKO'S iariv 'AvoXXojvl Kadiepcbaai ro 
yvpLvdatov dXoycos /cat avropidrois , dXXd Trap' ov 
rrjv vyUiav €)(opL€v deov, rovrov eve^lav re 8t8dvai 
Kal pcopLT^v €7tI rovs ayajva? (povro. Kovcfuov 8e Kal 
^apecov dycoviap-droiv ovrcov, TTVKrrj piev 'A770A- 
AcDvi AeAt^ou?, Spopbaicp 8e K.prjras laropovai dveiv 
Kal AaKeSaipiovLovs . gkvXcov 8e Ilu^ot /cat a/cpo- 
divioiv Kal rpoTTaiojv dvadeaets dp ov avpcpiaprv- 

D povaiv on rijs €ls ro viKoiv Kal Kparetv hvvdfieojs 
rip deep rovrcp rrXelarov piereariv; 

5. "Ert 8' avrov Xeyovros vnoXa^wv Ka^iata?* 
o Qeiovos vlos, " dXXd ravrd y\" elrrev, " ovx 
laropias ovhe rrepir^yr^riKwv o8a)8e fiv^Xiajv, dXX' 
€K pieacov dveavaapieva roJv HepLTTarrjrLKcbv roTTCov 
els ro mdavov eTnKex^ipiqrai , /cat Trpoaeri rpayiKoJs 
pbrjxo-vqv dpavres, cb (j)iXoL,^ hehirreade rw de<p rovs 

^ fiev Hubert : ev. 

* Ka(^iaias Wilamowitz : Kd<l>iaos. 

' CO <f>LXoi Duebner : 6<f)€iX€T€. 

150 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 4, 724 

athletic games and a lover of victory ; he was himself 
a contestant in lyre-plapng and singing and discus- 
throvving, and, as some say, even in boxing." He is 
the protector of men engaged in contests, too, as 
Homer testifies when he makes Achilles say 

Let us bid two men, whoever are best, fight with fists raised 
high a boxing match for these prizes, and to whichever 
Apollo grants to outlast the other ...,'' 

and when he represents the archer who prayed to the 
god as succeeding and v\inning first prize, and the 
one who scorned to pray as missing the mark because 
of this/ Again, it is not likely that the Athenians 
would have dedicated their gjTnnasium to Apollo 
>\-ithout reason, or absent-mindedly ; but they con- 
sidered that the god from whom we have health also 
gives us good condition and strength for athletic con- 
tests. There is a distinction between light and 
heavy contests, and they say that whereas the Del- 
phians sacrifice to Apollo the Boxer, the Cretans and 
Lacedaemonians sacrifice to Apollo the Runner. Do 
not the dedications of arms and the finest of the 
battle-spoil and trophies at Pytho attest that this 
god has much influence in the realm of \ictory and 
the winning of power ? " 

5. Before he had finished speaking, Praxiteles was 
interrupted by Theon's son Caphisias ** : " This does 
not have the odour of scholarly research or of geo- 
graphical treatises ; it is dravvTi right out of the Peri- 
patetic commonplace-collections, in an attempt at 
rhetorical persuasion. And what is more, my friends, 
in raising this imposing tragic stage-machine you 
are trying to use the god to intimidate your op- 

• Cf. Pausanias, v. 7. 10. ' Iliad, xxiii. 659 ff. 

' Iliad, xxiii. 850 ff. •• Only named here. 

151 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(724) dvTcXeyovr as. 6 jxkv ovv deos, woTrep npoa'qKei, 
TTaaiv laos earlv /xer' eu/xei/etas". 

'H/xets' S' eTTOfjievoL TicocnnSt, (/caAcos yap v<f)- 
"qyeiTai) TrdXtv excop'^da rov (f>oivi,Kos dp(f)LXa^ets 

E TO) Xoyo) AajSd? hihovros. Ba^vXayvioi pev yap 
vpuvovGL /cat aSovoLv co? i^rjKovra /cat rpiaKocna 
XP^LCov yevT] Trape^ov avrdls ro SevSpov rjpuv 8e 
Tot? "EAAr^CTtv 'qKiara p,€v icrrt. ;i(peiajS7yS', ddX7]riKfjs 
Se (f)iXoao(f)ias^ /cat to a/capTrov av etT^* KaAAtcrros' 
■ya/a cov' /cat pLeyiaros vtt* evra^ias ov yovipo? ecrri 
Trap' ripZv, dXXd rrjv rpo(j)r]v woTrep ddXrjrov nepl 
TO acopa rrjs evra^ias dvaXiOKovarjg aptKpov avrw 
/cat <j)avXov els CTreppia ■nepieartv. tStov 8e vapd 
ravra Ttavra /cat prjSevl arvpi^e^r^Kos irepco to 
fieXXov Xeyeadac ^oLvlkos yap ^vXov dv dvojdev 
iTTidels ^dpTj TTLel^rjs, ov Karoj OXi^opevov evSiScoo-tv, 

F oAAa Kvprovrac irpos rovvavriov oicnrep dvOtardpe- 
vov Tw ^ta^o/xeVoj" tovto St) /cat vrept tous" ddXrjri- 
Kovs dydjvds eGTLV rovs pev yap utt' dadeveias /cat 
/xaAa/ctaj et/covTa? avTOt? Tne^ovai KapLTrrovres , ol 
8' eppcopevcDS VTTopievovres rrjv dcrKYjCTLV ov povov 
TOis awpaatv dXXd /cat toi? ^povrjpaaiv eTraipovrai 
Koi av^ovrai."^ 
725 nPOBAHMA E 

Aia Ti TTpo rjfiepas €K tov NetAou oi nXeovres vhpevovrcu; 
Collocuntur complures amici 

Alriav ns it,i]rr)u€V, 8t' -^i' ot vavKXrjpoL Tas i58- 

^ dOXTjTiKTJs . . ■ <fnXoao<f>ias Bernardakis : ddXrjTLKri . . . <f)iko- 
{TO(f)ia. * av^ovrai. Hubert : av^owrai. 

" The same idea is presented by a different speaker at 
3/br. 641 A. 
152 



I 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 4^5, 724^-725 

ponents. The god, though, is, as he ought to be, 
impartial in his favour to everj^one. 

" But let us follow Sospis — for he is an excellent 
guide — and again take hold of the palm tree, which 
proWdes two handles for the argument. In the first 
place, the Babylonians sing hjTnns of praise to the 
tree as ser\ing them in three hundred and sixty ways. 
To us Greeks it is of very httle use, but its very failure 
to bear fruit is appropriate to the philosophy of 
athletics. For though it is ver^- beautiful and large, 
sterility, in our country, goes along with its shapeli- 
ness. As with an athlete, its shapeliness expends the 
nourishment it gets, building up its body ; so that it 
has little material left, and of poor quaUty, to produce 
seed." Secondly, the thing I am going to mention 
next is unique beyond anything we have spoken of, 
and is true of no other tree. If you impose weight on 
a piece of palm-wood, it does not bend do^\•n and give 
way, but curves up in the opposite direction, as 
though resisting him who would force it.* This is the 
way >vith athletic contests, too. Those who cannot 
stand the strain because of weakness and softness 
are pressed down and forced to bend, but those who 
stoutly bear up under training are raised up and ex- 
alted, not in body only but in mind as well." 

QUESTION 5 

Why sailors draw water from the Nile before daybreak. 

Speakers : several friends of Plutarch 

Someone raised the question why seamen draw water 

* Cf. Plutarch, Quaest. Xat. xxxii ; Gellius, Noctes Atticae, 
ill. 6 (citing Aristotle, frag. 229 Rose) ; Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 
vii. 5. 11 ; Theophrastus, Hist. Plant, v. 6. 1 ; Pliny, Xat. 
Hist. xvL 223. 

153 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(725) peias €K tov Net'Aou vvktos oi)x rjjxepas noiovvraL. 
/cat Tiai fjiev iSoKovv tov -qXcov SeSieVat, ru) Trpodep- 
fjbaiveiv to. vypa fidXXov evarjTrra TToiovvra- ttoLv yap 
TO depixavdev /cat ^(Xiavdev del rrpos [xeTa^oXr^v 

€TOLfXOT€pOV eGTiV /Cttt 7rp07T€7T0vdeV ttVeCTet TT^? 

TTOLOTrjTO^' f] 8e ipvxpoTT]s 7TL€^ovaa avvex^iv So/C€t 

/cat (j)vXdTT€LV €KaGTOV iv a> 7T€(f)VK€V, OV)( TJKLGTa 

8e^ TO vhojp' vSaTos yap rj ipvxpoTTjs ox^tlkov ecrrt 
B (jivaei- Sr]XovaLV at ;)^tdve?, to, Kpea SvaarjTTTa 
T'qpovaai ttoXvv xpovov. rf he depjxoTT]? to. t oXka 
KoX TO fxeXi^ TrJ£ tStas" ttoiottjtos e^ioTrjai' (^deipeTai 
yap eijjTjdev dv 8 (hpidv^ Scafjievr), /cat rot? d'AAot? 
Trpos TO /xr) (fydeipeadai ^orjdel. pLeyiaTrjv he ttj 
atTLa TTtaTLV TrapeZxev Ta AtjLtvata twv vhdTOJV 
X^Lfxajvos yap ovhev hiaj>epovTa tcov dXXcov TTodrjvai, 
TOV depovs ytVerat iTovrjpd /cat voacoSrj- 8to ;^€t/LtC()vt 
fxev TTJs vvKTog avaAoyetv SoKovcqs depei he Trjg 
rjixepas, pidXXov otovTat, hiapbeveiv aTpeTTTOv /cat aTra- 
deg TO vhwp, dv vvktos Xaix^dvrjTai. 

TovTOLS eTTLeLKcog ovoL TTidavols erraveKvifjev Xoyos 
C uiOTTep aTexyov Trtartv* vavTLKTJ ^e^aiovfjuevos ep,- 
TTeipia- vvKTOs ydp €(f>aaav Xap^fidveiv to vhcop ert 
TOV TTOTafiov KadeoTCJoTos /cat r]avxdtyOVTos , rjfiepas 
he, TToXXcov dv6p(x)7Tcov vhpevofxevcov /cat TrXeovTOJv, 
TToXXcbv he dr]pia)v hLa(f)epopLevojv , dvaTapaTTopevov 
yiveadai naxv /cat yecbhes' to he tolovtov evarjTTTOv 
elvaL. irdvTa ydp Ta pLepaypieva tcov dpiiKTOov evrt- 
a(f)aXeaTepa Trpds arjipLV ecrTiv TToieZ ydp r] pl^LS 

^ ovx and Se added by Basel edition. 

* fifXi Basel edition : fxeXi Kal. 

^ 8' (hfiov Basel edition : Se fxovov. 

* arex^'o^ tiotiv Minar : drexvo) marei Wyttcnbach : are- 
Xyd)S mariv T, but vai/riKTiv and efineiplav. 

154, 



TABLE-TALK VIII. 5, 725 

from the Nile at night and not during the day. 
Some thought they were afraid of the sun, which by 
its heat renders Hquids more subject to corruption. 
For anything heated or warmed is always more prone 
to change, and has suffered in advance a relaxation 
of its quaUty. Cold, on the other hand, seems to 
compress and hold together and preserve anything 
in its existing state, and this is eminently true of 
water. The cold state of water has preservative 
qualities," as is shown by snow, which keeps meat 
largely immune to decay for a long while. But 
warmth alters everything from its normal state, as is 
well shown by honey, which is spoiled by boiling, but 
if left uncooked, helps preserve other things from 
going bad. The best e^idence adduced for this ex- 
planation was that of the water of pools. In winter 
it is no less potable than other water, but in siunmer- 
time it becomes noxious and unhealthful. Thus, 
since night seems analogous to winter and day to 
summer, the sailors have the idea that the water will 
be more likely to remain unchanged and free from 
taint if it is drawn at night. 

In the face of this argument, so eminently per- 
suasive, rose another to bolster a layman's faith, as it 
were, with the confirmation of nautical experience. 
Some stated, namely, that the sailors draw water at 
night because the river is still quiet and peaceful, 
whereas in the daytime numbers of people are draw- 
ing water or using boats and many sorts of animals 
are mo\ing about in it, it is roiled and becomes turbid 
and muddy. In this condition it is liable to go bad, 
for all mixtures are more likely to putrefy than what 
is unmixed. Mixing produces conflict, conflict pro- 

• Cf. supra. Book III, Question 10. 

155 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(725) fiaxrjv, rj Se f^'O-XV f^^Td^oXTjv, fxera^oXr) 8e ns" rj 
arjifjis' 8io Tas re fii^cLS rwv ;^/Da)/xaTa)v ol ^coypd- 
(f)oi. cf>Oopag ovofjid^ovcriv /cat to ^di/jat " fiuijvai "^ k€- 
KXr]Kev 6 TTOiTjT'qs, rj be kolvtj avvqdeia ro dfjLtKTOv 
D /cat Kadapov d(f)dapTov /cat aK-qparov . fjidXiara Se 
yrj jxixdeLora irpo? vScvp i^Larrjaiv /cat ^delpei to tto- 
Tipiov /cat OLK€Lov 66ev evGTjTTTa fiaXXov eOTL TO. 
aTaaijjia /cat /cotAa, ttoAAtj? dvaTrifiTrXdixeva yrjs, to. 
Be peovTa (f)€vy€i /cat Sta/cpouerat ttjv Trpoa^epo- 
fievrjv /cat KaXcos 'HcrioSo? eTTT^veaev uScop* 

Kprjvrjs aevdov /cat aTToppvTOV, 17 t' d^oAoiTOS" 

uyteivor yap to dhid^Oopov , dhid^Oopov Se to ctjLtt- 
KTOV /cat Kadapov. ovx rJKiaTa 8' at ttJ? y?^? Sta^o- 
pai TO) Aoyo) puapTvpovcnv to. yap opeLvrjv Ste^iovra 
yrjv /cat Xiduiht] OTeppoTepa tcov iXeicDV /cat 77e8t- 
vojv' ioTtv, TToXXrjv yap ovk aTToaTra yi^v 6 8e Net- 
E Ao? u7t6 ixaXdaKTJs x^P^^ rrepLexofievos, fjLoXXov 8' 
uiOTTep atfxa aapKL KCKpa/xevos, yXvKVTr]TOS p-ev 
oLTToXavei /cat ;\;yju,ci»v dvaTTifXTrXaTai, 8wa/>tty ipL^pidij i 
/cat Tp6(f>Lp,ov exovTcov, avpcp^Lyrjs 8e ^epcTat /cat 
doXepos' dv 8' dvaTapdTTTjTai , /cat jLtaAAov ly yap 
KLvrjais dvapiiyvvai Tip vypa> to yecoSe?, OTav 8 
rjpep.'qar], xdTOJ peTTOv 8ta ^dpog dtreLaLV. odev 
vSpevovTai ttj? vvktos, a/xa /cat tov i^Ator 77poAa/xj8a- 
vov'TCS', u0' ou TO AeTTTOTaTov /Cat Kov(f)6TaTov del 
TCOV vypcbv alpop^evov hia^deipeTai. 

^ lufjvai Turnebus : hmvai. 
* vicjp added by Reiske. 

"* On the effects of mixture (of foods) cf. supra. Book IV, 
Question 1 {e.g. 663 a). 

156 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 5, 725 

duces change, and putrefaction is a kind of change." 
This is why painters call a blending of colours a 
" deflowering." and Homer calls dyeing " tainting," * 
and common usage regards the unmixed and pure as 
virgin and undefiled. Earth in particular, when 
mixed with water, alters and destroys its natural 
potable quality, so that the waters of stagnant en- 
closed ponds are more likely to turn putrid, ha\ing 
much mud intermixed, whereas flowing streams avoid 
mixture or shake off any earth that enters their 
course. Hesiod aptly praises the water of 

An ever-flowing and a running spring, and one un- 
troubled ' ; 

for that is healthy which is uncorrupted, and the un- 
corrupted is the unmixed and pure. An excellent 
confirmation of the argument is found in differences 
of terrain. Waters that flow through a mountainous 
and stony country are clearer than those of the 
marshes and plains, since they do not carry off much 
earth. The Nile, encompassed by soft terrain, or 
rather interspersed through it as blood is through 
flesh, has the benefit of its sweetness, and is filled 
with fluids that are heavy and nourishing ; but in 
its flow it is impure and turbid. If it is roiled, this 
is even more the case, for motion mixes mud and 
liquid, but when the river is quiet the mud sinks and 
disappears, because of its weight. This is why they 
draw water at night, but also in order to anticipate 
the sun, which by continually evaporating the finest 
and lightest element in the liquid, causes deteriora- 
tion. 

» Iliad, iv. 141 ; c/. Mor. 393 c. 
* World and Days, 595. 

157 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 
(725) nPOBAHMA ? 

riepi Ttov oijjk Trapayivoixevojv em to SetTTvov iv a> Kal TTodev 
J aKpaTiafia km, apiarov koI heliTVOv cbvondodT] 

Collocuntur filii Theonis et Plutarchi, Plutarchus, Soclarus, 
Theo, Lamprias, alii 

1 . TcDi' utaiv fxov rovs veoirepovs iv dedrpo) 
irpoGhiaTpiijiavras aKpodpLaai Kal ^pdhiov cttl to 

726 SeiTTvov eXdovras ol Qewvos viol " KcuXvcrcSeiTr- 
vovg " Kal " ^o^oSopTTtSa? " Kal roiavra fxera irai- 
8ia? eoKcoTTTOv ol S' dixvvopLevoi TrdXiv CKCLVOvg 
" rp€)(^eheiTrvovg " dneKdAovv. Kai tls etTTC rcov 
trpea^vrepcov rpexeScLTTvov etvai rov varepi^ovra rov 
SeiTTVov Odrrov yap t] ^dSrjv eTreiyopiGvov, orav ^pa- 
hvvr), <j)aiveadaf Kal Td^^a rov^ irapd Kaicrapt 
y^XoiroTTotov )(dpiev dnepivrjuovcvaev eKeZvos ydp 
" iTnOvjJLoSeLTTvovs " e/caAet rov? oipe Trapayivofie- 
vovs €771 SelTTvov, da')(oXovpievovs ydp avrovs oficos 
Sid TO (f)iX6Sei7Tvov ovK dnoXeyeaOai rds KXiqaGLS. 

2. 'Eyco S' €L7Tov, on Kal XloXvxo.ppiO£ iv ^A6t^- 
B vat? 8r)fxaya>ycL)v Kal tov ^iov StSou? a77oAoytCT- 

/zov iv iKKXrjaia, " TavT\" etTrev, " dvSpes ^Adrj- 
valoi, rdfjid' Kal Trpo? tovtois, ovheTTore KXrjdelg 
6771 SeiTTvov vararos d(f>LK6iJ.rjv." SrjuoriKov ydp ev 
lidXa SoKct TO TOLovro, Kal rovvavriov a dvdpojTTOL 

^ Tdp^a TOV Buecheler : yap ^cittov. 

" Theon was a close friend of Plutarch, and is mentioned 
more often in his works than any contemporary save the 
author's brother Lamprias. See RE, s.v. " Plutarchos (2)," 
col. 686, s.v. " Theon," cols. 2059-2066. 

158 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 6, 725-726 

QUESTION 6 

On people who arrive late at dinner ; also, the origin of the 
words akratisma (" breakfast "), ariston (" breakfast " 
or " luncheon ") and deipnon (" dinner "). 

Speakers : Sons of Plutarch and of Theon, Plutarch, 
Soclarus, Theon, Lamprias, and others 

1. My 3'ounger sons, having stayed too long at some 
musical performances in the theatre, arrived rather 
late at dinner, and Theon's " sons tAvitted them play- 
fully \\'ith epithets like " dinner-stoppers " ^ and 
" dusk-diners." '^ In self-defence they retorted by 
calling the others " run-to-dinners." <* One of the 
older persons present commented that a " run-to- 
dinner " is one who is late for dinner : when he is 
delayed, he comes on the scene hurrying at a faster 
pace than a walk. He recalled a witticism of Gabba,* 
Caesar's jester, who used to call those who arrived 
late " dinner-lovers," on the ground that in spite of 
having other engagements they did not refuse in\-ita- 
tions — because of their love of dining out. 

2. I mentioned that Polycharmus,^ an Athenian 
popular leader, when gi\ing in the assembly an answer 
to criticism of his way of life, ended by saying, " This 
is how I have Uved, men of Athens ; and in addition 
I have never, when in\-ited to dinner, been the last 
to arrive." This kind of thing is regarded as very 
democratic, and on the other hand those who are 

' A name given to certain snails (Athenaeus, ii. 63 d). 

' Alcaeus, frag. 37 Bergk (said of Pittacus). 

** This word is used of parasites (Athenaeus, i. 4 a, vi. 
24-2 c) and also by Juvenal, iii. 67, mockingly, of some article 
of apparel worn by parasites. 

' Gabba was a court-jester to Augustus. 

' Otherwise unknown. 

159 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(726) Toiis oi/je Trapayivo^evovs avay/ca^d/itevoi Trepijxeveiv 
(hs a7)heLS Koi oXcyapxtKovs ^apvvovraL. 

3. '0 Se Scu/cAa/ao? vTrepSiKCJv rcov veaviaKOiv, 
dAA' ovhk rov WirraKov," €<f)rj, " t,o(j>ohopTrihav 6 
'AA/catos" a»? di/re henrvovvra Xeyerat, Trpoarenrelv, 
aAA' COS" aSd^oi? to, ttoXXo. /cat <f)avXois "qhofjievov 
avfMTroTais' to p,€vroi TrpajLalrepov^ SeLTTvetv 6v€i8os 
rjv TTaXaL, Kal to aKpaTiafxa <j>aaLV ovtojs Xiyead at 
8ia T'qv OLKpaaiav." 
C 4. 'YTToXa^wv 8' d Qewv, " tiklot' ," elTrev, " el 
Set* rot? Tov ap)(aLOV ^iov hiapivrjixovevovaLV ttl- 
aT€V€iv. ^act yap e/cetVous", ipyaTLKovs a/xa /cai 
aa)(f)povas ovTas, ecodev iadUiv dprov ev aKpaTO), 
Kal firjdev dXXo' Sid tovto pcev aKpaTiajxa KaXelv 
8ia TOV d-KpaTov, oifjov Be to TTapaaKeva^ojxevov ets 
SeiTTVov avTOLS' oipe yap SeLTTvelv aTTo tcov irpd^eajv 
yevofxevovs." 

'E/C TOVTOV Kal to SeiTTVOV Kal TO dpLGTOV, d(j)^ 6- 

Tov Xd^oL Tovvofxa, ^"qTrjotv Trapeax^v . Kal to jxev 
dpiOTOv iSoKet Tip aKpariaiiaTi TavTOv elvai, fjiap- 
Tvpi^ TO) 'OfJirjpcp ;^p6u/xeVoi?* XeyovTi tovs "nepl tov 
Eu/xatov 

D evTTJVOVT* dpiOTOV dpi 'qoL (j)aLvopievr](f)i, 

Kal TTidavov eSdxret Sid, T'r]v ecodivrjv avpav^ dptOTOv 

^ irpwiaiTepov Wyttenbach : wpoTcpov. 

* ei Set Wyttenbach : eBei. * fiaprvpi Reiske : (laprvpel. 

* xpw/xeVoij added by Reiske. 

* avpav Kaltwasser : <Lpav. 

" It is mainly from this passage that Ziegler concludes 
that this Soclarus was an intimate friend of the author and a 
resident of Chaeronea {BE, s.v. " Plutarchos (2)," col. 684). 

160 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 6, 726 

forced to wait for late arrivals resent them as snobbish 
and oligarchical. 

3. Soclarus,** however, spoke up as advocate for 
the young men : " In spite of what you say, Alcaeus 
called Pittacus a ' dusk-diner,' according to the story, 
not because he dined late but because he mostly pre- 
ferred the company of obscure and undistinguished 
people.* In fact, dining too early was a cause for 
reproach in ancient times ; and they say that the 
akratisma (' breakfast ') is so named from akrasia (' in- 
continence ')." 

4. " Not so," Theon interrupted, " if we are to 
believe those who have written accounts of life in the 
early days. They say that people then, being both 
hard-working and temperate, would eat in the mor- 
ning a piece of bread dipped in akratos (' unmixed 
M-ine ') and nothing else. So they called breakfast 
akratisma because of the akratos.'^ What was prepared 
for their dinner they called opson, because they dined 
late ippse), when they got away from business acti- 
vities." "* 

Our next topic of inquiry was the etymolog)^ of dei- 
pnon (" dinner ") and ariston (" breakfast " or " lun- 
cheon "). We decided that the ariston is the same 
meal as the akratisma, relying on the testimony of 
Homer, who says the associates of Eiunaeus 

Were setting breakfast (ariston) on at break of dawn. « 

It seemed likely to us that the word ariston was de- 

* Alcaeus, frag. 37 Bergk ; a different interpretation, Dio- 
genes Laertius, i. 81. 

' Cf. Athenaeus, i. 11 c. 

** ot/iov is, primarily, any kind of cooked or prepared food. 
The word has no etymological connexion with otpe (" late "). 

• Odyssey, xvi, 3. 

VOL. IX G 161 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(726) covofiaadai KadaTrep ro avpiov to Se Selrrvov, on 
Tcov TTovcov StavanTavcf Trpd^avres yap tl henrvov- 
aiv ri fjicra^v Trpdrrovres' eari 8e /cat rovro Trap 
OfiT^pov AajSetv XeyovTos 

"^/xo? Se Bpvrofjios Trep dvrjp (hTrXiaaaro hexTTVov. 

€1 pLT] vf] Ata TO dpiarov avrodev d-Trpay/jLovcos vpoa- 
^€p6p,€voi /cat paSicos aTTo tu>v TV)(6vTa)v, to Se 
BeiTTVov rjSr] TrapeaKevaapievov , e/ceivo pikv pacTov, 
TOVTO 8' coairep SiaTreTTOvrjp^evov e/caAecrav. 

5. 'YjSptCTTTy? S' wv /cat ^iXoyeXois (f)V(j€L 6 d- 

E SeA^o? r)fx,6jv Aap,7rpLas e(f)'q p,vpia> to. 'Poi^at/cd 
Set^eiv oLKetoTepa tcov '^LXXtjvlkoov ovofxaTa, Toa- 
avTTjs dSeias tw ^Xvapeiv SeSofiewis. " to /jcev 
yap SecTTVov ^acrt ' Krjvav ' 8td ttjv KOLVO)viav /ca- 
Xeladaf Kad* iavTOVs ydp rjpiaTCxyv eTTiei/ccDs" ol TrdAat 
'Vcxjpiaioi crvvSeiTTvovvTes Tot? ^t'Aois'. to S' api- 
UTov eKXrjdif] ' TTpdvhiov'^ dTTo TTJg wpas' evSiov ydp 
TO SetAtvov, /cat Trjv p-ct' dpiaTOV avavavaiv ev- 
Sict^etv ri TTpcoLV-qv TLva arjpiaivovTes ehoihrjv, rj Tpo- 
^rjv fj ;;^pa)VTat nplv eVSeet? yeveadai. /cat p.'qv, tr' 
d(f)a) Ta aTpu)p,aT\" €<f>T), " tov olvov to peXi, tov- 
XaLov TO yevaaadai to TTpoTTielv erepa -ndpTToXXa toIs 

F avTols ovopbaai /cara^avca? XP^H'^^^' '^^'^ ^^'^ ^^ 
^ irpavSiov Stephanus : npavSe. 

" Actually, apiarov seems to be related to ^pi, " early," 
and ISo/Liat, " eat." It was originally an " early meal," but 
the time varied with custom, so that sometimes it must be 
called " luncheon." The first vowel is long in this sense. 

" Iliad, xi. 86. 

162 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 6, 726 

rived from aura (" morning breeze "), as is aurion 
(" to-morrow ")." Deipnon (" dinner "), on the other 
hand, is so called because it " brings rest " (diana- 
pauet) from labour ; people dine when they have 
finished working, or in the intervals of work. This, 
too, can be gathered from a phrase of Homer, 

At the time of day when a woodsman prepares his dinner. '' 

Still, it may be that since people took breakfast {ari- 
ston) wherever they were and without trouble or effort, 
using whatever food was at hand, while dinner (dei- 
pnon) was by then a prepared meal, they derived the 
word ariston from rhaiston (" easiest ") and deipnon 
from diapeponemenon (" elaborated "). 

5. My brother Lamprias, who has a saucy disposi- 
tion and loves a joke, promised to show, since we had 
permitted this much nonsense, that the Latin words 
are much more appropriate than the Greek. " They 
say that cena (' dinner ') has its name from koinonia 
(' fellowship '). The ancient Romans generally took 
their early meal alone, but had dinner along ^y\th 
their friends. The ariston they called prandium be- 
cause of the time of day. For afternoon is endion, and 
they called the rest after the ariston, endiazein (' taking 
a siesta ').<= By the word they meant to signify either 
an ' early ' (proinen) meal or the nourishment which 
they take ' before being in need ' (prin endeeis) of it. 
What is more," Lamprias continued, " leaving aside 
couch covers, -wdne, honey, ohve oil, tasting, proposing 
toasts and so many other things which ob\-iously are 
called by the same name in Latin as in Greek, who 

' irpavSiov (Lat. prandium) seems to be analysed as npo 
evSiov, " before noon ; " tvSiov is the basis of the word evSia- 
Cetv, " take a siesta ; " so that the Roman's prandium is the 
meal " before the siesta." 

163 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(726) eiTTot eTTt kwjjlov^ 'EAAt^vi/ccD? ' Kcofxtaadrov ' Aeye- 
adaL, Koi TO Kepdaai ' fxtaK-qpe ' Kad^ "Ofxrjpov 

7] 8 auT iv^ Kp-qrrjpL p.eXl<f)pova olvov epnaye,^ 

/cat ' firjvaav '* fiev rrjv rpdrret^av a77o rffs iv /xeao) 
decrecos, ' ttSlvlv '^ Se rov dprov (I)S dvievra ttjv ttcl- 
vav, Tov oe arecpavov ' Kopcovav ' drro ttjs K€(f)a- 
Xfjs ctt? "Oixrjpos TO Kpdvos eiKacre ttov aT€(f)dvr), to 
727 o eoeiv ' eSepe '* /cat ' SeWrj? ' tovs ohovTas /cat 
' Xd^pa ' TO, X^^^V^ ^"^^ '^^^ Xafi^dveLV ttjv ^opdv 
St' avTUiv; 

H /cat TOVTOiv ovv aKovoTeov dyeXaaTi Xeyo- 
fxevojv 7] /i'»^8' e/cetvot? evKOTrco's ovTwg Sta t6)v 
ovopiaTOjv ojOTTep Tpiyx^cov to. jxkv eKKOTTTOvai fi^prj 
Ta 8e Kadaipouaiv TrapaSvaeis StScofiev." 

nPOBAHMA Z 

Tlepl (7Vfj.^6Xwv TivdayopiKcaVj ev ots -rrapeKeXevovro ;:^eAt8dpa oiKia 
fj,ij Sexfcrdai Kal to. arpcofMara avvTapaTTeif evdvs dvaaravTas 

Collocuntur Lucius, Sulla, Plutarchus, Philinus 
B 1. SuAAa? o K.apxrjS6vLos ei? ' Po) fj.r)v d(f)t,KOfX€va) 

* Kwfiov Basel edition, Xylander : jSaj/ioi/. 
^ ij 8' out' ev] Tj Se Tpirr] Homer, 

^ e^toye] eKipva Homer. 

* piyjvaav Basel edition : firjvea. 

* ndviv Hubert : Trdv. 

* 8' e8eiv cSepe Buecheler (cf. to 8' l<Sfiv e)KdXovv eSepe 
Graf) : 8c Kalpe 8epe T : 8e Sepeiv KaiSepe Wyttenbach. 

' TO. x^^V Wyttenbach : rdxia-' y- 

" Odyssey, x. 356. 
^ Iliad, vii. 12. 

' When Lamprias (or rather the persons he is satirizing ; 
cf. the last sentence) says that the Latin expressions discussed 

164 



TABLE-TALK MIL 6-7, 72&-727 

could deny that comissatum (' revel ') is derived from 
the Greek word komos (' carousal '), or that mixing is 
called miscere from Homer's line 

She then in a bowl the honey-sweet wine did mix (emisge)," 

and a table called mensa from standing in the middle 
(meson), bread called panis as relieving hunger (peina), 
a WTeath is called corona from ' head,' since Homer 
somewhere likens a hehnet (kranos) to a AVTcath,* or 
that edere (' eat ') is derived from edein, or denies 
(' teeth ') from odontes, or that they call lips labra 
because we seize (lab-) our food (bora) with them ? 

Now we ought either to give a straight-faced 
hearing to these latter derivations, or refuse so easily 
to allow the ones set forth earlier to overwhelm our 
vocabulary, so to speak, breaking through parts and 
tearing dowTi other parts of its fortification-wall." " 



QUESTION 7 

On the Pythagorean precepts not to receive a swallow as 
guest in the house, and to shake up the bedclothes im- 
mediately after rising. 

Speakers : Lucius, Sulla, Plutarch, Philinus 
1. Sulla the Carthaginian,** having proclaimed a 

here are " more appropriate " than the Greek, he means, 
apparently, that they are more subtle, or have a sort of 
" hidden meaning," in being derived — sometimes by a pun- 
ning twist — from Greek words. Actually, while many pairs 
are cognates, the Latin are not derived from the Greek, with 
the possible exceptions of oleum from eXaiov and comisnatum 
from Ku>nos, through Kutftd^cu. 

^ Sextius Sulla is a frequent speaker, on a variety of 
topics, in the Table-Talk, and has an important role in the 
De Facie. 

165 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(727) jU.ot Sta xP^^o^ "^o v7toS€ktik6v, ws 'Poj/iatot Ka- 
Xovaiv, KarayyeiXas SetTrvov aAAous' tc tcov irat- 
pojv TTapeXa^ev ov ttoXXovs /cat MoSeparou rivd tov 
UvOayopiKov [jLaO'qr'qv, ovojjia AevKtov, oltto Tvppr]- 
vlas. ovros ovv opcbv OiAtvov tov r^p^erepov ipipv- 
Xcov drrexopevov, olov eiKos, €ls rovs IlvOayopov 
Xoyovs TTpoT^x^V '*-*^^ Tvpp'qvov d7re(f>'qv€v , ov na- 
rpodev, wGTrep erepoi rives, dAA' avrov iv Tvppr]- 
via /cat yeyovevai /cat redpa.(f>daL /cat TrenaLSevadai 
C TOV Hvdayopav laxvpil^opevos ovx 'qKtara tols 
avp^oXois , olov iari /cat to ovvTapaTTeiv dvaardv- 
ras i^ evvfjs rd OTpiopara /cat ;)(i;Tpa? tvttov 
dpdeiarj'S iv ottoSo) prj drroXeLTreiv dXXd crvyx^^v /cat 
X^XiSovas OLKLa prj hex^fydai p,rj8e adpov VTrep- 
jSatVeiv jurySe yapipdovvxov olkol rpi^eiv' raura yap 
e(l>r] Tcov YivdayopiKwv XeyovTCov /cat ypa(f)6vTcov 
jxovovs ^py<p Tvppr)vovs e^evXa^eZadai /cat (j)V- 

XaTTCLV. 

2. AexdivTOJv Se tovtcov vtto tov AevKiov, 
jLiaAtCTTa TO TCOV ;)(€At8di^a>v dToiriav e;^eiv eSd/cet, 
t^cbov daives /cat (f)iXdvdpcoTrov etpyeadai toIs yap,- 
ifjojvvxoLS opoLCOs, dypicoTaTois ovcnv /cat <j>oviKO}Ta- 

" The Latin is cena adventicia (Suetonius, Vitellius, xiii. 
2 ; Philarg. ad Verg. Eel. v. 74 ; cf. Petronius, Satyricon, xc. 
5), or adventoria (Martial, xii, praef.). The grammarian 
Caper (Keil, Gramm. Lat. vii. 107. 10) prefers the former. 

" Lucius the Pythagorean, who also appears in Question 
8 of this Book, is not the son of Florus (702 f), but is probably 
to be identified with the Lucius of the De Facie. 

' An intimate and perhaps a compatriot of Plutarch, who 
appears many times as a character in his dialogues. His 
vegetarianism is brought out in other passages as well as in 
this one. See BE, s.v. " Plutarchos (2)," col. 681. 

166 



TABLE-TALK VIII. 7, 727 

welcome-dinner (as the Romans call it) " to celebrate 
my arrival in Rome after a long absence, in\'ited a 
small nimiber of close friends, including a certain 
pupil of Moderatus the Pythagorean, named Lucius, 
who was a native of Etruria.** WTien he saw my 
friend Philinus *" abstaining from the flesh of living 
creatures,** he was naturally led to speak about the 
doctrines of Pythagoras. He claimed him as an 
Etruscan,* not through the lineage of his father, as 
others have done, but insisting that Pythagoras was 
born, raised, and educated in Etruria. He stressed 
in support the symbola (" signs "),f Uke those bidding 
one on rising from bed to shake up the bedclothes, 
and not to leave the mark of a pot in the ashes when 
it is lifted, but to stir them up, not to receive swallows 
as guests in the house, not to step over a broom, and 
not to raise in the house a bird -wixh hooked talons. 
He said that though the Pythagoreans have handed 
these precepts down in oral and written tradition, 
the Etruscans are the only people who in fact care- 
fully observe and abide by them. 

2. After Lucius' discussion of these topics, we com- 
mented that the rule about the swallows seemed es- 
pecially strange — keeping out a harmless creature 
which is friendly to man, just the same as the savage 
and murderous birds with hooked talons. The ex- 

"* On the diet of Philinus cf. Mor. 660 z-f. 

• On the lineage of Pythagoras see Diels-Kranz, Frag, der 
Vorsokfi 14.. 8. 

' The Pythagorean symbola (" precepts ") and acusmata 
(" oral teachings ") contain much material from myth, folk- 
lore, and magic. It was probably largely rationalized and 
allegorized from the beginning of the school (sixth century 
B.C.). See Diels-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok.^ 58 c, and Nilsson, 
Oesch. d. gr. Religion, i, pp. 665-670, where further references 
are given. 

167 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(727) , ^ ^ , 

■Q TOis" Kai yap cb /jlovco tlv€S rcov TraAaicDv cpovro 

Xvetv TO avfi^oXov, ojg Trpos rovs Sia^oAous" /cat 

ipidvpovs Twv awqdcov fiviypievov, ouS' avTos 6 

AevKLOs iSoKLiJ,at,ev ifjidvptafiov fiev yap -rJKiara 

;\;eAt8dvi [xerearL, AaAtas" Se Kal 7ToXv(f)OJvLas ov 

jLtaAAov 7} Kirrais Kal Tre'pSt^i /cat dXeKTopiaiv. 

" *Ap' ouv," o SuAAa? e07j, " Bia rov fxvdov rov 

Trept Trjv TzatSo^oviav a(l)oaLovvrai ras x^Xihovas , 

arrcodev rjixas Trpos e/cetva ra Tradrj hia^aXXovres , i^ 

(hv rov Trjpea /cat ras yvvalKag to} jxkv hpdaai to. 

he TTaOetv ddeopia /cat crxerXta Xeyovat, /cat p-^xpi- 

vvv AauAiSas' ovofid^ovaiv rds opvidas, Topytas 8' 

o ao(f)iGTrjs , ;^eAt8oros" d(f>eiaris err* avrov aTTOTrarov, 

E ava^Xeipas Trpos avrr^v, ' ov KaXd ravr\' eiTret', ' w 
^iXofx-^Xa' ; rj Kal tovto Kevov^ eartv; rrjv yap 
d'qSova, rals avrals rpaycohiais €vo)(ov ovaav, ovk 
dneipyovGiv ovSe ^evqXaTovaLV ." 

3. " "laojs," e<f>y]v eyco, " Kat raur' e^^t Aoyov, 
CO SuAAa. cr/coTret 8e ju?) Trpcorov fiev, w Xoyu) to 
yapiipoivvxov ov TrpoaUvTat, rovrcp Kal rj ;](€At86t)v 
aSo^et Trap* avroZs' aapKO(j>dyos ydp eoriv Kal jxd- 
Xtara rovs remyas, lepovs Kal jxovaiKovs ovras, 
dTTOKTLVVvaL Kal airelraL' Kal rrpoayeios avrrjs rj 
TTTrjais ianv, rd /xt/cpd /cat XeTrrd rcbv t,a>cov dy- 

F pevovarjs, cu? (f)7]at,v * ApLaroreXrjg . CTreira fiovr) 
TciJv 6ixojpo(f}iix}v davpu^oXos ivoLKet Kal dreXrjS iv- 

^ ra Xylander : ras. 
^ Kevov Meziriacus : kolvov. 

" In the well-known story Philomela was changed into a 
swallow and Procne into a nightingale. The emotions Plu- 
tarch refers to include both Tereus' lust for his sister-in-law 
and the anger which impelled Procne to kill her own son (and 

168 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 7, 727 

planation which some of the ancients had regarded 
as sufficient in itself to explain the hidden meaning, 
that the precept conceals a reference to slanderous, 
whispering associates, was rejected by Lucius him- 
self. Whispering is actually not a characteristic of 
swallows, nor is chattering or garrulity any more 
characteristic of them than of jays or partridges or 
hens. 

" Well then," said Sulla, " do they avoid the swal- 
low because of the myth about the slaying of the child, 
going so far afield to set us against those emotions 
which led, in the story, to the unholy and cruel things 
that were done by or to Tereus and Procne and 
Philomela ? <• Even now people call these birds the 
' ladies from Daulis.' Gorgias the sophist, when a 
swallow let fall a dropping on him, looked up at her 
and said, ' Watch your manners, Philomela I ' * Or 
is this explanation also worthless ? For they do not 
bar the nightingale or deport her as an alien, though 
she had her part in the same tragic events." 

3. " Doubtless, Sulla," I said, " there is much in 
what you say. But consider the following points. Is 
the swallow perhaps in bad repute among the Pytha- 
goreans for the same reason as the birds -with 
hooked talons ? She is a flesh-eater, and is especially 
prone to kill and feed on cicadas, sacred and musical 
insects."^ Also, she flies close to the ground, hunting 
tiny, minute creatures, as Aristotle remarks. '^ Then 
she alone, of the creatures that share man's roof, lives 
and eats there without making a contribution or 

his) in requital. Daulis is a city in Phocis, where Tereus 
lived. 

* Diels-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok.* 82 A 23. 

* On the cicada see especially Anacreontea, 34 (L.C.L.), 
Steier in RE, s.v. " tettix." <* Frag. 353 Rose. 

169 



PLUTARCH'S MORAI.IA 

(727) SiaiTarai" Kairoi o ye TreXapyos ovre crK€7TYjg fier- 
ex^JV ovr' dXeas ovt' aSetas' rivos r] ^orjOeias Trap 
rjpXv ini^adpov ri rrjs areyrjs^ SlBcoglv, to. yap 
€7TL^ovXa /cat TToXefjLLa rcbv avdpcoTTa)v, <j>pvvovs 
Koi. o(f)€LS, dvaipei TrepuoiV rj Se navTCOV rv^pvoa 
Tovrojv, orav eKdpi^rj koL reXeioiar) rovs veoaaovs, 
728 dveLaiv axo-picrros yevofxevr) Kal dmaTos.^ o 8e 
SetvoraTov iari, fiova rcov avvoiKCDv jjivla /cat 
;^eAt8cui' o{)x r)fJ'€povrai irpos dvdpcoTTOv ovB' dv- 
ex^rai ijjavaLV ou8' opuXiav oi58e Koivcxjviav epyov 
Ttvos 1^ 77at8ta?, 1^ fjLev fxvla (fyo^ovpiivrj rip Tracrp^etv 
Ka/ccDs /cat hiaao^eZadaL TToXXaKts, 17 8e ;^eAi8ajv Ta> 
(f>va€(, piLadvdpcoTTos elvai /cat 8t' diriarLav dridaaev- 
ros del /cat vrroTrros' eiTrep ovv 8et rd roLavra p/q 
/car' evdviopiav dXX dvaKXdaavrag txiOTrep e/Lt^aaet? 
erepoiv ev irepois deojpelv, Trapdbeiyfxa rds X^^^" 
Soi-'a? Tov d^e^aiov /cat dx^piaTov dep,evos ovk id 
rovs eveKa Kaipov TTpoa(f)epopevovs Kal VTTohvo- 
B p,evovs TTOLeZadai avv^Oeig em irXeov, earias Kal 
OLKOV Kal rcov dyicordrcov /LteraStSovTa?." 

4. Taur' elncbv eyoi /xot 80/ca) TrotTjaat Xoyojv 
dSeiav evdapaibs ydp rjSrj rolg aAAots" avp-^oXois 
TTpocrrjyov, rjOiKas eTTteiKcos rroiovpievoi rd? Xvaeig 
avrdjv. rrjs piev ydp x^rpas rov rvTTov €(f)r) OtAtvo? 
d<f>avLl^€t,v avrovs St8aCT/covTa? ort 8et pirjhev dpyrjs 
ev8rjXov drroXeiTTeiv lx^^^> dAA' orav dvat,eaaaa 



^ areyT]? Reiske : yijs T : Sial-rrjs Paton. 
^ dmaros Turnebus : dirvcrTos. 



170 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 7, 727-728 

paying a share. Yet the stork, which receives 
neither shelter nor warmth nor any security or help 
from us, pays a rent for his roof-top perch, by making 
the rounds and killing toads and snakqs, which are 
treacherous and hostile to man, while the swallow, 
though she does get all these benefits, is gone as 
soon as she has hatched and raised her young, like 
the suspicious ingrate that she is. But the most 
telling point is that of all creatures that share man's 
dwelUng, the fly and the swallow alone cannot be 
domesticated. They ^%^ll not let themselves be 
touched, or allow any companionship, or share in any 
task or recreation. Flies are timid because they are 
harshly treated and constantly shooed away ; but 
the swallow is shy because of inborn misanthropy and 
because, not trusting us, she is always untamable 
and suspicious. Now if the proper method, in study- 
ing this kind of subject-matter, is not simply to seek 
a direct answer, but to note reflections, as it were, of 
one thing in another, then the intention of Pytha- 
goras, in making the swallow an example of fickleness 
and thanklessness, was to forbid us, when persons 
come to us and take shelter because of some emer- 
gency, to make them our close associates for any 
longer period than is necessary, or allow them to 
share in the hearth and the household or our most 
sacred concerns." 

■i. My words seem to have amounted to a removal 
of inhibitions for the rest, for now they confidently 
attacked the other " signs," proposing explanations 
that were mainly ethical. For example, Philinus said 
that the Pythagoreans obliterate the mark of a pot 
from the ashes as a lesson that we must let no obvious 
trace of anger remain. Rather, once the boiHng over 

171 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(728) TTavarjrac Kal Karaarfj, Trdcrav e^aXrjXi^dai fxvTjai- 
KaKiav. 

*H 8e Tcjjv arpoifidrcov ovvrdpa^is iviois fxev 

iSoKCL jjL-qOev e^^tv d7TOK€Kpvfjifji€vov, aAA' avrodev 

(f>aiveadaL to jjut] TrpeTTov, dvSpl GvyKeKoifXTjfxevrjs 

yafjierrjs ;^a)pav opdadai koI tvttov wGircp eKfjiayelov 

C aTToAeiTTo/xeror. 

'0 Se HuAAa? pidXXov et/ca^e KOLfjL-qaecxJS jxedrj- 
ixepivrj's dTTorpoTTriv elvai ro arvfji^oXov, dvaipov- 
fjLevr^S ecodev evdvs t7]s rrpos rov vttvov TrapaaKevrj?' 
o)? vvKTOS dvaiTavcadaL Selv, rjnepas Se Trpdrreiv 
avaaravras Kal p/t) Treptopdv olov t^vos" aa)p,aro9^' 
ovBev yap dvhpos 6(l)eXos KadevSovTos, coaTrep ovhe 
redvqKoros. tovtoi^ 8e avp,p,aprvp€lv eSo/cet Kal 
TO TTapeyyvdv tovs YlvdayopcKovs rotS" eTaipoi? 
ixrjhevos d<i)aipeZv ^dpos, crvveTTLTidevai 8e Kal 
avv€7n(f)opTLt,€iv , d)S p,rjSep.iav (7)(oXrjv /XTySe paaTCO- 
VTjv d7roSe)(^ofj,€Vov? . 

nPOBAHMA H 

Aia Ti fxdXicrra ol HvOaYopiKoi efxipvxojv rovs Ix^vs TraprjTOWTO ; 

Collocuntur Empedocles, Lucius, Theo, Sulla, Plutarchus, 
Nestor 

1. 'Evret 8e tovtojv Xeyop-evwv 6 AevKio^ ovt€ 
D i/jeyojv ovT^ eTraivcDp', aAA' r]av)(iav dycov, cnyfj 8e 
Kal Kad^ iavTOV opcjv rjKovev, ovofiaaTl KaXeoas 
Tov SuAAav o 'Kp,7re8oKXrjs, " AevKios," elirev, " 6 
eTalpos el p,€v d^OeTai toZs Xeyop^evois, copa Trerrav- 
adai Kal i^/xas" el 8e TavTa tcov vtto ttjv exepivdiav 

^ Kcufiaros Sandbach. 

" Only named here. 
172 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 7-8, 728 

is ended and there is peace, all remembrance of evil 
must be erased from the mind. 

The shaking up of the bedclothes seemed to some 
to have no hidden meaning ; they thought there was 
impropriety in the very fact, when a man's wife had 
slept with him, of the place being seen, marked as 
with a seal-impression. 

Sulla thought it more likely that the precept was 
intended to discourage daytime napping, sleeping 
equipment being removed the first thing in the 
morning. One should rest at night and in the day- 
time get up and be active, without neglecting to 
remove every trace of a dead body. You might as 
well say dead, for a man asleep is no more use than a 
dead man. He thought there was additional e\'idence 
for this interpretation in the fact that the Pytha- 
goreans recommend to their comrades not to relieve 
anyone of a load but to help add to his burden and 
increase the load, thus showing their disapproval of 
all slacking and indolence. 



QUESTION 8 

Why the Pjiiiagoreans used to abstain from fish more 
strictly than from any other living creature. 

Speakers : Empedocles, Lucius, Theon, Sulla, 
Plutarch, Nestor 

1. SiNXE, during this discussion, Lucius Ustened 
without a word of approval or disapproval, but held 
his peace and quietly kept his eyes to himself, Em- 
pedocles" said, addressing himself to Sulla, " If our 
friend Lucius finds the conversation disagreeable, the 
time has come for us too to have done with it. But 
though these may be among the topics that lie under 

173 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(728) eariv, aAA' e/cetvo ye Bokco /xt^t' apprjTov elvai yir]T 
dve^oLGTov TTpos erepovs, otl Srj pLaXiara rojv 
l)(dv(jov aTTei-)(ovro' koI yap laTopelrat. rovro Trepi 
TCtJV 7TaXaLa)v IlvdayopLKoJv, Kal rov Kad' rjjxds 
^AXe^iKparovs iverv^ov fjLadrjrals d'AAa fiev efn/jvx'^ 

E eariv ore pberpiojs 'npoa<j>epopi€.voLg Kal vrj Aia dv~ 
ovoiv, t)(6vos Se [j,r] yevaaadai ro vrapaTrav tnrofxe- 
vovGLV. rjv Se TvvBdprjs 6 AaKcSaifjLovtos alriav 
eXeyev, ovk dtroSexofiai,.^ eXeye Se rr]? ep^e/Au^ta? 
TovTo yepas etvai /cat' rovs Ix^vs KaXelv eXXoTras* 
olov lXXofMevr)v rrjv ovra /cat KadeipyoiJLevrjv €)(ovTas' 
/cat Tov oyioivvixov eyLol ra> Ylavaavia^ HvdayopiKw? 
TTapaivelv^ rd Soypbara ' areydaai <f)pev6g cXXottos 

F etCTOj/' /cat oXcos OeZov rjyeLadaL rrjv aicoTrrjv rovs 
dvBpas, are Srj /cat rcbv dechv epyois /cat Trpdyp^aoLV 
dvev <f>Oi}vris eTTtSet/cvu/LteVcoi' a ^ovXovrai rots 
^vveroLS." 

2. Tov Se Aeu/ctou irpdajs /cat d^eAaj? etTrovro?, 
cu? 6 pikv dXr]dr]s iaojg Xoyos /cat vvv drToderog /cat 
aTTopprjTos (LT), TOV Se TTidavov /cat eiKoros ov 
(f)d6vos aTTOTTeipdadai, TrpdJros 0e'a>v d ypa/x/Ltari/cds' 

1 efiipvx' added by Hubert (c/. Athen. vii. 308 b). 

^ eAeyer, oi5/c aTToSexofiai, supplied by Reiske, Bernardakis. 

^ Kal added by Wyttenbach. 

* lAAoTras added by Xylander. 

* Tlavaavla Diels : Travaafievcoi. 

* irapaiveiv Wyttenbach : irepaiveiv. 

' Diels, after Wyttenbach : areyovaai <f>p€v6s oAA' orrep 

" At Mor. 670 d, Plutarch makes another speaker say 
that, of sea-creatures, the Pythagoreans abstained especially 

174 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 8, 728 

the ban of silence, I do not suppose that the fact is se- 
cret or esoteric that they used to abstain especially 
from fish." Not only is this reported of the ancient 
Pythagoreans, but I have also met pupils of Alexi- 
crates, our contemporary, who sometimes used the 
flesh of other h\-ing creatures in moderation, and 
even offered it in sacrifice, but who could not bear to 
taste fish at all. The reason advanced by the Lace- 
daemonian Tyndares ^ I cannot accept, that this ab- 
stention is out of regard for their silence, and that 
they call fish ellops (' silent ') " because they keep their 
mouths shut and under restraint. He said it was in 
accordance vrith the Pythagorean rule that my name- 
sake exhorted Pausanias to ' hide within a silent 
{ellops) mind ' his doctrines,'' and that in general 
the early Pythagoreans considered silence a godhke 
thing, since even the gods reveal their wishes, to 
those who can understand them, by acts and deeds 
without speech." 

2. Lucius said, quietly and simply, that while the 
true reason is doubtless now as before secret and 
incommunicable, no one would mind our seeing what 
plausible or probable answer we could find. Theon, 
the professor of Hterature, was the first speaker, and 

from the anemone and the red mullet. On food-taboos and 
vegetarianism in general see Porphyry, De Ahstinentia ; 
Haussleiter, Ber Vegetarismus in der Antike (Berlin, 1935) ; 
Delatte, " Faba Pythagorae Cognata," Serta Leodiensia 
(Li^ge, 1930), pp. 33-57. 

* See note to 7 1 7 z. 

' IXkoifi probably meant " scaly " (c/. AeTros), but Plutarch 
and others thought it meant " mute " ; it is derived here 
from the roots IX-, " shut," and oti-, " voice." Cf. also 
Athenaeus, vii. 308 b-d. 

** Diels-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok.^ 31 B 5. (Empedocles' 
poem was addressed to his friend Pausanias.) 

175 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(728) etrrev, on Tvpprjvov jxkv aiTohei^ai Xlvdayopav /xey* 
729 epyov eit] /cat ov paSiov " AlyvTrricov 8e rot? ao(f>ol'5 
avyyeveaOai ttoAuv xP^^ov 6p,oXoy€Lrai, t,rjXa)aai, re 
TToAAa Kal SoKLndaai, fidXiara tcov Trepl ras Upari- 
Kas ayiareias, oiov iari Kal ro rcov KvdpLOJv ovre 
yap OTTelpeLV ovre aireladai Kva/jLov AtyvTrrtovs, 
oAA' ovS* 6p(x>vras dvex^crdat cfiYjaiv 6 'HpoBoros. 
iX^vcov Se* rovs tepets la/xev en vvv drrexoiJievovs- 
ayvevovres Se Kal rov dXa ^evyovatv, wg /^i^r' oijjov 
'iTpoa<f>ep€.adaL (Jirjr* dprov^ dXal daXarrioLS fxefity- 
jxevov. dXXoi /xev ovv aAAa? alrlag (f>€povaiv eari 
S' dXrjdrjg jxia, ro rrpos ttjv ddXarrav e^dos <hs 

B davpL(f>vXov Tjixlv Kal dXXorpLov /xaAAot' S' oXcos 
TToXejjLiov rfj <f)vaei rov dvOpcoTTov arotx^^ov. ov 
yap Tpe(f)€adaL rovs deovs drr' avrrjs, wairep ol 
Stoii/coi tovs darepas, inroXafi^dvovacv , dXXd 
Tovvavriov els ravrrju dTToXXvcrdaL rov Trarepa Kal 
acorrjpa rrjs ;^a»/)a9, ov 'OcrtptSo? dTTopporjv ovofid- 
^ovaiv Kal dpnrjvovvTes rov iv rots' dpiarepoXs fie peat 
yevviofievov ev 8e rots Se^iot? (f)6eip6fjievov alvir- 
TOVTai T7]v rod NetAou TeXevrrjv Kal (f)6opdv ev rfj 
daXdrrr) yt,vop,ev7]v. oOev ovre to vhojp TTOTLfMov 
avrrjs ov9' d)V rpe^ei tl Kal yevva Kadapov rjyovvrai, 
Kal OLKelov, ols pi'qre Twevfiaros kolvov fi'qre avp.- 

C (l>vXov vofirjs pier ear IV, dXX 6 aw^cov mdvra rdXXa 

^ 8c Hubert : Se koI. ' aprov added by Hubert. 

" Herodotus, ii. 37. 
176 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 8, 728-729 

remarked that it is a considerable task, and not an 
easy one, to prove that Pythagoras was an Etrus- 
can. " But it is fully agreed that he associated for 
a long while ^\iih the wise men of Eg}-pt, and that he 
emulated them in many ways and considered them 
to be of verj' great authority in matters of priestly 
ritual. An example is abstention from beans ; 
Herodotus ° says that the Egyptians neither plant 
nor eat beans, and cannot even bear to look at them ; 
and we know that even now the priests abstain from 
fish. They also consider it a religious duty to avoid 
salt, so that neither cooked food nor bread seasoned 
with salt from the sea is served.* Various reasons 
are given for this, but only one is true : their hatred 
for the sea as an element unrelated and alien, or 
rather completely hostile to man by nature. They 
do not believe that the gods are nourished by it, as 
the Stoics suppose the stars are,*^ but on the contrary, 
that the father and sa\iour of their countrj', whom 
they call an emanation of Osiris, perishes in it.** When 
they mourn for him who is brought forth on the left 
and perishes on the right, they are referring crypti- 
cally to the death and destruction of the Nile in the 
sea.' Hence they neither consider sea-water potable, 
nor any of the creatures it nourishes as ritually pure 
or edible, since they do not partake of air in common 
with us nor live in our congenial habitat. Xo, the 
air which preserves and nourishes everj^thing else is 

* On the Egyptians and salt cf. Mor. 352 f, 363 e, and 
supra. Book V, Question 10. 

• Cf. von Arnim, S. V.F, i. 121 (the sun), ii. 690 (the stars 
nourished by exhalation from the earth). 

•* The Nile is an emanation (" effusion," " outpouring ") 
of Osiris : Plutarch, De hide et Osiride, xxxvi. 365 b and the 
passages cited there. • Ibid, xxxii. 363 e. 

177 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(729) /cat rp4<f)a}v drjp CKeCvois oXidpios ianv, (vs Tiapa 
<f>vaLv /cat ;^/[)eiav yeyovoat /cat ^ojaiv. ov Set Se 
Oavfidl^eLV, el rd ^cpa Sid rrjv ddXaTrav dXXorpLa 
/cat ovK eTTLT-qSeta Karaixiyvvadai els alfjua /cat 
TTvevfia vofxi^ovGLV avT(ji)v, ol ye [xrjSe rovs Kv^ep- 
vqras d^Lovai Tcpoaayopeveiv dTTavrcovres , on rov 
j8tov aTTo daXdrrrjs exovaiv." 

3. Taur' eTvaiveaas 6 SuAAa? rrpoaelTre nepl rdjv 
UvdayoptKwv, d)s pLaXiara p-ev eyevovro rcov iepo- 
dvrcov dirap^dp^evoL rols deois, Ix^vcov Se dvaLp,os 
ovoets ovo Lepev(jLp.os eariv. 
D 'Eycu Se, TTavaafxevojv e/ceiVcai/, AlyvTrrlots p^ev 
ecfyrjv vnep rrjg daXdrrrjs ttoXXovs pax^ladai /cat 
<^LXoa6(f)ov'5 /cat tStajra?, eKXoyit,opievovs oaoLS dya- 
dots evTTopiorepov /cat T^Sto) rov ^iov r}p,cJov TTeTTolrj- 
Kev. " rj Se t<jov YlvdayopiKayv Trpos rov l^Ovv 
eKexeipla Sid to /at) avp,<f>vXov droTTOs koL yeXoia, 
p,dXXov 8' dvrjpiepos oXcos /cat Ku/cAcoTreiov ri roXs 
dXXois yepas vep,ovaa rrjs avyyevelas /cat rrjs ol- 
KeiOTTjTos , oijjoTTOLovpLevois KoL dvoXiaKop^evoLS vtt' 
avTU)V. /catVot ^oXov Ixdvojv Trpiaadai irore ^aot 
rov WvOayopav, elr* d^eZvai KeXevaai Trjv aayrjvrjv, 
ovx d)S dXXocf)vXcov /cat TToXep-icDV dp.eX'qaavra rcov 
E Ixdvojv dAA' d)s vTTep <f}LXo}v /cat olKelcov yeyovonov 
alxP'O.XcoTcov Xvrpa Kara^dXXovra. Std rowavrtov," 
e(j)rjv, " VTTovoelv rcov dvSpwv r) e77iet/ceta /cat Trpa- 

" For similar ideas cf. supra. Book IV, Question 4 : 
" Whether the sea provides better food than the land," 
" Cf. Mor. 363 e. 
' The Cyclops promised Odysseus : " No-man I shall eat 

178 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 8, 729 

fatal to them, since they are born and live contrary 
to nature and propriety." It is not surprising if the 
Egyptians think that sea-creatures are because of the 
sea foreign to them and unfit to be compounded with 
their blood and breath — a people who \vi\\ not even 
greet sea-captains when they meet them, because 
they make a living from the sea." ^ 

3. Agreeing with this, Sulla added, concerning the 
Pythagoreans, that if they tasted flesh it was most 
often that of sacrificial animals, and after a pre- 
liminary' offering to the gods, but that no fish is fit 
for dedication or sacrifice. 

When they had finished, I said that many people, 
both philosophers and laymen, would defend the sea 
against the Egyptians, by reckoning up the great 
contributions it has made to the ease and pleasure of 
himaan life. " The idea that the Pythagoreans main- 
tain a truce with fish because fish are not related to 
us is grotesque and ridiculous, or rather completely 
savage. It bestows upon other creatures a Cyclopean 
gift "^ for their kinship and close relationship — that of 
being dressed and eaten ! Yet they say that Pytha- 
goras once bought a netful of fish and then ordered 
the net to be cast off. He was not indifferent to fish 
as being of another race or hostile, but paid a ransom 
for them as for friends and relatives who had been 
captured."* Therefore, to reverse your argument, the 
nobiUty and gentleness of those men makes me sus- 

last, after his companions. . . . This shall be your gift." 
Homer, Odyssey, ix. 369 f. 

"* Cf. Mot. 91 c. In Porphyry, Vita Pythag. xxv, and 
lamblichus, Vita Pythag. xxxvi, the release of the fish is re- 
lated in connexion with Pjiihagoras' miraculous prediction 
of the number that would be found in a net being drawn in ; 
no reason is given. 

179 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(729) OTTjs Sibcoaiv, [h^ttot* dpa fjLcXerrjs eveKev rod 
hiKaiov Kol avvrjdeLas e^eihovro fidXiara tcjv iv- 
aXicov, COS TctAAa /xev alriav ducoayeTTcos TTapexovra 
Tov KaKcos Trdax^iv rco dvdpojTTCo, rovs S' Ixdvs 
ovSev dBcKovvras 'qfxds, oj3S' el irdw 7Te(f)VKaai 
Svvdfievoi.^ TrdpeoTL Se rdJv re Xoycov /cat rdjv 
lepdjv et/ca^etv rols TvaAaiot?, tt>? ov [movov iScoBrjv 
dXXd Kal (f)6vov ^(pov firj ^Xdvrovros epyov iva- 
F yes Kal dOeafiov eTTOLOvvro- irX-qdet S' e7rt;^eo/xeVa> 
Kadeipyofievoi Kal XRV^H-^^ rivos, ws <f>aaiv, Ik 
AeX(f)cov eTTLKeXevaa/Jievov rols KapTTois dprjyeiv 
(f>deLpopievois , rjp^avro p,ev Kadiepeveiv en S' o/xajs 
raparrop^evoi Kal Beifxaivovres ' epheiv ' fiev eKd- 
Xovv Kal ' pe^eiv,'^ cS? ri p-eya Spojvres ro dveiv 
efii/jv^ov, dxpi 8e vvv 7Tapa(f)vXdrrovatv laxvpdJs ro 
fJLT] a(l>drret,v Trplv emvevaat Karaairevhopievov . ov- 
rcos evXa^els Trpos aVacrav dhiKLav rjaav. KairoL, 
730 Iva rdXX edacojjiev, el pLovov dXeKropihcov aTreixovro 
rrdvres t] haavTTohoyv , ovk dv rjv xP^vov ^paxios 
VTTO TrXiqdovs ovre ttoXlv oLKelv ovre Kapircov ova- 
adaf Sto TTys" dvdyKrjs eiTayovarjs ro Trpcorov, '^St] 
Kal St' rjSov^v epyov iarlv navaai rrjv aapKo^ayiav. 
ro he rwv daXarricov yevos ovr' depa rov avrov 
ovd' vSojp dvaXiaKov rjpuv ovre Kapnols Trpoaiov, 
oAA' cooTTep erepcp KoapLco Trepiexop-evov Kal XP^~ 
fjievov opoLS IStois, ovs vrrep^aivovaiv avrots eVt- 
Keirai hiKf] 6 davaros, ovre jXLKpdv ovre peydXrjv 
rfj yaarpl 7Tp6(j)aaiv /car' avrcbv SlSojolv dXXd 

^ Svvdfievoi Hubert (after Xylander) : Swanevovs. 
^ pe^eiv Xylander : pai^eiv. 

" i.e. making or doing sacrifice ; a common euphemism. 
180 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 8, 729-730 

pect that they were especially disposed to spare sea- 
creatures out of regard for justice and a common 
morality, with the thought that each of the rest in 
some way or other gives man an excuse to treat it 
badly, while fish do us no harm, no matter how capable 
they are of doing so. It is possible to conclude, both 
from the words and from the rehgious observances 
of the ancients, that they considered it an unholy 
and unlawful act not only to eat but even to kill a 
living being that did them no harm. But when they 
began to be crowded by their ever-increasing num- 
bers, and an oracle from Delphi (as the story goes) 
bade them succour the fruits of the earth which were 
being destroyed, they began to make sacrifices. Yet 
they were still revolted and terrified by what they 
did and called it simply ' making ' or ' doing.' " They 
considered it doing some great thing to sacrifice liWng 
animals, and even now people are very careful not to 
kill the animal till a drink-offering is poured over him 
and he shakes his head in assent. Such precaution 
they took to avoid any unjust act. Yet, leaving other 
considerations aside, if everyone should abstain from 
eating chickens alone, say, or hares, in a short time 
their number would make it impossible to maintain 
city life or to reap a harvest. Thus though necessity 
alone introduced the custom, the pleasures of life 
now also add to the difficulty of abolishing our car- 
nivorous habits. The tribe of sea-creatures, however, 
provides our belly no pretext large or small for 
aggression against it ; it neither uses the same air or 
water as ourselves nor attacks our crops, but is sur- 
rounded as it were by another world, vrith boundaries 
of its own which cannot be transgressed except on 
penalty of death. It is very obvious that angling or 

181 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(730) TTavros Ix^vos dypa /cat aayrjvela Xaifiapyias Kai 
B (f)tXoiffLas 7T€pi(f>avws epyov iarlv, in* ovSevl SiKaCco 
rapaTTOVcrrjs ra TreActyj] /cat KaraSvofievqs els rov 
^vdov. ovre yap rpiyXav eariv 87)7x01; ' Ai^tjSoret- 
pav ' ovre aKapov ' rpvyq^ayov ' ovre Kearpeis Tt- 
f a? r) AajSpa/ca? ' OTre p/xoXoyovs ' TrpoaenreLV, (hs to. 
X^poata Karrjyopovvres ovoju.a^o/xev dAA' ouS' ocra 
yaXfj /cat p,vi^ KaroLKihiii) jjiLKpoXoycos eyKaXov- 
jxev, €xoL TLS civ alridaacrdai rov jxeyiarov Ix^vv. 
odev dvetpyovres iavrovs ov vofxcp fxovov^ rrjs Trpos 
dvdpoiTTOv dhiKias dXXd /cat (f)va€i rrjs Trpos drrav 

TO /Xt) ^XoLTTTOVy TjKLaTa Tcbv OlpOJV €XpCOVTO TOIS 

IxQvatv ri TO irapdrrav ovk ixp(^VTO- Kai yap dvev 
C Ti]s dSt/cta? aKpaaiav nvd /cat Ai;)^i'eiav' ifjL(f)aiveiv 
€0(,K€v rj TTcpl ravra Trpay/jiareLa TToXvTeXrjs ovaa 
/cat TTepUpyos. odev "Op,'r]pos ov jjlovov tovs "EA- 
Ai^va? Ixdvcov aTTexop^ivovs TreTToirjKe Trapd tov 
'YiXXrioTTovTov arparoTTeSevovras, dAA' ovSe rols 
d^po^LOLS Oata^tv ovSe rols dacorots p,vr]arrjpai,v, 
dpi(f)orepois ovaiv V7]aid)rais, daXdmov Trapare- 
deLKev oijjov ol S' 'OSuaaecos' eratpoi, roaavrrjv 
TrXeovres ddXarrav, ovSajjiov KadrJKav dyKiarpov 
ovbe TTopKov ovSe Slktvov dX^lrojv Trapovrcov 

dAA' oT€ St) vr]6s e^e<j)diro rjia Trdvra, 

pLiKpov ep^TTpoadev ^ rat? tov 'HAtou ^ovalv eTTixet- 
D pelv, Ix^vs dypevovTes , ovk oiJjov dXXd rpocfyrjv 

^ fivl Reiske : fiviai. 
' fiovov Bernardakis : fi6v<^. 

183 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 8, 730 

seining for any kind of fish is an act of gluttony and 
of gormandize, disturbing the waters and descending 
into the depths ^\-ith no rightful excuse. Certainly no 
one can call the red mullet ' crop-devouring ' or the 
parrot-wrasse ' grape-eater ' or the grey mullet or sea- 
bass ' seed-steaUng ' — our reproachful epithets for 
land-animals." Not even our niggardly complaints 
about the marten or the domestic mouse could be ap- 
plied to a fish — even the largest of them. Therefore 
the Pythagoreans, restraining themselves, not only, 
according to positive law, from injustice toward man, 
but also according to natural law from harming any- 
thing harmless, used fish least of all foods, or made 
no use of it. In fact, even apart from the question of 
right, there must be some tinge of self-indulgence 
and high li\-ing in the whole industry" or we should 
not invest such funds and display so much ingenuity 
in it. This is why Homer not only represented the 
Greeks as abstaining from fish, though their camp 
was on the shore of the Hellespont, but did not even 
set a fish-course before the soft-li\ing Phaeacians or 
the dissolute suitors, though both groups were 
islanders. The companions of Odysseus, in so long a 
voyage, never let down a hook or a fish-trap or a net 
as long as they had flour ; 

But when all the stores were gone from out the ship, * 

a little while before they laid hands on the cattle of 
the Sun , in order to provide themselves — not with a 

• The first of these adjectives is applied by Homer to a 
wild sow {Odyssey, xviii. 29) ; the second, in a slightly 
different form, by Archilochus to an ass (frag. 97 Bergk, 
Edmonds, 102 Diehl) ; the third by Aristophanes to birds 
generallv {Birds, 232, 579). 

* Odyssey, xii. 329 ff. 

183 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(730) dvayKaiav eTTOLOvvro 

yvafjLTTToXs ayKiarpoiaiv ereipe Se yaorepa Xi,fj,6s, 

V7t6 rrjs avTrJ9 dvdyKrjs Lxdvcn re ')(^pcop.evwv koI 
rd'S Tov 'HAtoy ^ovs Kareadiovrcov. odev ov Trap* 
AlyvTTTLOLS jjiovov ovhe HvpoLS, dXXd Kal Trap* 
"EiXXrjai yeyovev dyveias f^epos (xtto;)^ Ixdvcov, fierd 
TOV SiKaiov Kal to irepUpyov of/Liat xTys ^pcoaecos 

dTToStOTTO/XTTOUjMeVoiS' . " 

4. 'YTToXa^cov S' d ^earcop, " rajv S' i/jicov," €(f>r], 
" TToXiroJv a)G7Tep M.eyapecov ovhels Adyo?; Kairoi 
TToXKoLKis aKif^Koas epuov Xeyovros, on ol ev AeTrret^ 
TOV Hooeihojvog tepets", ov? lepofivqfMovag KaXovp^ev, 
iX^^S ovK eoOiovaiv 6 yap deos Xeyer ai ^vrdXpnos . 

E ol S' d(j) "EAArjvos" TOV TTaXaiov /cat rraTpoyeveltp 
Woaeihoiivi dvovaiv, €k ttjs vypds tov dvdpcoTTOv 
ovaias (j)vvaL ho^avTCs , d)s Kal T^vpof Sio Kal ae- 
^ovrat TOV l^^vv, cvs opLoyevrj Kal avvTpo(f)ov, 
iiTLeiKeaTepov * Ava^tpidvSpov <jiLXoao<f>ovvTe?' ov 
yap €v Tols avToZs eKelvog IxOvg Kal dvdpojirovs, 
aAA' €V Ixdvaiv eyyeveadai to TrpaJTOv dvdpcoTTOvs 
dnocfiaLveTai. Kal Tpa(f>€VTas warrep ol yaXeol^ Kal 
yevo/xevovs iKavovs eavTols ^orjdelv eK^rjvat, ttjvl- r 
KavTa Kal yi]s Xa^eadai. KaddTrep ovv to nvp tt^v |' 
vXrjv, e^ rj? dv'^(f)dr), ixrjTepa Kal Trarep' ovaav, j 

F TjodLev, d)S 6 TOV Kt^ukos" ydpiov els ra 'HoloSov ' 
TTapepi^aXajv etprjKev, ovtojs 6 * Ava^tjJLavSpos tojv 
dvdpo)7T(DV TTaTepa Kal jjirjTepa kolvov dTro^Tyva? 
TOV ix^vv hie^aXev irpos Tiqv ^pdjoiv." 

^ Ol ev Ke-rrrei Bernardakis : ael ol. 
* yoAeoi Emperius : TT-oAaiol. 

184 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 8, 730 

dinner, but with sustenance — they caught fish 

With curved hooks, for hunger gnawed our bellies." 

It was the same compulsion that forced them to use 
fish and to devour the cattle of the Sun. We can con- 
clude that abstinence from fish has been an element 
of sanctity not only among Egyptians or Syrians, but 
among Greeks as well. The intention. I think, is to do 
what is right, but also to get rid of the comphcated 
luxury involved in the consumption of fish." 

4. Nestor ^ exclaimed, in reply, " Do you take no 
account of my countrymen, like the proverbial Me- 
garians ? Yet you have often heard me say that in 
Leptis the priests of Poseidon, whom we call ' re- 
membrancers,' do not eat fish, for the god is called 
' life-fostering.' Those descended from Hellen of old 
have also sacrificed to ' patriarchal Poseidon,' believ- 
ing as the S}Tians do that man developed from the 
moist element. So they also revere the fish, as being 
one with us in race and nurture, which is more 
reasonable as philosophy than Anaximander's theory.*' 
He affirms, not that men and fish were developed in 
the same environment, but that men were first en- 
gendered and nourished inside fish, as dog-fishes are, 
and when they were mature enough to look out for 
themselves, at that point they came out and took to 
the land. As fire consumes its mother and father, the 
wood from which it is kindled (as remarked by the 
interpolator who inserted the Marriage of Cei/x ** 
among the works of Hesiod), so Anaximander, by 
reveahng the fish as the common father and mother 
of mankind, made it scandalous to eat them." 

• Odyssey, xii. 332. * Not otherwise known. 

« Diels-Kranz, Fra^r. der Vorsok.^ 12 A 30. 

■* Hesiod, frag. 177 Rzach. 

185 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

731 nPOBAHMA 

Et Swarov eari avoTfjvai vocrijfiara Kacva Koi St' as alrias 
CoUocuntur Philo, Plutarchus, Diogenianus, alii 

1. <l>tAa>v o larpos Sie^e^aiovTO rrjv KaXovfxevrjv 
eAe^avTiaatv ov npo ttoXXov Travv xpovov yviopi/jLov 
yeyovevai- /u-TjSeVa yap rcbv TraAaioii/ larpcov rov 
TTOiOovs rovrov TreTToirjadaL Xoyov, els erepa puKpa 
Koi yXtaxpo. Kal hvadewprjra rot? ttoXXoIs ivra- 
devras. eyoj 3e Kal jxaprvv avrco Trapelxov e/c 
^iXoao(f)ias 'AdrjvoScopov, ev rcb TTporepcp tcov 
'ETT-tSTyjLttcDv laropovvra Trpcorov ev rots Kar AokXtj- 

B TTtdhrjv ')(^p6vois ov pLovov rrjV eXe(j>avTiaaiv aAAa 
Kal rov vhpo^o^av €Kcf)avrj yeveadai. davpat^ovres 
ovv ol TTapovres , el vea Trddr] rore 7Tpa)rov ea)(ev ev 
rrj (f)vaei, yeveatv Kal avaraaiv^ ov^ rjrrov (povro 
davpudcnov etvai to Xadelv TrjXiKavra avpTmopiara 
Xpovov roaovTov eppvrjaav be ttcos paXXov ol 
TrXeiovs eirl ro Sevrepov cos dvdpdiTnvov pdXXov, 
TJKtara ttjv cfivcriv ev ye rovroig (f)iX6KaLVov etvai 
Kal veiov TTpaypdrwv woTrep ev noXei rep acop,arL 
hrjpiovpyov d^iovvres . 

2. *0 Se Aioyeviavo? e^rj Kal rd rrjs ^v-)(r\s 
voarjpara Kal Trddrj Kotvqv riva /cat irarpiov ohov 

C jSaSi^eiv. " KairoL TravroSaTTOV pev," eiTrev, " rj 
poxdrfpia Kal TToXvroXpov , avroKpares S' rj ipvxyj 
^ avaraaiv Reiske : crrdmv. 

" A resident of Hyampolis, who speaks on medical or 
botanical subjects also in ii. 6, iv. 1, and vi. 2. 

* Not certainly identifiable. Wellmann assumes from this 
passage that he was a contemporary of Plutarch. 

186 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 9, 731 

QUESTION 9 

Whether it is possible for new diseases to come into being, 
and from what causes. 

Speakers : Philo, Plutarch, Diogenianus, and others 

1. Philo, the physician," was maintaining that the 
disease called elephantiasis had been kno^\^l for only 
a short time, since none of the ancient physicians had 
written a treatise on it, though they expatiated on 
many others that were minute and petty and, to 
most, obscure. I supplied him with an additional 
witness from the field of philosophy in the person of 
Athenodorus,** who wTote, in the first book of his 
Epidemics, that both elephantiasis and hydrophobia 
first made their appearance in the time of Asclepia- 
des." Those present expressed surprise at the idea 
that new diseases first came into existence and took 
shape at that date ; but they thought it would be no 
less amazing if such striking symptoms had escaped 
notice for so long. The majority were rather inclined, 
however, toward the second hypothesis, because it 
rather placed the blame on mankind, for they re- 
garded nature as not being at all given to innovation 
in such matters — nor likely to foment revolutions in 
man's body as if in some body politic. 

2. Diogenianus added that even diseases and 
passions of the mind follow a common, traditional 
course. " Surely wickedness is a versatile and auda- 
cious thing, while the mind is self-governed and 

' A Bithynian physician who practised in Rome in the 
first century b.c. There are citations of a work On Elephan- 
tiasis, in which hydrophobia was also mentioned, attributed 
to Democritus by some ancient writers, but by Diels-Kranz 
{Frag, der Vorsok? 68 B 300. 10, ii. 216. 8 if.) to Bolus of 
Mend^ (third century b.c). 

187 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(731) /cat Kvpiov v(f)^ avrrjs, el ^ovXotro, yLera^a-XXeLV Kal 
Tp€7T€<jdaL paSiajs' e;!^et Se rtva rd^iv to draKTOv 
avrrjs Kal rd [xerpa Tr]pel tols Trddeaiv, oiairep n) 
daXarra rats VTrepeK^uaecri, /cat /catvov ovSev ovSe 
TOLS TraAatot? dviaroprjTOV i^r]vd'qKe KaKias etSos" 
dAAa TToAAat /nev i-nidvpiiov hia<j>opai, pLvpia 8e 
Kiv^fMara <{)6^ov /cat crx'Tipara, rd? 8e Xvtttjs /cat 
rjSovrjs pi,op<^ds epyov earl fxr^ aTrenreLV e^apiQpiov- 
fjievov 

ov fJ.riv^ Tt vvv ye KaxSeg, dAA' del irore 
t,fj ravra, /covSeis" olSev e$ orov ^(f)avrj- 

TTodev ye Sr] awp-ari voarjfxa Kaivov 7] Tvados oipt- 
D yovov, ISlav fjiev uxjirep rj i/jv^'^ Kiviqaeoj's dp^'QV 
otKodev ovK exovn, avvrjiJLiJLevcp Se Koivals rrpo'S rrjv 
(f)vatv alrlaLS Kal KeKpa/Jbevco Kpdaiv, rjs Kal ro 
doptarov^ evro? opojv TrXavdrai, Kaddnep ttXolov ev 
TrepthpopLO) aaXevov; ovre yap dvalrtog vocrov av- 
araals eanv, rrjv e/c p,r] ovros Trapavo/jLtos erreia- 
dyovoa yevecriv roZ'S 7Tpdyp.aaiv, alrlav re KaLvrjv 
epyov e^evpelv fir) Kaivov depa Kal ^evov vhcop Kal 
rpo(f>d£ dyevarovs rots nporepov e^ erepcov rtvdJv 
KoapuDv rj fieraKoapilatv d7TO(f)'qvavrL Sevpo vvv Trpcb- 
rov emppeovaas . e/c rovrcjv yap voaovjxev ot? /cat 
E t,cofjiev, tSta Se cnrepfiara voacov ovk eariv, dAA' at 
rovrcov piox^'riplo.i irpos r)p,ds Kal rjixcov Trepl ravra 
TrXr^fMfjLeXeiaL rr)v (f)vatv errLrapdrrovaiv . at 8e 
rapaxo-l Sia^opd? diSious" exovatv TroAAd/ci? veois 
Xpojfjievas dvo/JLaaiv rd ydp ovofiara rrjs crvvrjdelag 

^ fir/v : ydp Sophocles. ■ dopicrrov Xylander : apiarov. 

" Sophocles, Antigoni, 456. 
188 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 9, 731 

capable, on its omti responsibility, if it Mill, of altering 
its course. Yet the mind's disorder preserves a cer- 
tain order, and in its states of passion it observes a 
certain moderation, as the sea does in times of high 
water. No new kind of v'ice not mentioned by the 
ancients has broken out, though there are many dif- 
ferent desires, and countless causes and forms of fear ; 
and it is almost too hard to enumerate all the forms 
of pain and pleasure. 

Their life is not of now and yesterday, 

But always ; no one knows when first they came." 

How indeed could the body develop a new malady, 
a late-born disease, when it does not have ^^•ithin it, 
like the soul, a source of motion of its own, but is 
linked with the rest of nature by the bond of common 
causes and is so tempered in its composition that even 
the play of its irregularity is held ^vithin limits, as if 
it were a ship tossing about its anchor ? For there 
cannot be a new disease without a cause, introducing 
into the world, contrary to natural law, a coming-to- 
be from not-being ; and to find a new cause for dis- 
ease would be hard, unless one could demonstrate 
that a new kind of air, or a strange type of water, or 
foods never tasted by former generations, are flowing 
into our world from some other worlds, or from the 
spaces between them. For it is the things that sus- 
tain life which also cause sickness. There are no 
special seeds of disease ; it is the disagreement of our 
food and drink with us or our mistakes in using them 
that upsets our system. Such disturbances have 
different forms which are lasting, though new names 
are often employed, because the names are a matter 
of usage, while the diseases are part of the order of 

189 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(731) coTiv Ttt Se Trddif] rijs ^vcrecxis' odev iv dcfxupicrixevois 
TOVTOis e/cetva TToiKiXXofjieva ttjv dTrdrrjv 7T€7tol7)K€V 
d)s 8e TOLS rov Xoyov fioptois Kal rat? Tvpos dXXrjXa 
rovTcov avvrd^eai Kaivov eyyeveadai j8apj3apia/i.6v 
Tj aoXoiKLGfiov €^ai(f)V7}s dhvvarov^ iariv, ovrws at 
Tov acofjLaTos Kpdaeis d)ptapi€vas ej^ouo-t rd? oXiadiq- 
creis" /cat Trapa^daets , rponov Ttvd rfj (f>vaeL /cat rcuv 

TTapd (jyVGLV ifJL7T€pL€)(OlJLeVa)V . 

F " Tavrrj ye KOfuJjol /cat ol p.vdoypd(f)oi,- rd yap 
TTavrdTTaaiv €K(f)vXa /cat repdarta roiv l,cpcov yeve- 
adai Xeyovaiv €V Trj ytyavropiax^o-, ttjs aeXTJvrjs 
iKTpe7Top,€vr]s /cat ret? dvaroXds ovx odev e'icodev 
TTOiovpLevTjg' OL Se /caivd vocrrjfxaTa ttjv <j)vaLV oiartep 
732 Tepara yevvdv d^iovacv, [X'qre Tndavqv pLrjr^ aTTi- 
davov alriav rrjs i^aXXayyjs TrXdaaovTes , dAAd to 
dyav /cat to [xdXXov ivlcov -Tradcov Kaivorrjra /cat 
8ia<f)opdv dTTO(f)aLVovTes' ovk opdcos, c5 jxaKdpie Ot- 
X(x}v eTTLTaats yap /cat av^rjais fxeyedos ■^ ttXtj- 
9os TTpoaTiOrjaL, rov Se yevovs ovk^ eK^L^d^ei ro 
VTTOKeipievov ojairep oi5Se rrp/ eXe^avTiaaiv oto- 
jLtat, G(f)o8p6Tr]ra rayv i/jcoptKoJv tlvos rovrcov ovcrav, 
ovSe TOV vhpo(j>6^av rcbv arofMaxiKcov 7) p,eXayxo- 
XiKcov. /caiTOt rovro ye davfiaarov el ftTjS' "Ofn]pos 
dyvoiov iXdvOavev i5/xd?' rov yap ' Xvaa7]Tripa 
Kvva ' SrjXos eariv aTrd tou Trddovs tovtov rrpoa- 
B ayopevojv , d(f>^ ov Kal dvdpojTTOL Xvaadv Xeyovrai." 
3. TawTa TOV Aioyeviavov SieXdovTos, 6 OiAcov 
auTo? re fieTpta hieXexOy) Trpos tov Xoyov avTov, 

■^ aZwarov Meziriacus : hxjvarov. 
* OVK added by Xylander. 

" A barbarism involves the misuse of a single word, a sole- 
cism an ungrammatical combination of words. 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 9, 731-732 

nature. Thus, among the restricted number of di- 
seases, the variety of their names is a source of con- 
fusion. But just as, given the parts of speech and the 
rules of syntax, it is impossible that a new kind of 
barbarism or solecism " should suddenly arise, so the 
combinations of bodily elements are subject to a 
restricted niunber of dislocations and malfunctions. 
In a way, even unnatural conditions are ^\ithin the 
frame of nature. 

" The mythographers are experts, too, in this field 
at least ; their account puts the birth of completely 
unnatural and monstrous creatures at the time of the 
battle of the gods and giants, when the moon turned 
from its course and did not rise in the same quarter as 
usual. But our friends here are accusing nature of pro- 
ducing new diseases as though giving birth to mon- 
sters, NWthout devising any sort of reason for such a 
change, either plausible or implausible, but calling an 
excessive or unusual degree of certain affections a new 
and distinct kind. This is iiot logical, my dear Philo, 
for an intensification or increase adds size or number, 
but does not force the thing concerned into another 
class. I do not think this is true of elephantiasis 
either, which is an extreme form of some skin disease, 
or of hydrophobia, which is an extreme form of some 
stomach trouble or melancholy. WTiat is more, it is 
surprising we have not noticed that Homer himself 
was acquainted vriih hydrophobia. It is clear that 
when he used the term ' rabid dog,' ^ he took the epi- 
thet from this malady, from which the term ' rabid ' 
is applied to human beings too." 

3. When Diogenianus had finished, Philo made a 
fitting reply to his argument, and called upon me to 

' Teucer so refers to Hector, Iliad, viii. 999. 

191 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(732) KOL/Jie avveiTTelv TrapeKaXei rols dpxo-tois larpdls, (os 
afxeXeias t] dyvoias rcbv jxeyLGTCov o(f)XiGKaivovaLV , 
€L ye fjLT]^ Tavra rd Trddt] vecorepa <f)aiveraL ttjs 
€K€LV<x)V 'qXiKLas. 

UpcoTov oiiv 6 Aioyeviavos ovk opdcos d^iovv 
eSo^ev rj[Mv rds iTTirdaeis Kal dveaecs p^rj TTOLelv 
SLa(f)opds p-TjSe rod yevovs iK^i^d^eiv ovrco yap 
ovr^ o^os o^LVov (f)'q(Top,€v hia^epeiv ovre 7nKp6rr}ra 
aTpv<f>v6rriros ovre TTvptov alpav ovre fiLvOov rjSv- 
oapLOjv. Kairot, Trepi^avihs iKcrrdaets avrat /cat 
/uera^oAat 7tolott]tu}v elaiv, at p.kv dveaeis p.apai- 
C vopbivojv at S' iTTLrdaetg a(f)oSpvvop,eva}v rj p,r)S€ 
<j>X6ya TTvevfxaros X^tttov p^rjhe <j)Xoy6s avyrjv jLti^Se 
TrdxvrjV hpoaov p-rfhe ;^aAa^av op^^pov Bcacfyepeiv 
Xiyiopiev, dXX eTnrdacis etvat ravra Trdvra /cat 
cr(f)o8p6rrjras' copa 6e /cat TV(f)X6rrira p.'qdev ap,- 
^XvajTrias (f}dvaL Sta^epetv p^rjhe vavrtag ^(oXepav, 
dXXd TO) p.dXXov /cat rjTTOv TrapaXXdrreLV . KairoL 
ravTa npos Xoyov ovdev eanv dv^ yap avrrjv 
Xeycvai Se^a/xevot ti)v eTTLTaatv /cat ttjv a^ohportiTa 
vvv yeyovevai Trpcbrov, iv rep TToaa> yLVop,€V7]s rrjs 

D KaiVOTTjTOS OVK iv TTOIU), p.€V€L TO TTapdho^OV 
OpiOLCjJS. 

"EiTTeLTa TOV TiO(f)OKX€OVS €TtI TOJV OTt pt] TTpO- 

repov rjv diriuTovpLevcov, el yeyovev vvv, ov (jtavXcog 

eliTovros 

aTTavra rdyev7]ra TrpaJrov rjXd^^ aTra^, 

1 IxTj Turnebus : 817. 
^ eoTiv av Basel edition : earidv. 

^ rayevrjTa . . . ■^Xd' Valckenaer, EUendt : rd yevr] rov 
. . . '^Xdev. 



» Frag. 776 Nauck. 



192 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 9, 732 

help in defending the ancient physicians, since, if 
these diseases were not found to be more recent than 
their time, they must be con\-icted either of negli- 
gence or of ignorance of important facts. 

In the first place, we thought Diogenianus was 
MTong in supposing that intensifications and relaxa- 
tions do not produce distinct kinds and do not force 
anything into another class. If this were so, we 
should say that there was no difference between 
vinegar and sour ^\-ine, or bitter and astringent, or 
wheat and darnel, or between one kind of mint and 
another. Yet all of these are very clearly quahtative 
losses of identity and transformations. In some 
cases, where there is a lowering of intensity, it con- 
sists in a weakening of the quality, and in others, 
where there is an increase in tension, in a strengthen- 
ing of the quality. Or shall we say, too, that flame 
is no different from refined air, or a radiance from a 
flame, or frost from dew, or hail from rain, but that 
these are all increases of tension and strength ? And 
now comes the moment to say that blindness is no 
different from poor eyesight, nor cholera from nausea 
— that they are only cases of modification bv more or 
less. Still, this is all unnecessan,' to our argument ; 
for if our adversaries concede that the intensification 
and the strengthening itself has now come into exist- 
ence for the first time, and that the novelty is in the 
category of quantity, not in that of quality, the para- 
dox remains as before. 

Secondly, in line with Sophocles' apt remark about 
things not believed because they did not occur be- 
fore, though they have occurred now — 

Naught unexampled 
But makes its first appearance once — " 

VOL. IX H 193 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(732) eSd/cet /cat Xoyov e^^iv to i^tj SpofJico, KadaTTcp va- 
TrXrjyos /Alas' Treaovcrris, eKhpajxelv^ to. TrdOrj irpos 
TT^v yiveaiv, dXXcov S' dXXois del KaroTTiv itnyLVo- 
[xevcov eKaarov iv p^povoj rivl Xa^elv rrjv TTpcLrrjv 
yevecnv. 

tiiKaaai o av tls, ecp-qv eyio, ra fjiev an 
evSeias oaa re Kavp-a TrpoaTrlTTTov r) ipv^os e/XTroiet, 
ravra Trpcorov tol? acofxaai napayeveadai, TrXrja- 
E fxovds 8e /cat dpvi/j€LS Kal rjSvTraOeias varepov in- 
eXOelv fier^ dpyias /cat axoXijg St' dcjiOoviav tu)v 
dvayKaicov ttoXv TTcpcTrcofia TTotovaas /cat Trovqpov, 
iv w TToi/ciAa voarjpidTCov elhri TravToSaTrdg re rov- 
rcov CTTtTrAo/cas" Trpos dXX-qXas /cat fii^eis del, ri 
vecjrepC^eiv. 

To fi€v yap Kara cfivcriv reVa/CTat Kat Stajpifrrat, 
rd^iS yap rj ra^eco? epyov rj (f)vaLS' rj S' dra^ia 
Kaddnep rj n.LvBapt.Krj i/jd[X[JiOS ' dpidpLOV Trepnre- 
<f)€vy€v,' /cat ro rrapd rrjv (f)V(nv evdvs dopiarov /cat 
aTTeipov eariv. dXrideveiv fxev yap aTrAa)? ipevSeaOai 
8' dTTeipaxoJs 7Tape;)^et ra rrpdyfiara- /cat pvdfiol /cat 
dpfjLovlaL Xoyovs exovaiv, a 8e irXiq fxixeXovaLv av- 
F dpojTTot TTcpl Xvpav Kal cpSr)v Kal 6p-)(7]OLv, ovK av 
Tts" TreptAajSot. Kairoi /cat Opwt;)^©? d roiv rpaycp- 
hiu>v TTOLrjTTjs TTepl avrov (fyr^aiv ori 

ax'TjP'O.ra 8' 6px'(]OLS roaa pbOi TTopev, oaa evi, 
TTovrcp 
KVfjiara iroieirai ;;^et/xaTt vv^ oXot]. 

" Kal XpucrtTTTTO? rds e/c Se/ca fxovcov d^tco/ict- 
Tcuj/ avfiTrXoKOiS TrA'^^et <l>r)alv e/cardv pLvpidBas 
194 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 9, 732 

we considered it probable that diseases did not rush 
into existence in a racing start, at the drop of one 
barrier, as it were, but that they kept arri\-ing one 
after another, so that each indixidually, after an 
interval, came into being for the first time. 

" One might conjecture," I said, " that those 
which come as a result of a deficiency, and those 
which heat and cold produce, would assail the body 
first, and that those arising from surfeit and luxuries 
and over-indulgence would appear later, along ^vith 
idleness and leisure, which come when primarv wants 
are well pro^■ided for. The superfluities accumulate 
a vicious residue in the body and that is a breeding- 
ground for a medley of new diseases \«th ever new 
mutual complications and combinations. 

" That which is according to nature is ordered and 
delimited, for nature is, precisely, order or else the 
handiwork of order, while disorder, like Pindar's 
sand, ' has eluded number,' " and what is contrary 
to nature is simply what is unbounded and un- 
limited. The facts allow just one true statement, but 
an infinite number of false ones. Both rhythm and 
pitch go by formula, but no one could include in a 
formula the mistakes people make in plaj-ing the 
lyre or singing or dancing. And in fact Phrynichus ^ 
the tragic poet says of himself. 

As many figures Dance gives me as baleful night 
Makes waves upon a stormy sea. 

" Chrysippus says that the number of comj>ound 
propositions that can be made from only ten simple 

" 01. u. 179. 
' Frag. 3 Bergk. 

^ eKhp<ni€u> Basel edition : eKSpofirjv. 

195 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(732) VTTep^dXXeiv dXXa rovro ^kv rjXey^ev "iTnrapxos, 
oLTTohei^as otl to fxev Kara^aTiKov Trepiep^et avfnre- 
TrXeyfievcov ixvpidbag Se/ca /cat rrpos ravrais rpia- 
)(^lXLa^ reaaapa.KovT' ivvea, to S' d7To<^ariK6v avrov 
733 fxvpidSas rptdKovra jxiav /cat TTpos ravraig evaKo- 
aia TrevTqKovra h'vo' "EievoKpdrrjs 8e rov rcov cruA- 
Xa^oiv dpidfxov, ov rd aroix^Za fityvvpieva Trpos 
dXX'qXa 77ape;)(ei, fivpidScov d7T€(f)rjV€v eLKoaaKis /cat 
fMVpidKis fivptcov. TL Srj davfjLaarov iarLV ei, Toa- 
avras fxev ev iavro) rov awp^aros Bvvdfieig exovros, 
Toaavrag he 8ta aircov /cat ttotojv eTveiaayop-e- 
vov TTOiorqras eKdarore, ;^p60/LteVou 8e KLvr^aeat /cat 
fjiCTa^oXdtg p,rjT€ Kaipov eva fiijre rd^LV del /Ltt'av 
B ixovcrcus, at Trpo? dAAi^Aa? avfjCTrXoKal tovtojv drrav- 
T(x)v eariv ore /caiva /cat davv-qOrj voo-j^/xara (f)epov- 
aiv; olov 6 ©oy/cuStSTy? laropei rov 'Adrjvqai 
Aot/Aov yeveaSai, reKpLaipopievos avrov ro fxr] avv- 
rpo(j)ov fxdXiara to) rd aapKOcf)dya firj yeveadai rdJv 
veKpdJv ol Se TTepl rrjv ^^pvdpdv ddXaaaav voarj- 
aavres, ojs ' AyaOapx^^oLS laroprjKev, dXXois re 
avpLirrcxiixaaiv ixp'^oavro /catvot? /cat dviaroprjroL^, 
/cat hpaKovna fJUKpd rds KV'qp,as Sieadiovra /cat 
rovs ^pax^ovas e^eKvi/jev, dijjajxevcjv 8' avdtg ev- 
ehvero /cat (j^Xeyp-ovas dKaprep-qrovs iveiXovp-eva 
TOt? fxvdoSeaL Trapeix^v /cat rovro ro Trddos ovre 
C vporepov olSev ovBels ovd^ varepov aAAoi? aAA 
e/cetVot? ye pAvoi? yevofxevov, a»? ere pa TToXXa. 
/cat yap ev Svaovpia rt? yevopievos rroXvv xP^vov 
e^ehcoKe Kpidivrjv KaXdp^rjv ydvar' exovaav. /cat 

^ rpiCTXtAta Hubert : x^''°- 

<• Von Arnim, S.V.F. ii. 210. Cf. Mor. 1047 c. 
196 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 9, 732-733 

propositions exceeds a million." (Hipparchus,* to be 
sure, refuted this by showing that on the affirmative 
side there are 103,04-9 compound statements, and on 
the negative side 310,952.) Xenocrates asserted 
that the number of syllables which the letters will 
make in combination is 1,002,000,000,000.'' Why 
then should it seem surprising, when the bodv has 
in it so many factors and assimilates so many different 
quahties every time one eats or drinks, and employs 
motions and shifts that have no single proper moment 
or routine, that the complications of all these with 
each other sometimes produce new and unfamiliar 
ailments ? For instance, take the plague at Athens, 
as described by Thucydides, who judges it to be no 
ordinary- thing precisely because scavenging birds 
and animals did not touch the corpses. ** Some persons 
li\-ing in the vicinity of the Red Sea, according to 
Agatharchidas,* contracted a sickness with new and 
unexampled symptoms, including the following : 
little worms ' would eat their way through the flesh of 
the lower leg or arm and emerge from the skin. WTien 
they were touched, they went back in, and produced 
an intolerable inflammation, as they encased them- 
selves in the muscular tissues. No one knows of this 
disease ever occurring before, or of its afterwards ever 
attacking anyone else, but this people alone. There 
are many similar examples. There was even a case of 
a person who, after experiencing difficulty in urination 
for a long time, passed a barley-stalk with joints ; 

* The famous mathematician and astronomer (second 
century b.c). « Xenocrates, frag. 1 1 Heinze. 

■^ Thucydides (ii. 50) actually says that they either did not 
taste the corpses or died afterwards. 

• Frag. 14 Miiller {Frag. Hist. Graec. iii. 195). 
' " Guinea-worms," Filaria medinensis. 

197 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(733) rov rjiilrepov ^ivov "E^i^jSov ^AdTJvqoLv lajxev e/c- 
jSaAorra ^lera ttoXXov aTrepfxaros d-qpthiov haav 
/cat TToXKols TTocrl raxv jSaSi^ov. rrjv 8e Tlficovos 
iv KtAtK-i'a TTjd'qv ^ ApiaroreXrjs laroprjKev (fxjoXevecv 
rov erous" eKaarov Svo fjirjvas, /XTjSevt ttXtjv fxovcp 
TO) avaTTveiv on i,fj SidSrjXov ovaav. /cat fi,rjv ev ye 
Tols yievojveloLS^ arjixelov rjTTariKov ttolOovs dvaye- 
ypaTTrai to rovs /carot/ctStous" pivs eiTLpieXcbs trapa- 
(f>vXdTTeLv /cat SicvKeiv o vvv ovSap,ov yivopievov 

D opdrai. hio pirj ^au/Lta^cD/Ltev, dv yevrjraC tl tcSv 
ov TTporepov ovtojv, /ai^S' et ti tcov Trporepov ovrcov^ 
varepov eKXeXoLnev alria yap rj tcov acopdrcov 
<f>vaLS, dXXr]v dXXore Xafi^dvovaa Kpdaiv. 

To p,€V ovv depa Kaivov eTTeiardyeiv ^ ^evov 
vScop, el p/rj ^ovXerai Aioyeviavos, edacopLev /cat- 
rot Tovs ye ArjpiOKpireLovs tcrpLev /cat Xeyovras /cat 
ypd(f)ovras, ori^ KocrpLcov €kt6s (f)dap€VTOjv /cat cra>- 
pidTwv dXXo(f)vXcDv €K TTJ? (XTretpias'* einppeovrojv ev- 
ravda noXXdKis dp)(al TrapepiTTLTTTovcnv XoipLiov /cat 
TTaOcov ov avvqdoiv. edacopLev 8e Kat rds <f>dopds 
rds Kara piepos Trap' r]pA,v vtto re aetapicjv /cat av- 

E XH'^^ '^^^ dpL^pcov, at? /cat rd TTvevpuara /cat ra 
vdp,ara yrjyev-fj (f>vot,v e^ovra avvvoaelv dvdyKT) 
Kat avpipiera^dXAeiv . 

'AAAa rrjv rrepl ra otrta /cat ra oj/ra /cat ra? 
aAAa? StatVa? rou a(Lpt,aTOS e^aXXay^v, oar] yeyo- 
vev, ov TTapaXeiTTTeov. TToXXd yap tcov dyevaTCov 
/cat dpp(x)TOJV TTpoTepov rjhiaTa vvv yeyovev, wairep 

^ Mevcovfioi? Reinesius : /icAcoveioiy. 

^ /xTjS' €? Ti Tojv TTporepov OVTOJV addcd by Meziriacus (el 
Bernardakis : av Meziriacus). 

* oTt Reiske : on /cai. 

* dneipias Turnebus : airoplas, 

198 



TABLE-TALK VIH. 9, 733 

and I know it as a fact that my host Ephebus at 
Athens emitted, along with a large amount of semen, 
a hairy creature which ran rapidly on many legs. 
Aristotle relates that the grandmother of Timon, in 
CiUcia, used to hibernate for two months of every 
year, gi\'ing no sign of Ufa except that she breathed." 
\VTiat is more, in the works of Meno ^ it is given as a 
sign of liver disease that a patient watches attentively 
for the mice of the household and pursues them — a 
phenomenon that is nowhere observed nowadays. 
Therefore let us not be surprised if something pre- 
viously nonexistent has come to be, nor if something 
that existed before has ceased. The cause of this is 
the structure of our bodies, which varies from time 
to time in the combination of its elements. 

" As for the introduction of new air or strange 
water, let us give that up, if Diogenianus does not 
like it, though we do know that the Democriteans 
both say and vrrite that when worlds perish, out 
beyond our own, and foreign atoms flow in from the 
infinite, then sources of plagues and unusual diseases 
may find their way into our midst. Let us also give 
up the partial destructions that take place on earth, 
from earthquakes, droughts, and rainstorms — occa- 
sions when the winds and streams, whose origin is 
from the earth, must likemse suffer deterioration 
and change. 

" But we must not disregard the great changes 
that have occurred in the consumption of grains and 
cooked food and other elements of our diet. Many 
items that used never to be eaten or even tasted are 
now much enjoyed, like A^ine with honey or the 

• Frag. 43 Rose. 
* Suppl. Ar. ill. 1, p. 77. 

199 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(733) otvo/LteAt fcai fzrJTpa' XeyovoL 8e ju.7^8' €yKe<j>a\ov 
iadteLV Tovs TraXaLovs' Slo /cat "OfJifjpov eiTrelv 

Ttu) 8e [xiv eyKapos^ aXarj, 

rov iyK€(f>aXov ovnos, Sta to ptVreiv /cat a-nopaX- 
AetP" jjivaaTTonevovs, irpoaenTOvra' aiKvov Se ttc- 
TToro? /cat iMiqXov MrjSt/cou Kat Trenepecos ttoXXovs 
ta/xev eri, rcijv Trpea^vrepcov yevcraadat fjLrj Bvva- 
F jJievovs. VTTO re 817 tovtcov clkos ecrrt ^evoiradelv 
ra (TcoiJiara /cat TrapaAActTTetv rat? Kpdaecnv rjavx^] 
TTOiorrjra /cat TreptTTCO/ua TrotouvTCDV t8iov tt^v Se 
rd^iv av raJv ihearcov /cat puTaKoafirjaiv ov [xiKpav 
ex^i'V hLa<f)opdv at yap /caAov/ievat ifjuxpo-l rpdne^ai 
TTporepov, oGTpecov, e;^tva>v/ coficov Xaxavoiv, cxJOTrep 
iXacfypoJv ottXcov,^ (itt' ovpds ctti ard/xa ficraxOelaai 
rrjv TrpctjTTjv drrt tt^? euxdrris ra^iv exovaiv. 
734 " Meya Se /cat to tcSv KaXovp.ivix}v TrpoTTopiaTOJV 
ou8e yap u8a>p ol vraAaiot Trptv ivrpayetv cttivov ot 
8e vw acrtTOt TrpojJLedvadevres aTrrovrat xTy? Tpo<f)rjs 
Sia^poxip Tip (Tfo/LtaTi* /cat ^eovri, AeTrra Kat ro/xa 
/cat d^e'a 7TpoG(f)€povres wTre'/c/caup-a tt^? ope^ecos, 
eW* ovTCDs €jji(f)opovfxevoL Tcov dXXwv. ouSevd? oe 
Trpo? /xerajSoAi^v /cat to TToirjaai, voarjpidTOiv Katvatv 
yeveoLV dadevecrrepov iariv rj Trept tol Xovrpa ttjs" 
aapKog TToXvTrddeia Kaddnep o-tSTypou Trupt fiaXaa- 

^ eyKapos Hubert, after Eustathius, p. 757 : iv Kapos. 

^ exivcjv Turnebus : exetv. 
^ oirXoiv Kronenberg, after Bernardakis : d nXdrwr. 

200 



TABLE-TALK VUL 9, 733-734 

womb of the sow. They say that the ancients did not 
even eat brains, which is why Homer said, ' I care 
for him no more than brains,' " speaking of brains in 
this way because they found them revolting and so 
rejected and discarded them ; and we know that 
many older people still cannot eat ripe cucumber, 
citron, or pepper. Probably, the body is affected in 
an unusual way by these things, and is altered in its 
constitution as they imperceptibly produce a peculiar 
quaUty or residue. It is also probable that the order 
and rearrangement of foods makes a considerable 
difference ; for the ' cold course,' as it used to be 
called, ^\•ith oysters, sea-urchins, and raw vegetables, 
has like a body of light-armed troops been shifted 
from the rear to the front, and holds first place instead 
of last. 

" The serving of the so-called aperitives is a great 
change too. The ancients did not even drink water 
before the dessert course, but nowadays people get 
themselves intoxicated before eating a thing, and 
take food after their bodies are soaked and feverish 
^^^th wine, ser\ing hors-d'oeu\Te of light and sharp- 
flavoured and sour foods as a stimulant to the appe- 
tite and then, in this condition, eating heartily of the 
rest of the meal. As influential as anything in caus- 
ing change and breeding new diseases is the multi- 
plication of effects in bathing the body, which, like 

" The word iyKopos (" brain ") is thought to occur only as 
a result of misinterpretation of this line of Homer {Iliad, ix. 
378), where the preferred reading is ev Kopos alarj " I care no 
more for him than a *cap." But this last word is also difficult ; 
it may be related to *ojp (" destruction "), to #cdpts (" bug "), 
or to Kctpco (" cut " ; i.e. " a chip "). 

* awfian Basel edition : TrofuiTi. 

201 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(734) croixevrjs Kai peovarjg, etra Pa(f)r]v vtto i/wxpov Kal 
aroficoatv dvaSexofJLevqs' 

€v6a fxev els ^Ax^pcov re IIu/JK^Aeye^cov re pe- 
ovatv 

B TOVTO yap dv ris elnetv fjLoi BoKet rcov oXiyov rjfiwv 
efinpoadev yeyovorcov, ^aXaveiov dvpas dvoixdela'qs. 
eKelvot, yap ovtojs dveipievoLS exp<J^>vTo Kal fjiaXaKoZs, 
iDOT^ ^AXe^avSpos fi€v 6 jSacriAeu? ev tco Xovrpcovi 
TTvpeTTCOv eKadevSev, at Se TaXarcov yvvalKes et? 
Ttt ^aXavela noXrov jj^uTpa? elcrcfyepovaai jxerd rcbv 
TTacSwv rjadiov 6p,ov Xovofxevai. vvv Se Xvrraiaiv 
eoLKe rd ^aXavela Kal vXaKrovai Kal aTTapdrrovaiv 
6 8' iXKOfMevos drjp ev avrdls, vypov plyiia Kal 
TTvpos yeyovcos, ovSev id rod aiLpbaros 'qavxi<^v 
dyetv, dXXd Trdcrav drop^ov KXoveZ Kal rapdrrei Kal 
IxediarrjaLv e^ eSpas", dxpt ov Karaa^eacop.ev avrovs 

C ireTTvpoipevovs Kal ^eovTaj. 

OvBev ovv," e(f)r]v, " c5 Atoyevtave, SeZrai 6 
Xoyos alricjjv eneiaoBicov e^codev ovSe pLeTaKoapuioiv , 
dXX avTodev rj rrepl rrjv Statrav p.eraPoXrj rd p,ev 
yevvdv^ rd 8' d<j>avit,eLV rcov voarjpdrcov ovk dSuva- 
To? ear IV." 

nPOBAHMA I 
Ata Ti Tol? <f>6ivo7ra)pi,v6ls evimviois TjKKrra iriarevofiev ; 

Collocuntur Florus, Favorinus, Autobulus ceterique filii 
Plutarchi 

1 . Ylpo^Xiqp.aaLv ^ ApiaroreXovs <j>vaiKols evrvy- 

D X^^^^ OAcD/ao? els Qepp,07TvXas KopnadeZaLV avros 

re ttoXXmv drropicbv, oirep elcodaai Trdax^tv ini- 

^ yewdv CastigUoni : oSv ytwav. 
202 



TABLE-TALK VIII. 9-10, 734 

iron, is made soft and fluid by heat, then plunged 
into cold water to be tempered. 

Here flow in Acheron and Pyriphlegethon ! " 

This, I believe, is what a member of the generation 
just before ours would say, if he could look into the 
door of our bath-chamber. Our ancestors had their 
baths so mild and gentle that King Alexander used 
to sleep in the bath-chamber when he had a fever, 
and the women of the Gauls used to take a bowl of 
porridge into the bath-chamber and eat while they 
bathed, along ^vith their children. Now the bathing 
establishments are Uke rabid, barking dogs that tear 
and rend the flesh. The air one breathes there, being 
a mixture of moisture and heat, leaves no part of the 
body in peace, but agitates and disturbs every atom 
and drives it out of place, until we quench the fire 
and fever that are in us. 

" So you see, Diogenianus," I concluded, " that 
our argument has no need of causes entering from 
without or of the spaces between worlds, but the 
change in our way of life, right here on earth, is 
capable of creating new diseases and making old 
ones vanish." 

QUESTION 10 

^Vhy we trust our dreams least in the autumn. 

Speakers : Florus, Favorinus, Autobulus, other sons 
of Plutarch 

1. Florus, who was engaged in reading a copy of 
Aristotle's Scientific Problems that had been brought 
to Thermopylae, was himself full of questions, as is 

■ ^■Utered from Homer, Odyssey ^ x. 513. 

203 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(734) ei/ccD? at (f)LX6cro(f)oi, (f)va€is, VTreTTifiirXaro Kal rots 
eraipoLS ixctcSlSov, ^laprvpcov avro) tu) 'Api- 
OTOTeXei XeyovTi rrjv 7ToXvfj,ddei,av ttoXXo,? a.p)(^as 
TTotetv. ra puev ovv dXXa /xe^' ■^fxepav ovk d-)(apiv 
r]fjLLV ev rots TrepiTrdroLS StaTpL^r]v Trapeax^v ro Se 
Xeyopievov Trepl rwv ewTTviiov, fos" icrrtv ajSejSata 
/cat ifjevSi] jxaXiura Trepi rovs (f)vXXox6ovs /xrjvas, 
OVK o?S' oTTOis €0' iripois XoyoLS npayfiarevcFapievov 

E Tov ^a^copLvov fierd to SetTTvov dveKvipev. 

Tot? /xer ovv aolg iraLpoLS e/iot? 8' utot? eSo/cet 
XeXvKevai, rrjv aTTopiav ^ ApiaroTeXv? , Kal ovSev 
ipovro helv ^rjreZv ovSe Xdyeiv dAA' rj rovs Kapirovs, 
ajcnrep e/cetvo?, alrLacrdat. veoi yap 6vt€£ en Kal 
a<f)piya}vreg ttoXv TTvevp^a yevvcocriv ev rip acofxart 
Kal rapa^ioSeg' ov yap rov otvov cIkos ion fiovov 
l,€iv^ Kal dyavaKrelv , ovhe rovXaiov dv fj veovpyov 
ev Tot? Xv^voL^ ilf6(f)ov epLTToielv, aTTOKVfiarL^ovcrTjs 
TO TTvevjjia rrjg deppiorrjTOS, dXXd Kal rd airia ra 
7Tp6a(f>ara Kal rrjv oTTwpav diraaav 6pcd[.i€v evrera- 
[xevTjv Kal olSovaav, dxpt dv dTTonvevcrr] to <j>vacb- 
hes Kal aTTeTTTov. on 8' earl rdjv ^pcofidrcov evia 

F hvaoveipa Kal rapaKriKa rcbv Kad^ vttvov 6i/j€ojv, 
pcaprvptOLS expdjvro rols re KvdpiOLS Kal rfj Ke(f)aXfj 
rov TToXvTToSos , ojv dTTex^odai KeXevovai rovs Seo- 
fievovg rijs 8td rdJv ovetpcov fMavrLKrjs. 

2. *0 8€ OajSoj/atro? avros rd fJiev dXXa SaLfiovio)- 
raros ' ApiaroreXovs ipacrr'qs earn Kal r(p Ilepi- 
rrdrcp vepuei fxepiSa rov -mdavov TrXeiar'qv rore 
fievroL Xoyov rcvd rov ArjfxoKpirov naXaiov aianep 

^ t,flv Turnebus : ^^v. 

« Frag. 62 Rose. * Frag. 242 Rose. 

204 



TABLE-TALK VIIL 10, 734 

natural for a philosophical spirit, and shared them 
with his friends too, pro\'ing Aristotle's own state- 
ment that " great learning gives many starting- 
points." <* Most of the questions raised proWded us 
with a pleasant pastime during our daytime walks ; 
but the common saying about dreams — that they are 
especially likely to be unreliable or false in the fall 
months — somehow came up after dinner, after 
Favorinus had finished a discourse on other topics. 

Your friends, my sons, thought that Aristotle ^ had 
solved the problem, and that there was no point in 
any further inquirv' or discussion, except to say, as 
he had, that the harvest is to blame. For fruit and 
grains when fresh and juicy generate a great deal of 
unruly vapour in the body. It is logical to expect 
not only wine to seethe and protest and olive-oil, 
when it is newly made, to cause sputtering in lamps, 
as the heat causes the vapour to rise in waves, but in 
fact we can see that the new grain too, and all kinds 
of fruit stretch and swell, till they exhale and let out 
the unripe and gassy part. They argued that there 
are some foods which bring bad dreams and interfere 
"with appearances in sleep, and cited in exidence the 
bean and the head of the cuttlefish, from which people 
are instructed to abstain when they resort to divina- 
tion through dreams. 

2. Favorinus '^ is an enthusiastic admirer of Aris- 
totle on all counts, and considers the Peripatetics the 
most convincing of the schools ; but on this occasion 
he advanced an old argument of Democritus. Taking 

* Probably the same as the famous sophist and polymath 
of Arelate, a pupil of Dio Chrysostom and somewhat younger 
than Plutarch. The latter dedicated two books to him, and 
he wrote, in turn, a book entitled Plutarch, or On the Aca- 
demic Position, 

205 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(734) e/c Kawov KadeXojv rjfjLavpcofievov olos rjv CKKadai- 
735 P^i'V Kol SiaXajjiTTpvveLv, VTroOefxevos rovro Brj rov- 
TTiSi^/itov o <f>'rjai,v A7]p,6KpLTOs eyKara^vaaovadai 
TO. elhcoXa 8id rcov TTopcov els rd crco/xara /cat rroieZv 
ras Kara rov vttvov oijjeis e7Tava<j>ep6pL€va' ^oirdv 
8e ravra 7ravTa)(6d€V aTnovra /cat OKevajv Kal 
Lfiariiov /cat ^vrcbv, fidXiara 8e t,a}cov vtto adXov 
TToAAou /cat OepjjLOTrjTos ov jxovov i^ovra p,op<j)oeL- 
Set? Tov croj/Aaro? e/c/ze/xay/xeVa? ofjLOLorrjTas {cos 
'l^TTLKOvpos oterat p^^xpi' rovTOV ArjfjiOKpLrq) avveTTO- 
jxevos, ivravda 8e TrpoAtTTcuv tov Aoyov), dAAd /cat 
Toiv Kara ipv)(r]V KLvqixdrixiv /cat PovXevfidrcov 
B eKaarcp /cat rjdcov /cat iradcov i[X(f)da€is dvaXap-^a- 
vovra crvv€(f)€XKeadai , /cat TrpocrTTiinovra [xerd tov- 
Tojv ojOTTep eijupv^d (f)pdt,€Lv /cat 8ia}/y€AA€tv^ rot? 
v7ro8exo[Ji€vois rds rcov fiedievTcov avrd ho^as Kal 
SiaXoyiGfiovs Kal opfids, orav ivdpdpovs Kal davy- 
XVTovs (f)vXdTTOVTa TTpoafXL^T} rds eiKovas. rovro 
8e pidXiara TTOiet 8t' depos Xeiov rrjs (f>opds avrols 
yLvofxevr^s dKwXvrov Kal ra^eias. 6 8e ^Qlvottco- 
pivos, €v (L (f>vXXoxo€L rd 8eV8/3a, ttoXX'^v dvcopiaXiav 
e^CDV Kal rpaxvr7]ra hiaarp€(f>€i Kal TTaparpenei 
7ToXXa)(^rj rd ethcoXa Kal ro ivapyes avrojv i^lrrjXov 
/cat dadeves vrotet rfj ^paSurrjri ri]S iropeias d- 
fxavpovjjievov, oiairep av TrdAtv npos opydivrojv Kal 
C 8ta/cato/x€Vcov CKdpoiaKovra TroAAd /cat ra-)(y KOfxt- 
^ofxeva rds epi^daeis veapds Kal arip,avriKds drroSi- 
Scoaiv. 

3. Etra Sia^XeiJjas rrpds rovs Trepl rov Avro^ov- 
OV /cat fiCLOiaaas, aAA opco, elTTCv, vfxas olovs 

1 SiayyeXXeiv Wyttenbach : SiaareXXeiv. 
^ otovs Hatzidakis : o'ovs re. 

206 



TABLE-TALK VIII. 10, 73^735 

it do^\■n all blackened with smoke, as it were, he set 
about cleaning and polishing it. He used as founda- 
tion the familiar commonplace found in Democritus 
that spectral films penetrate the body through the 
pores and that when they rise they make us see 
things in our sleep. These films that come to us 
emanate from everj'thing — from utensils, clothing, 
plants, and especially from animals, because of their 
restlessness and their warmth. The films have not 
only the impressed physical likeness in contour of an 
animal — so far Epicurus agrees with Democritus, 
though he drops the subject at this stage — but they 
catch up and convey by attraction spectral copies of 
each man's mental impulses, designs, moral quali- 
ties, and emotions. WTien they strike the recipient 
thus accompanied, they speak to him, as if they were 
alive, and report to him the thoughts, reasoning and 
impulses of those from whom they escape, whenever 
the copies are still preserved whole and undistorted 
till contact is made. They are best preserved when 
the air affords a smooth passage that is unimpeded 
and rapid. The air of autumn, however, a time when 
trees are shedding their leaves, is extremely uneven 
and rough ; it t\\'ists and turns the films from their 
paths in all directions, destroying or diminishing 
their clarity, which fades because their movement is 
so slow. Just so, on the other hand, when the films 
come leaping forth in large numbers at high speed 
from bodies that are tumid and heated, and are re- 
ceived quickly, they make impressions that are fresh 
and whose meaning is clear. 

3. Favorinus now looked with a smile at Autobulus 
and his group. " I see," he said, " that you are dis- 

207 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(735) ovrag TJdrj aKiafiax^lv Trpos ra etScoXa /cat 80^17 
TraAaia Kaddrrep ypacj)'^ TTpoa(f>epovr as d<f>r)v o'Uadai 
Tl TToielv." 

Kat o AvTo^ovXos , "Trade ttolklXXcov," e^f], " Trpos 
rj/Jids' ov yap dyuoovp,eu, otl rrjv ^ KpioroTeXovs 
ho^av evSoKLfjLTJaaL ^ovXafievos u)aTTep aKiav avrfj 
TTjv ArjiJLOKpLTOv vapa^e^XrjKas . evr'^ eKeivqv ovv 
D rpeiltofieda KdKeivrj piaxov/jieOa Karriyopovarj rd)v 
vecov KapTTCov Kal ttjs (f>tX'qs OTTcopas ov TTpoarjKOV- 
Tcos. TO yap depos avTols jjiaprvpel Kai to ju-ct- 
OTTOjpov, 0T€ /LtctAiCTTa ;)^Aco/)dv Kal <^Xeiovaav, cos 
^AvTLpLaxos ^(f)r), TTjV oTTcopav, yevvcofievqv dpTi, 
7Tpoa(f>ep6pb€voi^ rjTTOV aTTaTT^Xols Kal ifjevheaiv ev- 
VTTVLOis ovveafjuev ol Se (f)vXXoxdoL p.rjves y]8'q Tut 
X^ifJicovi TTapaoKrjvovvTes iv veifjei ra aiTia Kai ra 
TTepiovTa T(x)v aKpoSpvcov laxva Kai pvaa Kai Trdv 
d^eiKOTa TO ttXtjktikov^ CKelvo Kal /xaviKov kxovaiv. 
Kal fjbr)v otvov ye tov veov ol TrpcoiaiTaTa vivovTes 
*AvdeaTr]pt.covL TTivovai p/qvl fxeTa ;)^eijU.a)va, /cat ttjv 
rjixepav eKeivTjv rjfieXs p^ev ^Ayadov AaLp,ovos, 'Adrj- 
E vatot Se Hi^otyta Trpoaayopevovaiv yXevKovs oe 
^eovTOS ert* d^aLpeladai Kal tovs epyaTas SeStora? 
optofiev. 

" ^A<j>€VTes ovv TO avKo<f)avTelv ret twv Oecbv odjpa 
pLeTLCop^ev eTepav ohov, riv u^Tjyetrat Tovvop,a tov 

1 in added by Madvipr. 

* ■jTpoa(f>ep6fifvoi, Reiske : tt. tovs KapTTOvs. 

' irXtiKTiKov Emperius : ttAijk-ti'^ov. * ert Reiske : det. 

" " Shadow-boxing," except that aS-q (" hold ") suggests 
that Plutarch is thinking of a wrestler s exercise. 
" Frag. 36 Kinkel, 40 Wyss. 

208 



TABLE-TALK VIII. 10, 735 

posed to start a shadow-fight " at once against the 
spectre-images, and you think you can apply a hold 
to this ancient doctrine as easily as a hook to an old 
picture, and so dispose of it." 

" None of your tricks with us ! " said Autobulus. 
" We can see that in order to win approval for the 
opinion of Aristotle you have put that of Democritus 
beside it as a contrasting shadow. So we are going 
to turn our attention to Aristotle's theory and do 
battle with it, since it brings a wrongful accusation 
against the fresh fruit and grain and our beloved 
early-autumn season. Summer is a witness for our 
clients, as is late-autumn {jnetoporon), since it is when 
we consume the fruits, at the very moment of turning, 
at the greenest and brightest — as Antimachus says * 
— that we are less haunted by deceptive and false 
dreams. The months when the leaves are falUng, on 
the other hand, are already next door to winter ; the 
grains are all ripened, the remaining fruits are dry 
and shrivelled and have lost all the upsetting and 
manic quality to which you referred. What is more, 
those who drink the new wine at the very earliest, do 
so in the month of Anthesterion, after winter is gone. 
(We call the occasion the Day of the Good Genius, 
and the Athenians call it the Pithoigia.) <= But we 
observe that even the vintage-workers are afraid to 
pilfer the must while it is still fermenting. 

" Now, let us stop quibbling about the gifts of the 
gods and follow up another trail, along which we are 

* See above, iii. 7 (" Why the sweet new wine is least in- 
toxicating "), 655 z, where Plutarch compares the two 
festivals mentioned here. The Pithoigia (" opening of jars ") 
was the first day of the A nthesteria, in honour of Dionysus, 
and fell on the eleventh of the month Anthesterion, or about 
2 March. 

209 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(735) XP^"^^"^^ '^'^^ VTTrjvefxicuv Kal ifjevBoJv oveipcov. <f)v\- 
Xoxoos yap oro/i-a^erat Sid ijjvxp6T7]ra /cat ^Tjpo- 
Trjra r'qviKavra rcov (j>vX\a)v airoppeovroiv, ttXtjv 
a Ti depfiov iariv r) Xnrapov d>s iXalai Kal hd^vat 
Kai (f)OLviKes ^ di€p6v cos jjLvpaivrj /cat /ctrros" rov- 
Tois yap Tj KpdcTLS ^o'qdet rot? 8' dXXois ov' ov yap 
TTapafjievei, to ix^KoXXov /cat cryve/crt/cov, rj ttvkvov- 
F fi€V7]s i/jvxpoTTjTL TTJs t/c/ActSo? Tj ^r]pacvoixevr)s 8t' 
evSetav rj 8i' dadeveiav. eari jxev ovv /cat cjivroZs 
vyporrjTt /cat Oepixorrjri red-qXevai, /cat av^dveaOat, 
fxaXXov Se TOt? ^coois' /cat rovvavriov rj ipvxpdrrjs 
Kal r) ^rjpoTTjs oXedpiov. Sio ;i^apteVTa>? "Ofxrjpos 
eicoOev ' 8i€povs ^porovs ' /caAeiv, /cat ro fxkv X^^~ 
peLV ' LaLveadai,' ' piyeSavov ' 8e /cat ' Kpvepov ' ro 
736 XvTTTjpov Kal TO (^o^epov 6 8' dXi^as Kal 6 OKeXeros 
€7tI tols veKpois Xeyovrai,^ XoiSopovfievqs toj 6v6- 
jLtart Try? ^rjporrjros. eVt to fiev at/ita KvpLCordrrjv 
Tojv €v rjpXv exov Svvapnv d/xa /cat deppiov iari Kal 
vypov, TO 8e yrjpas d/x^otv ivSees. eot/ce 8e tou 
evtauTou Trepiidv'Tos' otov yrjpas efvai to ^dLVorrcopov 
ovrrco^ yap rJKet to vypov, ou/ceVt 8e to deppiov 
epptorai' SelypLa Br) yeyovos aTexvcbs ^rjporrjTos 
d/xa /cat ipvxpoTrjTos i7Tia(f)aXrj Trotet Ta acouaTa 
TTpos Tas voaovg. tols 8e aajpiaoi, Ta? tpvxds av/j.- 
TTadetv dvdyKrj, Kal pidXiaTa naxvovpievov rov 
B TTvevfxaTog djxavpovadai to /xavTt/cdv, warrep Kdr- 
OTTTpov 6[XLxXr)s dva7np,7TXdfji€vov . ovhev ovv rpavov 
oi5S' evapdpov ovS^ €var]p,ov iv Tat? ^avTaaiais drro- 
hiSaxn, pi^XP'' ^^ Tpaxv xal dXapLves Kal avv- 
ecTTaXfJLCvov eaTiv." 

^ Xpovov Reiske : xpovov Kal. 
* XtyovTcu Doehner, after Eustathius : yeyove. 

210 



TABLE-TALK VIII. 10, 735-736 

directed by the name we give to the season of empty 
and false dreams. It is called ' fall ' <* because at that 
time, on account of the cold and dryness, the leaves 
fall, except those that have some warmth or oiliness 
in them, Uke oUve, laurel, and palm trees, or some 
moisture, like the mjni^^le and ivy. Their composition 
saves these, but not the rest ; in them the glutinous, 
cohesive quality is not permanent, the juice being 
either congealed by the cold or dried up because of 
its weakness and scantiness. Now it is proper to 
plants to flourish and grow by moisture and warmth, 
but even more so to animals. Conversely, cold and 
drouth are fatal to them. Thus Homer aptly spoke 
of ' humid mortals,' and called rejoicing ' warming,' 
but called the painful and fearful ' chill ' and ' cold.' 
' Dropless ' (alibas) and ' dried ' (skeletos) are words 
used of the dead ; they are derogatory references 
to their dry condition. Furthermore the blood, whose 
power is sovereign among all substances found in us, 
is both warm and moist, while old age is deficient in 
both of these qualities. As the year revolves, the 
late autumn is like its old age : the wet season has 
not yet come, and the hot season is no longer in full 
vigour. Thus it is Uterally a sample offered of the 
combination of dry and cold ; and it makes our 
systems susceptible to disease. It is ine\'itable, how- 
ever, that our minds should share the body's ex- 
perience, and especially that when the \ital spirit is 
congealed, the light of divination should be dimmed, 
Uke a mirror that is fogged. It gives us nothing clear 
or connected or significant in our visions, as long as 
it is rough and lacklustre and constricted." 

• i.e. " leaf-shedding." 
* ovTTco Xylander : ovrco. 

211 



TABLE-TALK 

(QUAESTIONES CONVIVALES) 



BOOK IX 



INTRODUCTION 

The dramatic date of the conversation that occupies 
Book IX of the Symposiac Questions cannot be de- 
termined, but it may belong to Plutarch's student 
days at Athens under Ammonius, head of the Platonic 
Academy. About half the dramatis personae are not 
mentioned elsewhere, namely Hermeias the geo- 
meter, Zopyrio the schoolmaster, Maximus the rhetor, 
i.e. teacher and exponent of the art of oratory, Hylas 
the teacher of literature, Menephylus the Peripatetic 
philosopher, Dionysius a farmer, Meniscus the physi- 
cal trainer and Thrasybulus, whose occupation is not 
given ; conceivably the last of these is to be identified 
with Ammonius 's son Thrasyllus (722 c). The musi- 
cian Erato reappears at 6^5 d ff., again in the company 
of Ammonius ; on this occasion Plutarch expressly 
calls himself a " young man " (64'9 a). Protogenes is 
found again at 698 d fF. and 723 f ff. where, as in this 
book (741 c), he takes the line of " exposing " the 
teachers of rhetoric. He may be identical ^\•ith Pro- 
togenes of Tarsus, who plays a chief part in the 
Amatorius, and recounts the myth in De Sera Numinis 
Vindicta. Herodes the teacher of rhetoric is found 
again at an entertainment given by Sospis (? the 
Roman name Sospes), when the latter, also a rhetor, 
was in charge of the Isthmian games (723 a). Marcus, 
teacher of literature, and Glaucias, a rhetor, recur at 

215 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

628 A fF., and the latter at 635 a fF. and 714 a ff. Trypho 
the doctor is a guest of Erato at 646 f fF. and of 
Plutarch at Chaeronea at 683 c fF. The company is 
completed by Plutarch's brother Lamprias, whose 
characteristic sense of humour is allowed some scope 
in Question 5. 

The text is based on that of K. Hubert in the 
Teubner series, from which all information about the 
readings of manuscripts has been derived. Vindo- 
bonensis 148, the archetype of all surviving manu- 
scripts, now ceases with the word ' AfftpoSirrjv at 747 e, 
having lost its last pages ; for the short remaining 
section recourse must be had to copies made before 
the loss, of which the most important are Paris 2074, 
of the xiv century, Vaticanus 139? written soon after 
A.D. 1296, and Paris 1672, written soon after a.d. 1302. 
At a few places Hubert's text has been modified by 
the introduction of a new correction or the revival 
of an old one, and an uncertain conjecture has some- 
times been admitted where the Avording, but not the 
general sense, is in doubt. 

The apparatus criticus does not mention every 
error, however trivial or obvious, of the archetype. 
By "Anon. 1 (Turn.)," "Anon. 2 (Turn.)," "Anon. 3 
CTurn.) " I indicate the three hands (small and neat, 
medium, and large) which, in that order, entered 
corrections in the margins of Adrian Turnebus' copy 
of the Aldine edition, now Res. J. 94 in the Biblio- 
thfeque Nationale at Paris (cf. Wyttenbach's edition, 
Praefatio, § 4). " Anon. (Turn. ?) " denotes a reading 
stated in the Frankfurt edition of 1599 to be derived 
from the margins of Turnebus' books. " Anon. 
(Amyot) " denotes a correction in the margins of 
Amyot's copy of the Basel edition, now Res. J. 103 

216 



TABLE-TALK IX 

in the Bibliotheque Nationale ; it was acquired by 
him on 10 November 1569 and bears on its last page 
the date " 8 idus Sept. 1570." He is known to have 
collected the emendations of others (see Wyttenbach, 
Praefatio, § 5), but some, to which forte, puto, or some 
such word is attached, seem to be his own : these I 
record as " Amyot." " Amyot trans.," and similarly 
" Xylander trans." etc., indicate that the correction, 
although not expUcitly made, is implied by the trans- 
lator's version. 

I ^^ish to thank Mr. A, S. F. Gow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, Professor J. H. Plumley of Christ's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, and Professor R. P. Winnington- 
Ingram of King's College, London for ad\ice and 
information on various points. 

F. H. Sandbach 
Tfiixmr College 

Cambridge 



217 



(736) SYMnOSIAKQN 

BIBAION EXATON 

C To evarov rwv Hv/xTTocnaKcov, oi Hoaaie Seve- 
KLCov, TTepiex^i Xoyovs rovs^ 'AO-^vqaiv iv rots 
Movaetois yevofxevovs roi' /cat fidXiara rrjv cvvedSa 
rat? MouCTat? TTpocnqKeLV. o h apcdixos av vrrep- 
PdXXr] rrjv o-vvqdr) Se/caSa twv t,rirrjpLdr(x)v, ov 
davfjiaareov eSei yap rravTa raZs Moyaat? aTTo- 
hovvai rd rdv Mouctcov /cat jjLTjSev d(f)eXeZv oioirep 
d<f>^ lepcbv, TrXelova /cat KaXXiova tovtcjov o^elXovras 
avrals. 

nPOBAHMA A 

Ilepl aTixfiiv evKaipcjs a.vaTTe<f>CDvr)ii.evcov koL aKaipws 

Collocuntur Ammonius, Erato, alii 

D 1. * Apifjuxivios ^Ad-qvYjat aTparvjycov aTToSet^tv 

^ ? omit Toiis. 

^ T<p (substituted for Kal in Basel edition) added by 
Anon. 1 in Turnebus' copy. 

" It is not known whether there was any public festival 
of the Muses at Athens. The reference may be to some 
private celebration in the Academy, which was formally an 
association for their worship. 

218 



TABLE-TALK 
BOOK NINE 

The ninth book of Table-Talk, Sossius Senecio, con- 
tains the conversations held at Athens during the 
festival of the Muses," the reason being that the 
number nine is peculiarly appropriate to the Muses. 
Should it prove that the number of questions exceeds 
the customary'- ten, you must not be surprised. It 
was my duty to render to the Muses all that belonged 
to the Muses, and not to commit the sacrilege of 
robbing them of anything ; in fact it would need an 
even finer and larger offering than this to repay my 
debt to them. 

QUESTION 1 

On opportune and inopportune quotation from the poets 

Speakers : Ammonias, Erato, and others 

1. While in office as strategos^ at Athens, Am- 

* At this date there was a single gtrategos who, with the 
archon and keryx, was one of the three principal civil officials 
at Athens. Inscriptions (/n«cr. (?ra«c. 3. 109^ ; 1114.; 1145) 
show that he sometimes concerned himself with the training 
of the ephehoi, young men who for two years, between the 
ages of 18 and 20, received a physical, military, and cultural 
education under state supervision. Ammonias filled the 
office three times, see 720 c. 

219 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(736) eXa^ev iv^ tco Aioyevcico rcov ypdfifiara /cat yeo)- 
fxerpiav koI to. prjropLKa Kal fiovcrLK-qv p^avdavovTOiv 
i(f)'qPoJV, Kai tovs €v^oKtp,7Jcravras rcbv SchaaKaXcov 
CTTt ScLTTVov eKaXccrcv. Traprjaav Se /cat rcov dXXcov 
(jyiXoXoyayv av)(yoi /cat iravres eTneiKOJS ol crvvijdeis. 
6 fi€V ovv 'Ax^XXevs pLOVOLS rcbv dyiovtaapLevcov toZs 
piovopLa-)(rioaaL heiTTvov /cari^yyeiAev, ^ovXop^evos, 
tS? (jiaaiv, et ris iv rols ottXois opyrj npos dXXi]Xovs 
/cat ;^aAe7roT'>^S' yivoiro, ravrrjv a^etvat /cat /cara- 
Oeadai, rovs dvSpas iaridaecos kolvtjs /cat TpaTT€t,T)s 
pi€Taa)(ovTas • rep 8' ^ KpLpaovLcp avve^aive rovvav- 
E Ttov OLKpirjv yap 'q rcov StSaa/caAcov d/xiXXa /cat 
(f>i,Xov€iKLa a(f)o8por€pav eXa^ev iv rat? kvXl^l yevo- 
fievwv rjSr) Se /cat Trpordaeis /cat TTpoKXrjaeis rjaav 
a/cpiToi /cat draKTOi. 

2. Ato Trpcbrov p,€v eKcXevaev aaai rov '^parcova 
rrpos rrjv Xvpav daavros Se rd TrpcJbra rcbv "Epyojv 
' ovK dpa piovvov erjv 'E/atSajv yevos,' cTT'^veaev^ cos 
rcb^ Kaipcb TTpcTTovrcog* app^oaafxevov eneira irepl 
ari^cov evKaipias ive^aXev Xoyov, cos pirj pbovov 
X^ip^^ dXXd /cat %/3etav eariv ore pieydXrjv exovarjs. 
/cat o jLtev pai/jcpSog evOvs rjv 8td aropLaros Trdcriv, 

^ eV added by Madvig. 

* iiTjjveaev Muretus : eiTT^vrjaa. 

' cos Toi Anon. 1 (Turn.) : irajs to. 

* npenovTws Xylander, Anon. 2 (Turn.) : TTporpeTrom-os. 

" The school of Diogenes, a centre for the instruction of 
the ephehoi {Inscr. Graec. 3. 109.S ; 1 133 ; 1 135), was named 
after a Diogenes, who about 230 b.c. surrendered the Mace- 
220 



TABLE-TALK IX. 1, 736 

monius heard a demonstration given in the school of 
Diogenes " by the young men who were studying 
literature, geometry, rhetoric, or music ; afterwards 
he invited the successful teachers to dinner. Nearly 
all our friends were present, and quite a number of 
other men with literary interests. Now the reason 
why the only competitors to whom Achilles promised 
a dinner were those who had fought in single combat,* 
was his wish, so we are told, that the contestants 
should, through sharing an entertainment at a com- 
mon table, discard and relinquish any anger or ill- 
feeling that they might have conceived against one 
another in arms. For Ammonius, however, things 
went the opposite way : the competition and rivalry 
between the teachers took a sharper edge over the 
cups, and it was not long before there was a disorderly 
confusion of theses and challenges. 

2. For this reason, as a start, he asked Erato to 
sing to the Utc, and when he sang the opening of 
the Works of Hesiod, 

It's wrong to think there is one kind of strife alone, ' 

complimented him on the aptness \vith which he had 
matched the occasion. He followed this up by intro- 
ducing the topic of appropriate verses from the poets, 
saying that a well-timed quotation was often not 
only felicitous but also verj' useful. Everybody im- 
mediately began to talk of the rhapsode at the 

donian posts in Athens for a payment of 150 talents, cf. Life 
of Aratu^, xxxiv. 

' At the funeral games in honour of Patroclus, Iliad, 
xxiii. 810. 

* Works and Days, 1 1 , the first line of the poem proper, 
what precedes being a proem. Hesiod distinguishes desirable 
emulation from bitter hostility. 

221 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

J^ iv ToXs YiroXefiaiov yd/xois dyofjievov^ rrjv dSeX<f)riv 
Kai TTpdyixa hpdv dWoKorov voixitfOfxevov /cat 
dOeafiov^ dp^dfievos (xtto twv €Ttu)v cKeivcov 

7j€VS 8' "Hprjv cKdXeaae^ Kaaiyv^Trjv dXoxov re 

Kal 6 irapd A7]fjL7]TpLtp ru) ^aaiXel dnpoOvfios cot'* 
aSetv /xera to SelTTVov, cos 8e^ TrpoaeTrepujjev avTip 
Tov vlov en iraiSapiov ovra rov ^lXlttttov, eTn^aXdjv 
evdvs 

TOV TratSct pLoc tovS' delays '\ipaKXiovs 
rjpbcov T€ Bpeijjaf 

131 Kal ^Avd^apxos vtt* 'AAe^av8/)ou /ii^Aot? ^aXXo- 
/Lievo?' TTapd SeiTTVov eTravaards^ Kai etmov 

^e^X-qaerat tls 6e<i)v ^poTqaia X^P^' 

iravroiv S' dpiaros^ K.optvdios Trat? alxP'dXcoTos , 
56* rj rroXis dTTCoXero Kal Mo/x/Lttos" e/c rcov iXevdepcov 

^ ayojievov placed here by Stephanus : after -naaiv in mss. 

* vofii^ofievov Kol adeofMov Basel edition, Xylander : 6 fuv 
OVK id deafiov. 

* eKaXeaae] npoaeeine Homer. 

* wv y\non. 2 (Turn.) : ■^v. 
^ lbs §€ Nauck : coare. 

* ^aXXofxevos Aldine edition : neXXo/xevos. 
' eTravaaras Basel edition : inavaaTavTas. 

* apiOTos] apicrra Reiske. 

" Ptolemy II Philadelphus married his full sister Arsinog 
II, perhaps in 278 b.c, continuing a practice of the Pharaohs. 
Greek sentiment allowed marriage with a half-sister, but not 
with a full sister. 

* Homer, Iliad, xviii. 356 ; the same precedent is invoked 
by Theocritus, xvii. 130 ff. 

" Presumably Demetrius II, king of Macedon 239-229 
B.C., father of Philip V (born 238 b.c). 

222 



TABLE-TALK IX. 1, 736-737 

marriage of Ptolemy, who in taking his sister to wife 
was considered to be committing an unnatural and 
unlawful act " : he started his recitation with the 
verses that begin 

Then Zeus to Hera, his wife and sister, lifted his voice. * 

Then there was the guest of King Demetrius '^ who 
was reluctant to sing after dinner, but when Deme- 
trius sent him his son Philip, still a small boy, with 
the request, capped it immediately with 

Worthily both of Heracles and us 
Bring up this boy. "* 

And Anaxarchus ^ on being pelted with apples by 
Alexander at a dinner party got up to retaliate with 
the words 

A god shall take a hit from mortal hand. ' 

Best of all was the young Gsrinthian prisoner of war, 
when his city was destroyed ' and Mummius, who 

' Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Adespoton 399. In the 
Hellenistic age selected passages, even in iambics, from 
tragedies were sung as isolated numbers, cf. Symbolae Oslo- 
enses, xxxi (1955), pp. 26 ff. The boy of the play (? Euripides' 
Augg) must have had as father Heracles, to whom Demetrius 
was thus flatteringly compared. 

• A native of Abdera, who accompanied Alexander the 
Great on his Persian campaign. Arrian, Anabasis, iv. 10 
and Philodemus, De Vitiis, iv. 5 agree with Plutarch, against 
Aelian, Varia Hist. ix. 37 and Diogenes Laertius, ix. 60, in 
making him encourage Alexander's dreams of divinity. 

' Euripides, Orestes, 271, where Orestes threatens to shoot 
the Furies. Philodemus represents Anaxarchus as threaten- 
ing Alexander with his goblet. 

' 146 B.C. The whole population was sold into slavery. 
Perhaps the text implies that Mummius, the Roman com- 
mander, expected educated boys to fetch a higher price. 

223 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(737) Tovs itTiaTafJievovs ypdfxixara TTatSa? avaKOTToJv 
eKeXevcre ypdi/jat, cttlxov, eypaifje 

rpls piaKapes Aavaol /cat TcrpaKis, ot tot' oXovro' 

Kai yap Tradelv tl tov Mo//./xiov 0acrt /cat haKpv- 
aai /cat Travras d(f)elvai iXevOepovs roiis toj 77at8i 
TTpoa'QKovTas . efxvqaOrjaav^ 8e* /cat rrjs SeoSiopov 
B TOV* rpaycphov yvvaiKos ov TrpocrSe^a/xeVrys" avrov €V 
Tw avyKadevScLV vrroyvov rod dyiovos ovros, €7ret 
8e viKi^aas elarjXdev Ttpos avTqv, daTraaranevrjs /cat 
eLTTovarjs 

^AyapiepLvovos ttol, vvv eKeiv* e^eari aoi. 

S. 'E/c 8e TOVTOV TToXXd /cat twv dKaipcov iviofs 
CTTTyet Aeyetv, co? ov/c d-)(pr]arov etSevai /cat (f)vXdr- 
readai. olov X\opi7n)icp Mayv-oj (f)aaLV d-no rrjs 
pieydXrjs eiravrj/covri arpareias rov StSacr/caAov ttj? 
dvyarpos dTToSet^iv StSovra ^l^Xlov KopLiaOdvTos 
ivSovvai rfj^ TratSt roiavrrjv dpx^v 

rjXvdes e/c TToXepiov cog co^eAc? avroO* oXeadai. 

KaCTcrioj 8e AoyyiVo) Aoyou TTpoaTreaovrog dheaTTo- 

Tov, TOV vlov cttI ^ivqs TeOvdvai, /cat to dX'qdes 

C exovTOS eiTretv oj38ej^os'' ouS' aveAetv to vttotttov, 

elaeXdojv avyKXrjTtKos dvrjp Trpos avTOV rjSrj irpea- 

^ avoKOTTcov Post : evavoKOTrajv. 

* ifiviQadnaav (or efivTJaOtjfiev) F. H. S., cf. 717 C : ifiv^adrj. 
3 Se Madvig : re. 

* TOV added by Reiske ; an alternative is to delete rpayaiSoC 
as an intrusive explanation. * rij Basel edition : rw. 

* ouSevos added here by Bernardakis, after koI by Reiske. 

" Homer, Odyssey, v. 306. 

* Perhaps the best known of all tragic actors, Theodorus 

224> 



I 



TABLE-TALK IX. 1, 737 

was reviewing such free-born boys as could read and 
wTite, ordered him to write down a line of verse : he 
wTote 

O thrice and four times happy Greeks who perished then." 

It is said indeed that Mummius was affected to the 
point of tears and let all the boy's relations go free. 
Mention was also made of the wife of Theodorus '' the 
tragic actor who would not receive him to sleep "with 
her while the competition was imminent, but when he 
entered her room victorious welcomed him with the 
words 

Agamemnon's child, you have permission now. * 

3. After this it occurred to some of the guests to 
recount a large number of inopportune quotations 
also, on the ground that it has its uses to know of 
such and be on one's guard. For example they say 
that on Pompey the Great's homecoming from his 
great campaign •* his daughter's tutor, to pro\ide a 
display of her proficiency, had a book fetched and 
gave the child this line to start from : 

Thou hast come from the war ; oh that thou had'st 
perished there." 

Then there once came to the ears of Cassius Longinus^ 
an anonymous report that his son had died abroad ; 
no one was in a position to say what was the truth or 
put an end to misgiving. An elderly senator came 

lived in the fourth century ; he also wrote tragedies Cf. De 
Gloria Atheniensium, 348 e and Aristotle, Politics, 1336 b 38. 

* Sophocles, Electro, 2. See Athenaeus, 579 a, for another 
use of this quotation. <* 61 b.c. 

• Homer, Iliad, iii. 438, spoken by Helen to Paris. 

' There were many men of this name : the best known is 
C. Cassius, who took part in the assassination of Julius 
Caesar. 

VOL. IX 1 225 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

[_(737) ^UTepo?, " ov KaTa<f>povrja€is ," €(f)7j, " Aoyylve, Aa- 
Xids OLTTLarov Kal KaKo-qdovs (l>'r]iJLrjg, cjarrep ovk 
ei8<l)s ovS* dveyvcoKOJS^ to 

<l>'Qiiri 8' ov ris TTCt/xTrav aTroAAyrat." 

o 8' ev PdSoj arixov aiTT^aavri ypafjifjuaTLKCp ttolov- 
fievo) Bel^iv iv Ta> dedrpco Trporeivas 

epp* €K vqaov ddaaov, iXeyxtcrre I^coovtojv 

dSrjXov etre Trai^cuv e<j)v^pLaev etr' aKOiv rjcrrox't^arev. 

nPOBAHMA B 

Tis aiTia, 8i* ■^v ro SX^a irpoTeTaKTai rwv aroix^Lcjv; 

CoUocuntur Ammonius, Hermeas, Protogenes, Plutarchus 

D 1. Tayra juev ovv Traprjyop'qaev dareicos rov 
dopv^ov edovs 8' ovros iv rols Moucreiois' /cAt^- 
povs 7T€pL(f>epea6aL Kal rovs GvXXa)(6vras dXXrjXoLS 
TTporeiveiv <^iX6Xoya tjrjrrjixara, <f>o^ovfX€vos 6 
^AfXfjLcovcos p^r} TCx)V 6pLOTe)(yo)v nves dXX-qXoLS 

E CTuAAa;)^ajcrt, TTpoaera^ev dvev KXijpov yewjjLerprjv 
ypafip^ariKcp TTporelvai Kal prjropLKco puovoLKov, 
efr' epLTToXiv dvaarpi^CLv rds dvTanoBoaeis. 

2. Upovreivev ovv' 'Kpfxeias 6 yeojfieTprjs Ylpco- 

^ ouS* dviyvwKCJS Basel edition : ov bpdv iyvcoKws. 
^ ovv Wyttenbach : odv 6. 

" Hesiod, Works and Days, 763. The senator (and prob- 
ably Hesiod) meant that a rumour once started cannot be 
scotched ; but the line was current (c/. Aristotle, Nicomachean 
Ethics, 1133 b 28) in the sense " there is no smoke without 
fire." 

* Presumably undertaking to find in it matter for comment. 



TABLE-TALK IX. 1-2, 737 

to visit him and said : " Longinus, surely you will 
pay no attention to unreliable gossip and malicious 
rumour ? One would think you did not know or had 
never read the line 

No rumour ever quite in nothing ends." " 

And once in Rhodes a teacher of Uterature, gi\-ing a 
display in the theatre, asked to be given a Hne *" ; a 
man offered him 

Clear out double quick from the island, most wicked of all 
men alive ! "^ 

It is doubtful, however, whether he was committing 
an unintentional blunder or making a rude joke. 



QUESTION 2 

What is the reason why alpha stands first in the alphabet ? 

Speakers : Ammonius, Hermeias, Protogenes, Plutarch 

1 . This talk provided a happy means of reducing the 
disturbance. Nevertheless, it being the custom at 
the festival of the Muses for lots to be handed round 
and for those whom the draw brought together to 
propound learned problems to one another, Am- 
monius, fearing that some professors of the same 
subject might be dra\vn together, ** directed that, 
without any balloting, a geometer should put a 
problem to a teacher of hterature and a musician to 
a teacher of rhetoric, and that afterwards they should 
change round and pay one another back in kind. 
2. The first problem was put to Protogenes the 

' Homer, Odyssey, x. 1-2. 

■* The quarrelsomeness of men of the same trade was 
proverbial. 

227 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(737) Toyevet rco ypafjuixariKw Trpcoros alriav elTreXv, Si' 
r]v TO aX(j>a TTpordrTerai twv ypanfjudrcov oLTToivTCDv. 
6 Se rrjv iv raXs cr;!^o Aat? Xeyofxevrjv aTreScD/ce. to. 
fiev yap (fxjovijevTa to) SiKaLordrtp Xoyco Trpcorevciv^ 
TU)v a<f)(x}vcov /cat 'qpi,i(j)a>va>v iv he tovtols tcov p,ev 
puaKpaJv ovTOJV rojv 8e ^pa^^ecuv twv 8' d^^orepa 
/cat 8i)(p6vojv Xeyojjievwv, TavT* cIkoto}? ttj SwdpLei 
Sia^epeiv . avTcbv Se tovtcov ndXiv rjyenovLKOiTaTrjv 
e;^etv Td^LV to rrpoTdTTeadai twv dXXcov Svelv vtto- 
F TaTTeadai Se firjSeTepw 7T€(f>vK6g, olov ecrrt to dX(f>a' 
TOVTL yap ovTe tov ttora SevTepov ovre tov v rar- 
Tofxevov iOdXeiv ofioXoyeZv owS' ofioTraOelv oiOTe 
avXXa^rjv puiav i^ dfM(f>oLV yeveodai, aAA' wcnrcp 
dyavaKTOVv /cat dTTOTTrjSiov ISlav dpx^v ^rjTetv del- 
e/cetv'cov 8' oTTOTepov^ ^ovXr) TrpoTaTTOfievov d/coAou- 
dovvTL /cat avfKfxvvovvTt p^/3'^cr^at /cat avXXa^ds 
ovofxaTaJV TTOtelv, cocnrep tov " avpiov " /cat tov 
Mo avAeiv /cat tou Atai'Toj /cat tou atoet- 
CT^ai " /cat pAjpiwv dXXcov. 8t6 toi? Tpiaiv, cooTrep 
ol TTevTadXoi, TTepUcTTi /cat vt/ca ra /xev TroAAa tw 
(f)Cx)vdev etvat, to, S' ay (fxjovdevTa to)* Bixpovov, 
TavTa 8' auTci to) Tre^u/ceVat Kadrjyeladai hevTe- 
peveiv Se firjSeTTOTe ju,7y8' d/coAou^etr. 

3. riayCTa/LieVot; 8e tou n/3a>ToyeVoys', KaXeaag 
Cfx 6 * AjJipiwvios , " ovBev," €(1)7], " crv tw KdS/Lia> 
^oTjdels 6 BoiojTtos , ov (j>aaL to dX<j>a TrdvTCOv vpo- 

^ vpcureveiv Wyttenbach : TrpcjTevei. 

* OTTorepov Anon. 2 (Turn.) : oirorepov. 

^ Tu> Anon. (Turn. ?) : eV tw. 

" See note on 738 d infra. 

*> Long-jump, sprint, discus, javelin, wrestling. A com- 
petitor first in three events was unbeatable. 

* Legendary Phoenician founder of Thebes and author of 

2£8 



TABLE-TALK IX. 2, 737-738 

teacher of literature by the geometer Hermeias, who 
asked him for the reason why alpha is put first of all 
the letters. He replied with the stock reason given 
in schools. First, there was every justification for 
the vowels' taking precedence of the consonants and 
semivowels " ; then among the vowels some were 
long, some short, and others, the so-called ambiguous, 
long and short ; the last were naturally superior by 
reason of this capacity, and among them, in turn, 
the leading position belonged to the one that could 
be prefixed to either, but suffixed to neither, of the 
others. Alpha was of this nature ; if placed after 
iota or upsilon it refused, he said, to come to terms or 
fall in with them, to effect the formation of a single 
syllable from the two vowels ; it sprang away, as it 
were, in distaste, and always tried to make its own 
start. On the other hand, if given a position before 
whichever you pleased of the other two, it made use 
of them, as they harmoniously followed its lead, to 
form syllables of words, as for example aurion (to- 
morrow), aulein (play a wind instrument), aias (Ajax), 
aideisthai (be ashamed), and countless other words. 
And so, like a competitor in the pentathlon,* it was 
superior on three counts, beating the majority of 
letters by being a vowel, the vowels by being of 
ambiguous quantity, and the ambiguous vowels by 
its characteristic of leading the way and never follow- 
ing or taking second place. 

3. When Protogenes had finished, Ammonius 
called on me. " Aren't you," he asked, " as a Boeo- 
tian, going to give any support to Cadmus,'^ who is 
said to have placed alpha first because it is the 

the Greek alphabet, the Phoenician origin of which is in 
fact likely. 

229 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(738) ra^ai Sia to ^OLViKas ovrco KoXelv rov jSouv, ov^ 
ov Sevrepov ovSe rplrov, wanep 'Hcn'oSo?, oAAa 
TTpoJTOV Ttdeadai rcov dvayKaicov ; " " ovSev," 
€<f)7]v eyoi- " rep yap e/xa> 770.77770) po'qdeLv, et tl 

B Svvajjiai, SiKaios elfxi fjudXXov rj rep rov Aiovvaov . 
AapL77piag yap 6 ifxos 776.777705 eXeyev 77pa)T7]v 
(f)vaeL (f>o)vrjv rcov ivdpdpojv eK(j)€peadai, 8ta ttj? tov 
dX(f)a SvvdfjLccos' ro yap iv rw aTOfJuan TTvevfia 
Tat? vrept ra X^^^V p-dXiara 77Xdrreadai Kivqcreaiv, 
d>v 77pcx}r'qv avoLyopievwv ttjv dvco Sidaraaiv ovaav 
egievai, rovrov tov '^x^^> ctTrAow oVra Kopuhfj /cat 
/XTjSe/xta? Seo/x€vov 77payp,aT€Lag, /itT^Se ttjv yXoJTTav 
77apaKaXovvTa )U,7^S' V77op,€vovr^ J^ dXXd Kara. ;^ajpav 
aT70K€ipiev'qs eKCLvrjg eK77€p,776p,evov ■fj /cat ra VT^TTia 
TavTTjv 77pwT'qv d(f)L€vai <f>a>vrjv. (hvop-dadai^ 8e* /cat 

C TO ' dUiv ' eTTt Tip (f)Covrjg aladdveadai /cat TroAAa 
Tcov opbOLCOv, oja77ep /cat to ' aSetv ' /cat t6^ ' av- 
XcLV ' /cat TO ' dXaXd^eiv.' ot/xat 8e /cat to ' atpetv ' 
/cat to ' avoLyeiv ' ovk (1776 TpoTTov ttj tcov p^etAcDv' 

^ ov added by Wyttenbach, (Amyot, Xylander trans.). 

* vTTOfj.evovT' Basel edition : vvoixivov. 
^ (hvofiaaOai Basel edition : ovo^idaai. 

* 8e added by W3i;tenbach. But 6vofi,daai koX may be sound, 
if some preceding words have fallen out. 

^ aUiv Anon. 2 (Turn.) : ael elvai. 

* TO added by Aldine edition. 

" Hesiod, Works and Days, 405 : " First buy an ox, and 
then a woman." Both the name and the form of the Greek 
letter alpha are derived from the Semitic letter aleph, the 
name of which means " ox." In the Greek A the horns of 
the ox's head point downwards. 

' Dionysus was son of Cadmus' daughter Semeld. 

* This poetic word is not in fact so confined in usage but 
can mean the hearing of any sound. 

230 



TABLE-TALK IX. 2, 738 

Phoenician name for an ox, which they, like Hesiod, 
reckoned not the second or third, but the first of 
necessities ? " " " Not a bit," I replied, " it is my 
own grandfather whom I must by rights support with 
what ability I have rather than Dionysus'.'' My 
grandfather Lamprias. you see, used to say that of 
all articulate sounds the first to be naturally uttered 
is that which has the phonetic value of alpha. He 
argued that the breath in the mouth is mainly shaped 
by the movements of the lips ; their first movement 
is their vertical separation as they are opened, which 
emits this sound, an absolutely simple one that re- 
quires no effort, and neither asks for nor submits to 
assistance from the tongue, being pronounced while 
that organ remains in its original position, which is 
of course the reason why babies utter this sound first. 
And that, he would say, is why the perception of the 
sound of a voice is called aiein (to hear)," and there 
are many parallels, for example adein (to sing), aulein 
(to play a wind-instrument), alalazein (to yell).'* And I 
believe that airein (to raise) and anoigein (to open) are 

'' alalazein is an onomatopoeic word representing a re- 
peated open-mouthed shout, which gives a sound like that 
we write as a. The other examples, however, illustrate the 
fact that ancient " etymology " proceeds in ways that we 
find mistaken or unintelligible. It does not conceive of words 
as having developed according to phonetic laws from more 
primitive forms, but as showing in their present form the 
true nature of the thing they indicate. Adein (to sing) begins 
with an a because a is the sound, so it is maintained, that a 
wordless singer naturally produces (<•/. tra-la-la, as a repre- 
sentation of wordless song) : anoifjein (toopen) begins with an 
a because if we open the lips and make a sound, that sound 
is a. We cannot blow an aulas (an instrument of the clarinet 
type) without parting the lips, and so putting them in the 
position for making the sound of a : therefore aulein (to play 
an aulos) begins with an a. 

231 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(738) avoL^ei /cat apcrei, Kad* t]v ovtos ewTTiTrrei tov 
arojjLaTos 6 (f)d6yyog, chvo/jidcdat. 8i6 /cat to. tcov 
d<f>covcov ypaixfidrcov ovofiara ttXtjv ivos aTravra 
TTpoaxfyrjrat rq) dX(f>a KadaTrep (fxDrl Ti]s irepl aura 
TV<f)X6rr]ros ' tov 8e m fxovov aTTecmv rj Svvafjiis 
avrrj- to yap (f)i /cat to x^ '^^ H-^^ €(ttl m to Se 
KaiTTTa Saavvofxevov ." 



nPOBAHMA r 

Kara noiav dvaXoyiav 6 rctw (f>wvT]€VTCt)v Kol 'fffUifxtiVOiv*- 
dpidfios cwvTeTaKTat ; 

CoUocuntur Hermeas, Plutarchus, Zopyrio 

D !• Upos TavTa^ tov 'Kpfxetov <f)'>]aavTos dfjL(f>oT€- 
povs aTTohex^odai tovs Xoyovs, " tL ovv," €(f>r]v, " ov^ 
/cat orv SLTjXdes rjfJLLV, et tls eoTL Xoyos tov dpidpiov 
TCOV uTOix^LCOv, ws y ifiol 8o/cet; TeKfnjpiov 8e 
TToiou/xat TO fXTj KaTO. Tv-)(rjv Tojv dcfxovcov /cat 
rjfXLcfxJovcov rrpos t' dXXrjXa /cat TTpos* rd (f)COV')]€VTa 
yeyovevai to ttXtjOos, dXXd /caret ttjv 7TpcoT7]v dva- 
Xoyiav dpLdfirjTLKrjv §€ KaXovjjievrjv u^' vfMCov^' ivvea 
yap ovTCov /cat o/ctco /cat eTrra/ to) avTcD' tov 
fieaov dpidjjiov VTrepe^eLV /cat VTrepex^crdaL avfi^e- 
^r^KC. Tcbv^ 8' OLKpoiv 6 fxey LOTOS TTpos TOV iXa- 

^ ? add Kal djxLvwv. * ravra Basel edition : yap ra. 

3 ov Anon. 2 (Turn.) : aS. 

* TTpos transferred here (from after npos re) by Stephanus. 
^ v<f>^ Anon. 1 (Turn.), vfj-wv Meziriacus : d(f>' ■^(j.tov. 

* Kol inrd added by Xylander. 
' Tu> avTw Graf : ovttcd. 

* avp.pe^T)Ke. tcoi' Xylander, (Amyot) : av^^e^ij/coTcov. ?read 
avfiPe^rjKe riov aKpaiv 6 Se /xeyioroj /ctA., cf, Plato, Timaeus, 
36 A, Theo Smyrnaeus, p. 113 Hiller. 

232 



TABLE-TALK IX. 2-3, 738 

also names appropriate to the opening and raising of 
the lips that accompanies the emission from the mouth 
of this sound a. For this reason all the mute letters, 
with one exception, have names that employ an added 
alpha, as a kind of light to their darkness. Only pi 
lacks this sound, for phi and chi are to be counted as 
aspirated pi and kappa." 



QUESTION 3 

In what kind of numerical proportion do the vowels and 
semivowels stand to one another ? » 

Speakers : Hermeias, Plutarch, Zopyrio 

1. Hermeias replied that he accepted both explana- 
tions. " Well then," I said, " isn't it time you ex- 
pounded to us any reason there may be for the 
number of letters in the alphabet ? I am sure there 
is one, and find evidence in the fact that the mutes 
and semivowels stand in no chance nxmaerical rela- 
tion either to one another or to the vowels, but are 
in primary, or as you geometers call it, arithmetical 
proportion : since they are nine, eight, and seven,* 
they have the property that the middle number ex- 
ceeds the one extreme by the same amount as that 
by which it falls short of the other. Next, the largest 
number has the same relation to the smallest as that 

' A badly-worded and inaccurate summary of this ques- 
tion, which really is. Why are there 24 letters in the alphabet ? 
The writer has confined himself to Plutarch's introductory 
remarks. Even so he should have mentioned mutes as well 
as vowels and semivowels (see critical note). 

* The Greeks divided their alphabet into nine mutes : /3, 
y, S, 6, K, TT, T, x» ^ ; seven vowels : a, c, ij, t, o, v, cj ; and 
eight semivowels : ^, A, fj., v, ^, p, a, ip. 

233 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(738) ^larov e^^et Xoyov, ov^ 6 rcov Mouaoir rrpo? rov rov 
'ATToAAfovos" r} yap evvcas hrfTTov rais Moucrai? 17 
8' ejSSo/uas' ra> M^ovarjyerr) TrpocrKeKXrjpojraL' avvre- 
E Olvra^ 8' aXXrjXois StTrAacria^et rov fxecrov €lk6to)s, 
evel Kal ra rjp,i(f)Cx}va rrjg ap,(j)oiv rponov riva kol- 
vioveZ Swdfjiecos." 

2. Kai o 'Ep/ieta?/ " 'Fipp^rjs," e(f>r), " Xiyerai 
Oeujv iv AlyvTTTO) ypdfM^ara Trpcbro? evpeZv 816 /cat 
TO Tcov ypap^ixdrcxiv AlyvTrrioi Trpcorov l^tv ypa<f)ov- 
aiv, d)s '^pfifj TTpoarjKovaav, ovk opdcbs Kara ye 
rrjv epuTjv ^o^av dvavhco /cat d(f)d6yy(p rrpoehpiav iv 
F ypdjjifxaaLV dTTohovreg . 'Kp/xfj 8e fidXiora rcbv dpi- 
dpLcov Tj rerpds dm/cetrat, TroAAot 8e Kat rerpaSi 
jjLrjvos larafievov yeveadai rov deov laropovaiv rd 
re 817 TTpoJra /cat Ootvt/ceia 8td Ka8/Ltov ovo/xa- 
adevra rerpdKis rj rerpds yevofxevq Trapeaxev, /cat 
TcSv avdis e<f)evpedevroiv he TlaAa/XT^ST^s" re Trpo- 

^ ov added by Stephanus. 

* avvredevra Stephanus, (Amyot trans.) : awndivra. 

' o 'E/)jLi€taj Wyttenbach : depfiaalas. 

" Apollo was born on the seventh day of the month, cf. 
717 D supra and Lydus, De Mensibus, ii. 12. 

*> Hermes was identified with the ibis-headed Thoth or 
Theuth, to whom Plato, Phaedrus, 274 d ascribes the inven- 
tion of letters. Two species of ibis, the crested ibis and the 
sacred ibis (which forms part of the usual writing of Thoth's 
name), occur in Egj^Dtian hieroglyphs, but neither is used as 
a uniliteral phonetic sign. Modern Egyptologists, when 
listing the alphabetic phonetic signs, always begin with the 
vulture, which stands for a glottal stop : this would suit 
Plutarch's " inarticulate and voiceless," particularly as by 

234 



TABLE-TALK IX. 3, 738 

of the Muses to that of Apollo, the number nine 
being, as we know, assigned to the Muses and seven 
to their Leader." Then if we add together these 
extremes, they are t^vice the middle number, reason- 
ably so, since the semivowels in a sense share the 
quaUty of both vowels and mutes." 

2. " Hermes," said Hermeias, " was, we are told, 
the god who first invented writing in Egypt. Hence 
the Egyptians wTite the first of their letters with an 
ibis, the bird that belongs to Hermes, although in my 
opinion they err in gi\'ing precedence among the 
letters to one that is inarticulate and voiceless.* 
Well, of all numbers four is particularly associated 
with Hermes ; and many writers record that his 
birthday was actually on the fourth day of the 
month." Now not only did four multiplied by four 
pro\'ide the original letters of the alphabet, named 
the ' Phoenician letters ' because of Cadmus,'* but 
also four of those that were invented later were 

his time the sound was hardly pronounced, although still 
written. The modern order of phonetic signs is, however, 
barely a hundred years old : there seems to be no evidence, 
unless it Is to be found in this passage, to show which of these 
signs the Egyptians themselves placed first, or even that they 
had any fixed order of signs. It should be added that the 
crested ibis does occasionally function as a syllabic sign, 
representing a pair of vocalized consonants, and in crypto- 
graphic writing of Ptolemaic times is known to replace the 
sign for j, which was itself, owing to sound changes, sometimes 
confused with that for the glottal stop. 

* Homeric Hymn to Hermes, 19. Cf. also scholiast on 
Aristophanes, Plutus, 1126, Apuleius, De Mundo, -2, Lydus, 
De Mensibii^, ii. 9. 

'' Plutarch imagines an early alphabet probably consisting 
ofajSySeiyt/cA/xvoTrpffT. ^oiviicjia seems to be early 
Ionic for " letters of the alphabet," which then numbered 20, 
not 16. 

235 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(738) repos rerrapa /cat HifitovLS'qs au^is" aAAa roaavra 
TTpoaedrjKev. /cat p,rjv ori^ iravTcov dpidficov TrpG)- 
Tos reXeios rj jxev rpia? chs o.px'^v /cat pieaov^ 
exovua /cat reXos, r} 8' efa? ojs ton) rots avrrjs 
jxepeGL yivojJievrj, SrjAov iarf rovrcov roivvv 17 fjikv 
€^as v7t6 rrjs rerpaSos, 7] 8e Tpias vtto ttjs dySo- 
aSo?' TToXXaTrXaGtaadeLGa, Trpcorov kv^ov npcoros 
TeAeto?, TO ruiv rerrdpiov /cat et/coot Trapecrx'r^Ke 
ttXtjOos." 

3. "Ert 8' avrov Xeyovros 6 ypafjLixarLarrjs 
TLcoTTvpicjv hrjXos rjV KarayeXibv /cat TTap€(j)deyyero' 
TTavaa/xevov 8' ov Karecrx^v dXXd (fyXvapiav rd 
739 TOiavra ttoXXtjv aTre/caAef firjSevl yap Xoycp crvv- 
TVX^o. 8e Ttvi /cat TO ttXtjOos tcov ypafXjJbdTCtiv 
yeyovevai tooovtov /cat Tr]v Ta^iv ovtcds exovaav, 
cooTTcp, €(f>rj, /cat to ttjs 'lAtaSo? tov rrpiOTOv utlxov 
TO) TTJs '08yCTcr€ta? laoavXXa^ov elvai /cat TraAtv tco 
TeXevTaico tov TeXevTotov e/c tvx'^? /cat avTOfJidTOis 
i7Tr)KoXov6r]K€vai . 



nPOBAHMA A 

Tlorepav X*'P<^ '''V^ 'A^poStTiys erpwaev 6 Aio/iijSijs; 
Collocuntur Hermeas, Maximus, Zopyrio 

B 1- Mera 8e ravra tov p.kv 'Ep/xetar ^ovXofievov 
TL TTpo^aXelv* Tip TLtoTTvpicJVL d7T€KCx)Xvaap,ev 6 8e 
prjTCop Ma^t/xo? diroidev rjpioTrjaev avTOV e/c Tcijv 

^ OTL Madvig : o. * fitaov Basel edition : fifcnjv. 

' Tj Sc . . . dySoaSos added by Madvig. 

* TTpopaXeiv Basel edition : -npoXa^elv. 

" Palamedes is supposed by Pliny, Nat. Hist. vii. 192, to 
236 



TABLE-TALK IX. 3-4, 738-739 

added by Palamedes, and subsequently the same 
number once more by Simonides." A further point 
is this. It is clear that in the series of numbers the 
first perfect number is three, as having a beginning, a 
middle and an end, or six, as being equal to the sum 
of its factors. ** Now of these, six multiplied by four, 
or three, the first perfect number, multipUed by eight, 
the first cube, has given our total of twenty-four." 

3. While he was still talking, Zopyrio the school- 
master was ob\iously laughing at him and kept on 
making audible comments ; when he came to an 
end, he let himself go and stigmatized all such talk 
as complete nonsense. Both the number of the 
letters of the alphabet and their order, he said, were 
what they were by coincidence, and not for any rea- 
son, just as it was an accidental consequence of 
chance that the number of syllables in the first line 
of the Iliad was the same as that in the first line of 
the Odyssey,'^ while the same thing was again true of 
their last lines.'' 



QUESTION 4 

Which of Aphrodite's hands did Diomedes wound ? 

Speakers : Hermeias, Maximus, Zopyrio 

1. After this Hermeias wanted to set a problem to 
Zopyrio, but we stopped him. Maximus, however, 
the teacher of rhetoric, who was at a distance, put 
him a question taken from the Homeric poems, 

have invented t, v <l> x% Simonides d $ ip to, but there were 
other versions. 

"1+2+3=6. Cf. Nicomachus of Gerasa, i. 16. 2, Theon 
of Smyrna, chap. 32, p. 45 Hiller. 

' 17 syUables. ' 16 syllables. 

2S7 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(739) 'O^rjpov, TTorepav X^^P^ rpcoaeiev rrjs 'A^/aoScrT^? 
o AiOjji'qBrjs. ra^v 8e rov Za>7ru/)tcoros' avrepo- 
fjievov TTorepo) cr/ce'Aei ;!^a»Ao? "^v 6 ^lXittttos, " ov)( 
o/xoiov," elTrev 6 Ma^t/xos" " ovhev yap 6 At^/xo- 
adevTj'S vTTovoeZv^ irepl rovrov SeScu/cev av 8' iav 
anopeXv ojJLoXoyiqarjs , erepoi Sel^ovaiv ottov rriv re- 
rpoDixevqv X^^P^ (j>pd^€i toIs vovv exovaiv 6 ttol- 
"qTT^s." eSo^ev ovv 'qpXv 6 Zicoirvpicov SLTjiroprjadat, 
/cat rov Ma^tjLtor, eKeivov ohjottcovtos, rj^iov/xev 
emSeLKVvvai . 

C 2. " YipOJTOV ovv," 6 Ma^ljLtO? ^j>f], " TCOV €7TiOV 

ovrcos exovTCOv 

ev9* €7Top€^dp,€vos fJL€yadvfj,ov TuSeo? vlos 
aKprjv ovraae X'^^P'^t fi^rdXixevos o^ei Sovpt, 

SrjXov eoTLV, oti^ ttjv dptcrrepdv^ TTard^ai ^ovXo- 
fxevos ovK iSeiTO fieraTrrj^-qaew^ ,* €7T€l Kara rrjv 
dpi(TT€pav rrjv Se^idv elx^v i^ evavrlov 7rpoa(f>€p6- 
jxevos' Kal yap evXoyov rjv Trjv ippayfjieveaTepav 
X^^P^ '^(^'- jLtaAAov rov Alveiov ^epojxevov irepiexo- 
fxevrjv €K€Lv6v re rpioaai /cat avrrjv^ rpojdeiaav 
•npoeadai ro cra)/xa." hevrepov, els rov ovpavov 
avrrjs dvaKopnadeia'qg , /cat ry]v ^Adrjvdv dvayeXco- 
aav €7Totr)aev'' 

J) "^ pAXa ^rj nva Ku7r/3t? 'A;^attaSa)r avtetcra 

Tpoialv dfia arreadai, rovs vvv eKrrayXa <f>iX'qaev, 

^ virovoetv (or ov8e . . . virovoiav) F. H. S., cf. 729 E, 363 D : 
UTToAdyta. 

* oTi Basel edition : ov. 

' dpiarepav added by Xylander, Anon. 2 (Turn.). 

* neTaTTTjS'jjaeois Basel edition : fieraS-jaews. 

* avTTjv Hubert : rrjv. 

* dvayeXa>aav etroi-qaev F. H. S. doubtfully : dvayeXwaai Ae- 

238 



TABLE-TALK IX. 4, 739 

namely which of Aphrodite's hands did Diomedes 
wound ? Zopyrio quickly countered by asking which 
was Philip's lame leg. " That's not a parallel," re- 
pUed Maximus, " as Demosthenes has not even 
given a hint on the subject.'' But if you vnW admit 
that you are baffled, there are those who will show you 
where the poet indicates the wounded hand to those 
who have any \\its." It seemed to us that Zopyrio 
was completely at a loss for an answer, and, as he 
said nothing, we asked Maximus to show us his proof. 
2. " In the first place," said Maximus, " the verses 
run 

Then in a forward lunge great-hearted Tydeus' son 
Wounded the base of her hand, leaping with pointed spear. '' 

It is clear that if he had wanted to strike her left 
hand he would not have needed to jiunp to the side, 
as in advancing directly on her he would have had 
his right hand opposite her left. It was in fact 
reasonable that he should wound the hand that, 
being the stronger, gave more support to Aeneas as 
he was carried away, and that that hand should, on 
being wounded, drop the body. Secondly, when she 
got back to heaven, the poet represented Athena as 
jeering at her : 

Cypris, no doubt, inciting some woman of the Greeks 
To follow Trojan men, for whom her love is unbounded, 

" De Corona, 67. 

* Homer, /itad, V. 335-336. Aphrodite carries her wounded 
son Aeneas out of the battle, but drops him when hit herself. 
The word translated " leaping " means " leaping on her." 
The sense " leaping sideways," or " from side to side " that 
Maximus forces on it is unparalleled, but known for the 
prosaic equivalent fifTainjSdv. 

yovaiv. avayeXdaai Xiyovaav (anacoluthon) Duebner. Casti- 
glioni suggests a lacuna after koL. 

239 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(739) TcSv Tiva Kappe^ovaa 'A;(aitaSa»v ^advKoXvoiv ^ 
irpos XP^^V '^^povrj Karefiv^aTO X^^P^ apai-qv. 

of/xat 8e /cat ae," etTxev, " (L ^eXnare SihaaKdXwv, 
orav TLva tcov fJiadrjTcbv (f)iXo(f)povovfxevos Karaijjas 
/cat Karappe^rjs, p^rj rfj dpiarepa ;(etpt tovto TTOLeZv 
dXXd rfj Se^ia* KaOaTrep et/co? iari. /cat Trjv 'A^po- 
Sirrjv, €7n^e^i,WTdrr]v dewv ovaav, ovrio <f>iXo<f}povel- 
adat, TCt? TjpojiBas." 

nPOBAHMA E 

E Ata Tt TLXdrcDv ^Ikoott^v e(f>r) rr/v Axavros i/ivx'fiv^ eVi tov 

kXtjpov eXdetv; 

Collocuntur Sospis, Hylas, Lamprias, Ammonius, Marcus 

1. TaOra tovs dXXovs aTxavras tjSlovs erroi'qaev, 
fjbovov Se TOV ypap.p^ariKov "YXav 6 prjTOjp ScotTTrt? 
opijjv CLTTOcncoTTCovra^ /cat ^apv9vp,ovp,evov {ov irdw 
ydp €V7jp,€prjaev iv rats eTTtSei^ecrtv) dve^covqaev 

otrj 8' AtavTO? fpvx"^ TeXapLOividSao' 

TO. Se* XoiTTOL p^el^ov^ ^d€yy6fX€VOS tJStj npos eKelvov 
iirepaivev, 

dAA' i^i* Sevpo, dva^, tv' €7tos /cat p,vdov dKovcrrjs 
r]p,€T€pov' hdpiaaov Se fxevos /cat dreipea' dvfiov. 

* ^aBvKoXiTCiiv] iiJirinXoiv Homer. 

* rr)v Alamos tfivxrjv index prefixed to the book : tfivxTju roO 
AlavTos. ' OLTToaiwtTibvTa Basel edition : dnoaioiirciv. 

* 8e added by Hubert. ^ fxel^ov Xylander : fiel^ov ij. 

* Wi] dye Homer. ' drctpea] dyi^vopa Homer. 

" i.e. with dress hanging in deep folds at the breast. 

* niad, V. 420-425, where there is no word of Athena's 
laughing : but Zeus smiles at line 426. 

240 



TABLE-TALK IX. 4-5, 739 

While stroking the hair of some full-bosomed " Grecian 

girl, 
Has scratched her delicate hand against a golden pin. * 

Now, I imagine that when you, most excellent of 
schoolmasters, show favour to one of your pupils by 
stroking and caressing him, you do it not with your 
left hand, but with your right. Similarly it stands to 
reason that Aphrodite, being the most dexterous of 
goddesses, also showed her favour to the ladies of the 
time in that way." " 

QUESTION 5 

Why did Plato say that the soul of Ajax came 
twentieth to the drawing of lots ? ^ 

Speakers : Sospis, Hylas, Lamprias, Ammonius, Marcus 

1. All this had put everyone in a more pleasant 
humour, except Hylas the teacher of literature. 
Observing him to be maintaining a dejected silence 
(he had not exactly been successful in the demonstra- 
tions), Sospis the teacher of rhetoric declaimed the 
line 

Alone the soul of Ajax, son of Telamon, « 

and finished the rest of the passage in raised tones, 
now addressed directly to Hylas, 

But come, my Lord, that thou may'st hear the words I 

speak. 
Come hither, quelling thy anger and unyielding heart. ' 

' This argument recurs in Eustathius on Iliad, v. 424. 
Perhaps Virgil knew the problem, c/. Aeneid, xi. 277 : 
" Veneris violavi volnere dextram." 

<* What Plato in fact says {Republic, 620 b) is that Ajax 
picked up the lot that entitled him to twentieth place in the 
choice of a future life. 

' Homer, Odyssey, xi. 543. ' Odyssey, xi. 561-562. 

241 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

■p en o avojfjiaAos cov vtt opyrjs o lAag aTreKptvaro 
OKaicos' rrjv [xev Alavros e(f)r] ipv^'^v elKoarrjv Aa- 
)(^ovaav ev AtSou StafjieiifjaaOai Kara top IIAaTCtjya 
<f>vaLV Xeovros, auroi* Se ttoXXolkis TTapiaraaBai Kal 
TO. rod KiOfMiKov yepovros, 

ovov yeveadat Kpelrrov r] roii? xelpovas 
opdv iavrov ^covras €7n<j)av€arepov . 

Kal 6 HcoaTTLS yeXdaas, " aAA' ecos p^eXXopbev ivSve- 
740 adat rov* KavSriXiov , el ti* KrjheL IlAaTCovos', SiSa^ov 
r)fids, (LrivL Xoycp rrjv rov TeXap^covlov ifjvx'^v ne- 
7TOLrjK€v OLTTo kXtjpov ^ahit^ovoav eiKoarrjv cttI r'qv 
atpeoLV." aTToaKopaKLoavros Se* rov "TAa {■)(Xevd- 
^eadai yap (hero Svarnxepcov) vrroXa^ojv 6 dSeA^o? 
r]ixa)v, " ri ovv ; " elTTCv, " ov Sevrepela fjuev 6 Ata? 
kolXXovs Kal fjicyedovs Kal dvSpetas del (fteperai 
' fxer dfxvfxova HrjXelcova,' rd S' ei/coat Sevrepa 
Sc/cas, 7] 8e ScKas ev rots' dpidfiols Kpdriaros, cos 
€v rols 'A;^ator? o ' A;^tAAeus' ; " yeXaaavrcov 8' 
rjucov, " ravra fJiiv," 6 'A/x/xajvio? elTrev, " a» 
AafjLTTpia, KCLcrdco aoi TTerraLyfxeva rrpos "YXav 
B rjfjuv 8e fir] Trai^cor aAA' avro aTTovSrjg, irrel rov 
Xoyov eKwv i^eSe^co, BUXOe rrepl rrjs alrias.' 

2. Qopv^rjdels ovv 6 AajXTTpias, etra ^povov ov 
TToXvv imaxdiv e^rj -noXXaxov p,kv rjfjuv rov 
HXdrcova 7TpoaTrait,€Lv Bid rdjv ovopidrcov ottov Se 
fivdov riva ra> Trepl 4'^xi^ Xoycp fityvvat, XPV^^^'' 

^ avwfiaXos u>v Doehner, cf. 74 e : ofioXoycov. 

* Xaxovaav Basel edition : XaAovaav. 

' avTO) Hubert : avTM. 

* rov Anon. (Amyot), Xylander trans. : to. 

* €? Tt Basel edition : en. 

• 8e added by Xylander. 

242 



TABLE-TALK IX. 5, 739-740 

Hylas, still ruffled by his ill-temper, made an awkward 
reply, saying that the soul of Ajax, by Plato's account, 
on drawing the twentieth turn in the underworld, 
had exchanged his former shape for that of a lion. 
Personally, however, he often in point of fact thought 
of what the old man said in the comedy : 

I'd rather be reborn an ass than see 
Inferior men live more renowned than me." 

" Well," rejoined Sospis with a laugh, " in the interval 
before we put on our donkey-skins, explain to us, as 
you care for Plato, what was in his mind when he 
described the soul of the Telamonian as having drawn 
twentieth place when he came forward to choose his 
fate." Hylas replied with curses, imagining that he 
was being made fun of for his lack of success ; so my 
brother spoke up, saying, " Surely now, is it not true 
that Ajax always wins the second prize, ' after the 
faultless son of Peleus,' '' for beauty, size, and bravery, 
while twenty is the second ten, and ten is as pre- 
eminent among nvmibers as Achilles was among the 
Achaeans ? " We laughed, and then Ammonius 
said, " That will do, Lamprias, as your piece of fun 
with Hylas ; we, however, want none of your jests, 
but a serious discussion of the reason, seeing that you 
have volunteered to take on the question." 

2. Lamprias was flustered, then after a short pause 
said that Plato often treats us to a jesting play on 
words, but it is in those passages where he combines 
myth with his arguments about the soul that he makes 

■ Menander, TheophorumenS, frag. 1. 18-19 Koerte, where 
the speaker imagines himself offered a choice of shapes in a 
second life. 

* Homer, Odyssey, xl. 551=470. 

243 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(740) fJiaXiara to) vco. tov re yap ovpavov rrjv votjttjv 
^■voLV apjxa KoXeiv "ttttjvov Slo} rrjv ivapfMoviov tov 
Koofiov 7T€pL<f>opdv, €VTav6d r€^ TOV avrdyyeXov tcov 
€v "AlSov UdfKJivXov yevos * Appuoviov irarpos *H/3a 
S' avTOV 6vopLdt,€LV, alvLTTo/jievov oTi yevvcovrai fxev 
C at ipv^al Kad' apfjLovtav /cat avvapp,6rrovraL rols 
acofiacnv, aTraAAayetcrat 8e avpL(f)€povTai^ rravra- 
Xodev ei? TOV depa KaKeldev avBis ctti tcls BevTcpas 
yeveaeis TpeTTOVTai. " Tt 817 KwXvei Kal to ' clko- 
GTov ' etpfjadai irpos to firj dXrjdes dXX ' eiKos ' 
TOV* Xoyov /cat TrXaTTOfxevov, tj trpos tov KXrjpov^ 
(x)S ' eLKrj ' /cat /card TVXf]v ytvopuevov ; det, fiev yap 
aTTrerat tcoj/ Tpicov alTiaJv, are Btj Trpcoros ^ fid- 
XiOTa avviSiov, onrj to /ca^' elfxap/xevriv tw Kara 
TV)(rjv^ av9is Te to icf)^ 7]pu,v eKarepo) Kal crvvapi^o- 
Tepois eTTifiiyvvadaL /cat avp/nXeKeaOai Tre^vKC. 
vvv 8e davfMaaTOJg rjv e;\;et SvvafXLv ev' rot? "^p-^- 
D Tepois Trpdypaaiv e/cacrrov UTToSeSTyAco/cev, tt^v pkv 

^ 8ia added by Wyttenbach. 

^ re Bernardakis : 8e. 

' avfitf>epovTai Basel edition : avfi<f>€povaai. 

* eiKos TOV Turnebus : eiKoarov. 

* kXtjoov Wyttenbach : Kvepov. 

* TvxTiv Stepnanus, Anon. 2 (Turn.) : tpvx^v. 

' eV added by Madvig. 

" Plato, Phaedrus, 246 e, where the sense may be " winged 
team of horses," and there is no intention to allegorize any 
" intelligible nature of the heavens," by which Plutarch 
means the Form that is the model of the physical universe. 

' Plato, Republic, 614 b has Armenius, but Proclus 
records that some wished to read Armonius {sic). 

" Pamphylia was a district of Asia Minor, but " Pam- 
phylian " might mean " of all tribes," and Er is taken as a 
modification of aer (air). 

244 



TABLE-TALK IX. 5, 740 

most use of their significance. Thus he alludes to the 
intelUgible nature of the heavens by the phrase 
" -winged chariot " {harma),'* with reference to the 
harmonious {enharmonion) revolution of the universe. 
Similarly in this passage he makes the man who re- 
ports his own experience of Hades a Pamphylian by 
race, the son of Harmonius,* and gives him the name 
of Er,<' in a riddling allusion to the fact that the souls 
are bom by a union of parts (harmonia) ^ and are fitted 
(synharmoUontai) to their bodies, on getting release 
from which they collect from all quarters in the air 
{aer), whence they betake themselves again to their 
second births. " Now is there any reason why 
' twentieth ' (eikostos) should not have been said with 
reference to the unreal yet Ukely (eikos) imaginative 
element of the story, or to the ballot as being random 
{eike) and a matter of luck ? Plato constantly touches 
on the three causes," as is natural enough for the 
man who first or most particularly observed how in 
the course of nature the operation of destiny mingles 
and interweaves mth that of luck, while our free-will 
in its turn combines with one or other of them or with 
both simultaneously. So in this passage he has 
admirably suggested the influence that each cause 

** Plato, Timaem, 4.1 d. 

• A clear exaggeration. This way of formulating a tri- 
partition of causes (r/. Epicurus, Letter to Menoec^itSf 133) 
belongs to an age later than Plato, but a very similar division, 
in which " nature " replaces " fate," is assumed by Protagoras 
in the dialogue that bears his name, 323 d, and criticized at 
Laws, 888 e, not so much as being false in itself, but because 
the generality take a false view of " nature." At Laws, 709 b 
the Athenian stranger says that human affairs are governed 
by God (whom we might equate with " fate "), by chance, and 
in a minor degree by human skill (which corresponds to the 
phrase here translated " free will "). 

245 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(740) alpeaiv rcbv jStcov^ to) e<^' rjfjiZv olttoSlSovs {dpeTT] yap 
dSeanoTov Kal KaKia), to S' ev ^lovv rovs opdcos 
iXopLevovs /cat rdvavria rovs KaKcos eip.app,iv7]s 
dvdyKrj avvaTTTCov at 8e tojv KXi]pcov draKTCos 8ia- 
a7T€Lpoixevo)v eTviTTTcucreis' ttjv tv^t^v Trapeiadyovaiv 
/cat Tpo(f)aLS /cat TroAtretats', o)v e/cacrrot Aayp^avouat, 
TToAAo. TcDv rjfierepcov TrpoKaraXafx^dvovaav .' opa 
S'q, fjiT] Tcov Kara rv-)(7)v air Lav t^rirelv dXoyov eariv 
av yap ev tlvl Xoyw (fyaivrjrai yeyovcbs 6 KXrjpog, 
ovKCTL yLverai Kara. rv-)(T]v ouS' avrofxdrois aAA' e/c 
rivos elfxapixevrjs /cat Trpovoias." 
E 3. "Ert 8e rov KapLTrpiov Xeyovros 6 ypaju/zart/co? 
•j^Stj Ma/3/cos" eSd/cet rt avXXoyi^eadai /cat hiapidixeiv 
rrpos avrov erreira Travaapiivov , " r(x>v 'OfxripiKcbv," 
e(f)rj, " iltvxoJv,^ oaas iv Ne/cuta KarcovofxaKev, rj p^kv 
'EATTT^vopos" ovTTO) Kaxa/xe/xty/xevT] raXg iv* "AlSov 
Sid ro p-Tj reda(f)6ai rov veKpov loaiTep iv puedopiois 
TrXavdrai' rrjv 8e Tetpeaiov rats dXXais ovk d^iov 
hriTTov (TvyKarapid pieZv , 

a>^ /cat redveiaJri. voov Trope Il€pa€<f)6v€ia 
OLCp TTeTTVvadai 

/cat StaAeyea^at /cat ^vviivai rcbv ^covrcov, TTplv ^ 

F TTtetv rov atp.aros. dv ovv ravras vTre^eXopievos, 

(L AapLvpLa, rag dXXas hiapidpifjg, avro avp-^aivei, 

r'qv Atavros eiKoarrjv els dipiv d(j)L)(daL rov 'OSucr- 

^ r<t)v ^icov Wyttenbach : to) ^iu). 

* TTpoKaraXafi^avovaav Meziriacus : irpoKaraXafi^dvovaiv. 

^ €<fyri ipvx<uv added by Xylander. 

* iv added by Leonicus. 

* 4*] '''V Homer. 

246 



TABLE-TALK IX. 5, 740 

exerts in our affairs, assigning the choice of lives to 
our free-will (for ' goodness and wickedness obey no 
master ' "), while associating with the compulsion of 
destiny the good life of those who choose correctly, 
and the contrary condition of those whose choice is 
bad ; then, the fall of the lots as they are scattered 
haphazard introduces luck, which predetermines 
many things in our lives, by reason of the various 
forms of upbringing and society which different 
groups happen to enjoy. ^ Now consider whether it 
is not absurd to search for a cause for what happens 
by chance ; if it should appear that the result of the 
ballot accords with any principle, the ballot ceases to 
be a matter of luck or accident and becomes the 
eflPect of some form of destiny or providence." 

3. While Lamprias was still speaking, Marcus the 
teacher of literature seemed to be doing a sum and 
counting to himself ; then, when the speech was 
concluded, " of all the souls that Homer named in 
the episode of the Dead," '^ he said, " that of Elpenor 
had not yet joined those in Hades, his corpse not 
ha\-ing had its burial, but wandered around a kind of 
no man's land ; and it would, I take it, not be proper 
to count in with the others the soul of Teiresias, 

To whom even in death Persephone gave sense. 
That he alone should have his wits ■* 

and converse with and understand the li\ing before 
drinking of the blood. If you subtract these two, 
Lamprias, and count up the others, it tallies exactly : 
the soul of Ajax was the twentieth to present himself 

» Plato, Republic, 617 e. 
"• Cf. Plotinus, Enneads, ii. 3. 15. 

* A term that approximately covers the eleventh book of 
the Odyssey, * Homer, Odyssey, x. 494-495. 

247 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 



(740) aeojs' Kal npos rovro TTait,eLV rov nAarcoi^a t^ 
OyL'qpiKTJ ^CKviq. TTpoaravaxpojvvvfMevov." 



nPOBAHMA s* 

Ti otviTTCTOt o irepl rijs jj-rrris tov UoaeLSuivos /ivdos; h> tL Kal 
8ia ri ri/v Sevrepav 'Kdf}valoi tov BorjSpofiiwvos e^aipovaiv ; 

Collocuntur Menephylus, Hylas, Lamprias 

741 1. Sopv^rjaavTcov 8e ttolvtcov, M€U€(f)vXos 6 Ilepi- 
TTaTTjTtKOS TTpoaayopevaas tov "^Xav, " opas,"^ 
eiTTev, " (x)s ovK ■^v to ipcorrjfxa ;)^A€uaCT/ios' ovS* 
v^pis' (xAA* d(f)eLg, c5 puaKapie, tov SvaTpdneXov 
AtavTa /cat SvcrcovvfMov, ws (f)'qGL Ho(f>oKXrjs , yevov 
/xera tov Tioaeihcovos , ov avTOS eicodas' iGTopetv 
rjiMV rjTTiofievov TToXXaKis, ivTavda fiev vtt' 'Adrjvds 
iv AeXcfiOLS S' VTTo TOV ^AnoXXoivos €v "Apyei 8' 
VTTo TTJs "Upag €v Alyivri 8' vtto tov Alos €V Nafa> 
8' VTTO TOV Aiovvaov, TTpdov 8e TTavTa^ov /cat dpuff- 
viTov ovTa TTepl Tag hvarjixepias' ivTavda yovv Koi 
B ved) KoivioveZ^ /Ltera Trjs ^AOrjvds, ev oi /cat j8a»/i.o? 
eaTLV A'qdrjs*' ISpvpievos." /cat o "YAa? ojanep 
rjhicov yevofievos, "eKelvo 8e ct'," emev, " cS Mere- 
^vXe, XeXrjdev, otl /cat ttjv SeVTepav tov Bo'qBpo- 

^ opas Meziriacus, Amyot trans. : opare. 

* etcodas Xylander : etwOa. 

' veo) Koivcovel Basel edition : veco koivov oi* koi. 

* A-rjdrjs Xylander, Anon. 2 (Turn.) : oXtjOtjs. 

" Sophocles, Ajax 914. The Greek name Aias suggests 
aiai (alas). 

* Cf. Herodotus, viii. 55. 

248 



TABLE-TALK IX. 5-6, 740-741 

to Odysseus' sight. It is to this that Plato makes a 
playful allusion, taking a piece of colour from Homer's 
episode of the Dead." 



QUESTION 6 

What is the hidden meaning in the story of Poseidon's 
defeat ? Included is the question why the Athenians 
omit the second day of the month Boedromion. 

Speakers : Menephylus, Hylas, Lamprias 

1. After general applause, Menephylus the Peripa- 
tetic addressed Hylas. " You see," he said, " the 
question was not a piece of impertinence or insolence. 
But come, my dear man, renounce ' obstinate Ajax, 
named for ill,' as Sophocles has it," and join the 
company of Poseidon. You are yourself always re- 
lating to us how he was worsted on many occasions, 
here in Athens by Athena,** at Delphi by Apollo," at 
Argos by Hera,** in Aegina by Zeus," and in Naxos 
by Dionysus,^ but everywhere took his failure with 
an easy-going absence of resentment. Here for in- 
stance he even shares a temple with Athena,' in which 
there is, moreover, an altar dedicated to Forget- 
fulness." " There is another thing, Menephylus," 
replied Hylas, apparently in a better temper, " have 
you forgotten that we also omit the second day of 

* Cf. Pausanias, ii. 33. 2, scholiast on Lycophron, Alex- 
andra, 617, Eustathius on Periegetes, 498, Callimachus, 
frag. 593 Pfeiffer, Strabo, viii. 14, scholiast on Aeschylus, 
Eum^nides, 27. 

•* Cf. Pausanias, ii. 15. 5, who says that Poseidon revenged 
himself by making the land waterless. 

• Cf. scholiast on Pindar, Isthmians, viii. 92. 
' Cf. Diodorus Siculus, iii. 66. 

» The Erechtheum on the Acropolis. 

249 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(741) fXLCovos rjjxepav e^aipov^ev ov^ irpos rrjv acX'qvqv, 
dAA' OTL ravrrj hoKovcriv epiaa rrcpl tt^s -)(Oipas ol 
deoi; " " TTaTTai,"^ elnev 6 KapLTrpias, " oacp rod 
Qpaav^ovXov yiyovev Yloaeihcbv TToAirt/cajrepos", et 
fXT] KparoJv ojg eKelvos, aAA' r]rTOi ..." 

nPOBAHMA Z 
Tt? aiTia TTJs els rpcdSa Siaipeaews rdiv fieXcJv; 

nPOBAHMA H 
TtVt Siai(f>ep€i TO. e'/i/ieA-iJ SiaarijfiaTa tcov avfjL<j>wva>v ; 

nPOBAHMA 

Ti's oiTt'a avficfxuvTiaeios ! ev w Koi 8ia tC, tu>v avu^uivoiv ofjLov 
Kpovofievwv, Tov papvrepov yiVerai to /xeXos; 

nPOBAHMA I 

Aia Ti, Taji" eKXenrriKuiv Ttepiohwv -qXlov Kal aeX-qvqs laapidfiajv 
ovawv,^ rj aeXijvr] (ftaiverai, nXeovaKis eKXeinovaa tov -qXiov; 

^ e^aipovfiev ov Anon. (Turn. ?) : i^rjprjfievov. 
^ TTanai Meziriacus : iravTa, 
* oiaCov Bernardakis : ovtoiv. 

" Cf. De Fraterno Amove, 489 b. The lunar month being 
of about 29^ days, the 12 Greek months were alternately of 
30 and 29 days, making an annual total of 354 days. In 
order to prevent a change of the season in which any month 
fell, an extra month was from time to time intercalated. 
Boedromion was an autumn month (September or October). 

* Leader of the restored democracy at Athens in 403 b.c, 
when, under Spartan pressure, a general amnesty was de- 
clared. 

" Diatonic, chromatic, enharmonic ; cf. 744 c, infra. 

** " Melodic " intervals, for which there is no proper 

250 



TABLE-TALK IX. 6-10, 741 

Boedromion, not to suit the moon,*' but because 
that is the day on which the gods are beUeved to 
have had their territorial dispute ? " " Whew ! " cried 
Lamprias, " how much Poseidon exceeded Thrasy- 
bulus ** in civic spirit, if in the hour of defeat not, Uke 
the other, in that of \ictory, (he agreed to bear no 
grudge. . . . "> 

QUESTION 7 
What is the reason for the threefold division of melodies ? * 

QUESTION 8 

What makes the difference between consonant and 

melodic intervals ? ■* 

QUESTION 9 

What is the cause of consonance ? Included is the question 
why when consonant notes are struck simultaneously 
the melody goes with the one of lower pitch. • 

QUESTION 10 

Since the ecliptic periods of sun and moon are equal, why is 
the moon seen to be eclipsed more frequently than the 
sun ? ' 

English equivalent, fall short of consonance, but are proper 
to the melodic scale. 

• Cf. Praecepta Conjugalia, 139 c ; [Aristotle], Problems, 
xix. 12. 

' Cf. De Facie in Orbe Lunae, 932 b, 933 z. There is an 
18-year cycle (223 lunar months) according to which the 
moon is eclipsed at an interval of either five months (five 
times) or six months (33 times) after the preceding eclipse ; 
an eclipse of the sun occurs at the preceding or following 
new moon, but is visible from certain areas only of the 
earth's surface. 

251 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(741) 

Q nPOBAHMA lA 

Hepl rov fir) tovs avroiis 8iafiev€iv "qfids, del rijs ovoias peovcrrjs 



nPOBAHMA IB 

YloTepov e'ffTi mdavanepov ro dpriovs elvai roiis avfinavras 
darepas J] nepiTTovs ; 

CoUocuntur Sospis, Glaucias, Protogenes, Plutarchus, alii 

"... opKois 8' avSpas i^aTTarrjreov ; " /cat o 
VXavKias , " iyd) /xev," €(f)r}, " Kara HoXvKpdrovs 
aKrjKoa rov rvpdvvov \ey6p,€.vov rov Xoyov rovrov 
eiKos 8e /cat /ca^' irepcov XeyeadaL- av Se Trpos re 
TOUT epojras ; on vrj ial , o Ziojains ^cprj, 

" rov9 fiev TTatSa? darpaydXois opco^ rovs 8' 'A/ca- 
SrjfjiaLKovs XoyoLS dprLdt,ovras^' ovSev yap ol 
roLOvroL aroxdcrp'ol^ Sta^e/aoucriv ra>v epcorcovrojv, 
TTorcpov dpria rfj x^ipi avveiXri^ores y] nepirra 
TTporeivovaiv ."* eTvavaards ovv 6 Yipoiroyivrj's /cat 
jue KaXeaas ii ovo/xaros, " ri nadovres," €L7T€v, 
" rovs prjropas rovrovs rpv(f)dv ecD/xev, erepcov 
KarayeXcovras , avrovs he fjbrjSev epoirwpiivovs firjSe 

^ 6pd> Stephanus, (Amyot) : opcov. 
^ Xoyois dpTid^ovras Wyttenbacli : Xoyovs dpnd^ovTas. 
' aroxo-frfiol Wilamowitz, Kronenberg : aroixaxoi. Xoyo/Jiaxoi 
Doehner. 

* -nporeivovaiv Wilamowitz, Hartman : avvreivovaiv. 

" Cf. De E apud Delphos, 392 a-e. 

* Whether the stars are even or odd in number was for 
the Stoics the stock example of absolute uncertainty, cf. 
Sextus Empiricus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism, ii. 97, Against 
the Logicians, ii. 147, etc. It would delight an Academic to 

252 



TABLE-TALK IX. 11-12, 741 

QUESTION 11 

On the subject of our having no permanent identity, 
since our substance is always in flux." 

QUESTION 12 

Whether it is more plausible that the total number 
of the stars is even than that it is odd. * 

Speakers : Sospis, Glaucias, Protogenes, Plutarch, 
and others 

" . . . ^I SUPPOSE you know the saying of Lysander,^ 
that (boys) are to be led astray (by knuckle-bones), 
men by oaths ? " " "I have heard that story put 
on the tyrant Polycrates," said Glaucias, " but it's 
likely enough that it is told against others too.** But 
what is the point of your question ? " " This," re- 
plied Sospis, " that I see boys playing odd and even 
with knuckle-bones, and the Academics with words. 
There is not a bit of difference between guesswork 
of this kind and people who ask whether they hold 
an odd or an even number of things in their out- 
stretched fist." At this Protogenes got to his feet 
and, calling me by name, " What's the matter with 
us," he asked, " that we let these orators have it all 
their own way, deriding others but not being asked 
any questions themselves or contributing anything 

show that a probable answer could be given even to this 
question. 

* Cf. Apophthegmata Lacaniea, 229 b. Life of Lysander, 
viii, where he is said to have followed the lead of Polycrates. 
Knuckle-bones were used as playthings, and particularly 
desirable ones {cf. Theophrastus, Characters, v. 9) would 
make tempting gifts. 

" Told of Dionysius (? I) by Plutarch, De Fortuna Alex- 
andri, 330 f, and of Philip of Macedon by Aelian, Varia 
Hist. vii. 12. 

253 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(741) au/AjSoAa? X6ya>v rcdevras; et [jltj vtj Ai'a (fyrjaovai 

D firjSev avTols ixeTeZvai rrjs iv oivco Koivojvlas , 

Arjixoardevovs CTraivdraig /cat ^rjXcoraLS ovgiv, dvSpog 

€V aTTaVTl TCO ^LCx) /XT^SeTTOre TTIOVTOS otvOV." " OVK 

airiov," €<l>7]v iyci), " tovto^ tovtchv, dAA' rjfiels 
ovSev avrovs 'qpiOT'qKaijLev' el 8e [xi] ri aru ;;^/37yCTt/u,to- 
repov €X€LS, iyco [jlol Sokco TTpo^aXelv avrois eV 
TcDi' Ojjurjpov p'qropiKcov ddaecov fiiav dvTivojjULKrjv." 

nPOBAHMA ir 

TLepl rov eV rfj Tpirrj paipwhia rtjs 'IXidSos avrivofUKOv 

^T]TTJfiaTOS 

CoUocuntur Protogenes, Plutarchus, Sospis, Glaucias 

1. ILV , ^(pf)> ravTiqv ; eyoi aoi (ppaaco, 

E eliTov, " dfxa Kat tovtols TrpojSaAAcov Sto tov vovv 
rjBrj 7Tpoa€)(€TO)aav . 6 yap 'AAe^avSpos" €7tI prjroZ? 
hrjTTOv 'rreTToirjTaL Trjv TrpoKXrjcnv ovtcos' 

avrdp ejx iv fieacro) Kal dprii<f>iXov M.ev4Xaov 
av/jL^dXer* a/x^' *EAeV27 Kal Kr't]fiaai rrdcri p^d^e- 

adai. 
OTTTTorepos Se k€ VLKijajj Kpeiaaoiv re yevrjrai,, 
KrrjpaO* eXwv ev Trdvra yvvatKa re ot/caS' dyeaOio. 

Kal TrdXiv 6 "E/CTCop dvayopevcov Kal riOelg els 
fieaov TTttCTt rrjv TrpoKXrjaiv avrov p,ovovov)(l rots 

^ TovTo] TO Pohlenz. 
254 



I 



TABLE-TALK IX. 12-13, 741 

of their own to the conversational pool ? Unless in- 
deed they are going to say that they take no share 
in the society of the wine-table, in approval and 
emulation of Demosthenes, a man who never drank 
wine in the whole of his life ! " " That," I repUed, 
" is not the reason for this immunity of theirs. The 
fact is that we haven't asked them anything. Unless 
you have a more useful suggestion, I intend to put 
to them from among the questions in Homer belong- 
ing to the advocate's province one that involves a 
conflict of formulas." 



QUESTION 13 

On the problem, involving a conflict of formulas, 
in the third rhapsody of the Iliad. <* 

Speakers : Protogenes, Plutarch, Sospis, Glaucias 

1. " What question do you mean ? " he asked. " I 
will tell you," I replied, " and at the same time set 
these gentlemen their problem ; so let them pay 
attention at once. You will agree that Alexander's 
challenge was made on express conditions as follows : 

But in the midst match me with warlike Menelaiis, 
That we may fight for Helen and for all her wealth ; 
Whoever wins and proves himself the better man. 
Let his be all the wealth and wife to carry home. 

Hector, again, in announcing and communicating 
Menelaiis' * challenge to all the world, used almost 

" A question referred to by Eustathius, who says (415. 38) 
that " the ancients " held the Trojans' case to be the better. 
This view, here supported by Glaucias, is presumably that of 
Plutarch, since it rebuts that previously put forward by 
Sospis. 

* Homer, Iliad, iii. 69-73. 

255 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(741) avTols ovo/iaaiv Kexp'^irai' 

dXXovs jJiev KlXerai Tpatas koI iravras ^Axacovs 
F revx^a /caA' aTTodeadai cttI x^ovl TTovXv^oreiprj, 
avTov S' €v fieaacp Kal dprjL<f)iXov Meve'Aaov 
OLOvs dfjuf)' ISiXevrj Kal^ KriqjxaaL Tracrt ixdx^crdai. 
TO) 8e K€ VLK-^aavTL yvvrj Kal KTrjfxad* €7toito. 

Se^afievov Se tov M^eveXdov, TToiovvrai rds avvO'q- 
Kas ivopKovs, i^dpx^L 8' o 'Aya/ie/ivtov 

742 et fiev k€v Meve'Aaoy 'AAe^avSpo? KaTaTTi<j>vrj, 

avTO? eVet^' 'EAevijv dyeVo;* /cat KTT^/xara Trdvra. 
et Se /c' 'AAe^avSpov Kreivrj ^avdos MeveAao?, 
KTiqiJUid eXdjv ev navra yvvaiKd re oi/caS' dyiadoj . 

€7rei Toivvv ivLKrjaev fiev ovk dveiXev 8' o Meve'Aao?, 
[ji€TaXa^6vT€s CKarepoi. ttjv d^icoatv laxvpt^ovTai 
Tots" Tcov TToXefiLcov, ol fi€v ws veviKfjixevov rod 
ndpiSo? aTratTOWTe?, ot S' cu? /u.17 redvqKOTOS ovk 
drroSiBovres . TTcog ovv," €(f)'r]v,^ " ttjv Slktjv ravTrjv 
Wvvrara eciToi ' Kal SiaLrrjaecev ttjv dvrLVOfXLav, 
B ov (f)LXoa6(f>cov ovSe ypap.p,aTtKU)v, dXXd prjTopcov 
epyov earl <j>iXoypap,p.arovvTa)v warrep v/xeis Kal 
<j>LXoao^ovvroiv ." 

2. '0 ixkv ovv YiWaTTLS €(f)'r] Kvpiwrepov elvai tov 

TOV TTpOKeKXrjfjbeVOV XoyOV, WaTTCp VOjXOV " €K€LV0S 

^ o'ovs . . . Kal added by Basel edition from Homer. 
* ayerco] ex^rco Homer. 
^ €(fr)v Meziriacus : 1^. 

" Iliad, iii. 88-91. 

* Iliad, iii. 253 (Idaeus to Priam). 

« Iliad, iii. 281-282. 

<* Iliad, iii. 284. 

256 



TABLE-TALK IX. 13, 741-742 

the same words : 

He bids the other Trojans and all Achaeans too 
Lay down upon the fertile earth their shining armour ; 
Himself between the armies with warlike Menelaiis 
Shall fight alone for Helen and for all her wealth," 
And to the victor wife and wealth alike must go. * 

WTien Menelaiis accepts, they confirm their bargain 
by sworn oaths, Agamemnon pronouncing the 
terms : 

If Alexander should bring death to Menelaiis, 
Then Helen shall be his and with her all her wealth * : 
But if fair-haired Menelaiis works Alexander's death, •* 
Let him take all the wealth and wife to carry home." • 

Now when Menelaiis overcame Alexander without 
killing him, the two sides exchanged positions over 
their requirements, each basing their case on the 
form of words used by the enemy : the Greeks 
claimed restitution because Paris had been beaten, 
and the Trojans refused to hand over because he had 
not been killed.' Now the question," said L " how a 
man shall ' speak most straight ' ^ on this dispute and 
arbitrate in the conflict of formulas is the business 
not of philosophers or literary men, but of rhetori- 
cians \\-ith literary and philosophical interests Uke 
you." 

2. Sospis said that the formula of the challenger 
had greater validity, like a law.* " For it was he who 

' Iliad, iii. 72. 

^ /Ziod, iii. 456-460. The Trojans' rejection of the demand, 
made by Agamemnon, is not recorded by Homer. 

» Iliad, xviii. 508. 

* Perhaps the point of the comparison is that the terms of 
a law must be accepted as they stand by anyone who puts 
himself within its operation. 

VOL. IX K 257 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(742) yap icf)' of? Staycaviowrai /carT^yyeiAev/ ol Se Se^a- 
fxevoi /cat VTraKovaavres ovKen Kvpioi rrpoaridevTes. 
rj Se TTpoKkriais ov irepl (f)6vov Kal davarov yeyovev, 
aXXa TTepl vlktjs /cat '^rT7]s. /cat /itaAa St/catco?* 
eSei yap rrjv yvvaiKa rod Kpeirrovos etvat, Kpeir- 
TOJV 8' o VLKCJV, aTTodvqaKeiv 8e TToAAa/ci? avjx^aiveL 
/cat dya^oi? utto /ca/ccov, to? varepov 'A;^tAAeu? 
dneOavev ro^evdels vtto IlaptSo?' /cat ol*/c av ot/iiai 
<f>airipLev 'A;(iAAeco? ';^TTav* yeyoveVat tov davarov 
C ouSe vLktiv aAA' aSt/cov evrvx^av rod ^dXXovros. 
dAA' o "E/CTCop rjrrrjro /cat Txptv aTToOviqaKeiv, fir] 
Se^ct/xevos" dAAd Seiaas /cat (f)vyd)v CTrep^opiivov rod 
'A;(tAAea>?* o yd/) d7ret7rd/tevo? /cat (fivyiov rjrrav 
d7rpo(f)d(n,arov rjrrrjrai /cat avyKe-)(^cxipriKe Kpeirrova 
rov dvriTTaXov etvai. 8to* irpihrov p-kv rj *Ipt? e|^- 
ayye'AAouCTa t^ 'EAevr; ^fjai, 

piaKpfjs iyx^^'D(^t' p,a)(i^aovrai Trepl aelo' 
ro) 8e Ke rt/ci^ffavrt ^tAiy KeKX-qarj d/cotrts" 

€7Teid* 6 Zeu? Toi MeveAdo) ttJ? p,dxr]s* ro ^pa^etov 
aTTeScoKev eiiriov, 

VLKT] fiev St) ^aiWr' dpr^i^iXov MeveAdoy. 

D yeAotov ydp, et rov /xev FIoStji^ ivtKTjaev rr6ppcx>dev 
dKovriaas p^rj TTpoaSoKrjaavra p.rjSe (fivXa^dpuevov, 

^ iieetvos . . . KaTTjyyeiXev Meziriacus, Amyot trans. : eVet'- 
vois . . . Kari^yyeiXav. 

* 'AxtAAews ^ttov Basel edition : 'A^tAAeuj •^ttov. 
^ 8i6 Basel edition : Set. 

* T^s fxdxt]S Anon. 1 (Turn.) : t^ /naxi?- 

« Homer, /iiad. Hi. 137-138. 
258 



TABLE-TALK IX. 13, 742 

announced the terms on which they would fight the 
duel, while those who as respondents accepted the 
terms carried no authority when they added to them. 
Now the challenge was not concerned vriih killing 
and death, but with victory and defeat. Quite 
rightly so, too : it was proper that the woman should 
belong to the better man, and the \dctor is the better 
man. On the other hand, it often occurs that even 
good men are killed by bad, as was Achilles later, 
when he was shot by Paris. We should not, I imagine, 
say that his death was a defeat for Achilles, nor 
should we call it a \-ictory for the man who shot him, 
but an unfair piece of good luck. Hector, on the 
other hand, was defeated even before he was killed, 
when at the approach of Achilles he did not stand his 
ground but took to his heels in fear. The man who 
gives up and runs away is defeated beyond possibility 
of disguise, and has confessed his adversary- to be 
the better man. That is why, in the first instance. 
Iris when giving her message to Helen says. 

With their long spears they will do battle for you : 

And then you shall be known as own wife to the victor," 

and later Zeus gave the decision in the contest in 
favour of Menelaiis, with the words 

The victory was clear for warlike Menelaiis.' 

It would indeed be a laughable state of affairs if he 
' defeated ' Podes with a long-range javehn-shot " 
that caught him unexpecting and off guard, but did 

* Iliad, ill. 457, but spoken by Agamemnon ; Zeus has a 
similar line, iv, 13. 

• Iliad, xvii. 575-579 ; there is no word of " defeating " 
Podes, but it is perhaps implied that Menelaiis' shot was 
from a distance at an unsuspecting target. 

259 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(742) "^ov 8 dTTeiTTajxevov Kal SpaTrerevaavros /cat Kara- 
SvvTog els Toiis koXttovs rrjs yvvaiKos iaKvXevfjievov 
^covTos ovK d^ios rjv rd viK7]rripia tjiepeadai, Kara 
TTjv avTov TTpoKXrjaiv e/ceiVou KpiLrrcov cfyavels Kal 
TTepiyevofxevos . ' ' 

3. 'YTToAajScov 8' o TXavKias e(f>r] Trpcorov fxkv ev 
T€ hoyjiaai koL vofxocs ev re avvdrjKais koI opuoXo- 
yiais Kvpccorepa rd Sevrepa^ vopiit,ea6ai Kal jSe^ato- 
repa tcDv TrpcoTcov " Sevrepai S'* ■^crav at 8i' 
'Aya/Lte/xvoros opLoXoylai, reXos e^ovaai ddvarov 
ov)(l rJTTav rov KpaTrjOevros. erreiT' e/cetvai' fiev 
E XoyoLS, avrat 8e Kal pbcd^ opKcov eiTrovro Kal Trpoarj- 
crav dpal rots Trapa^aivovaiv , ov)( ivos dvSpos dXXd 
TTavrojv aTToSexopievcov Kal avvop^oXoyovvrcov cuare 
ravras* yeyovevai, Kvpccos opioXoyias, eKeivas 8e 
pLovas TTpoKXyjaeLS. puaprvpel 8' d Upiapios pterd 
rd opKia rov dycovos dmcLv,^ 

Zeu? p-€v 7T0V ro ye olSe Kal ddavaroi deot dXXoi, 
oTTTTorepcp davdroLO reXos Trevpcopievov eariv 

rjSei ydp errl TOUTOt? rds opioXoyias yeyevrjpLevas. 
8to Kal pierd puKpov 6 "EiKrcop (f>rjaLV, 

opKia p,€V K.povL8r}s viJjL^vyos ovk ereXeaaev 

dreXrjs ydp epteivev 6 dywv Kal nepas dvapi(f>ia^7]rr)- 
F rov ovk et)(ev pirjSerepov rreaovros. odev epioiye 

^ Sevrepa Tumebus : Se varepa. 

^ Sevrepai Se Basel edition : Sevrepaiai. 

* eKelvai Hubert : eKeivrj. 

* ravras Wyttenbach : ravra. 

^ dmwv Hubert : dmoiv Kal. 

260 



TABLE-TALK IX. 13, 742 

not deserve to get the prize of victory from a man 
who, giving up the fight, turned tail and took cover 
in the arms of his wife, having been stripped of his 
armour while alive " ; yet he had shown himself the 
better man and prevailed according to the terms used 
by that very opponent in his challenge." 

3. Glaucias spoke next, saying that in the first 
place, whether it is a case of decisions, or laws, or 
contracts, or agreements, the later of two is accounted 
the firmer and more valid. " The ' later ' agreement 
in this case," he continued, " was that due to Aga- 
memnon's intermediacy, which made the issue that of 
the death, not the defeat, of the conquered. Secondly, 
the earlier agreement was a verbal one, while the 
subsequent one was sworn with oaths as well, with 
attendant curses upon those who might break it, 
while everybody, not just a single individual, accepted 
it and joined in the covenant. So this was an agree- 
ment in the proper sense, and the other only a chal- 
lenge. Priam testifies to this as he leaves the place 
of contest after the oath-taking : 

Now Zeus, methinks, and the immortal gods can tell 
Which of the two is fated to meet the end of death. * 

He knew that these were the terms on which the 
agreement had been made. And so again a little 
later Hector says. 

To our oaths the high-throned child of Cronus gave no 
effect ' 

because, when neither combatant fell, the contest 
remained unfinished and had no indisputable conclu- 

" Menelaiis had torn his helmet from his head. 

» Iliad, iii. 308-309. 

* Iliad, vii. 69. 

261 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(742) SoK€l [XTjh^ dvrivofjLLKov^ yeyovevai to ^'qrrjfjia, rat? 
SevrepaLS oiioXoyiats Toiv irpcoTCOv ifjL7r€pi,€)^ofj,€vo}v 
6 yap OLTTOKTeLvas v€vlk7]K€v, ov pLr]v 6 viK'qaas e- 
KreLvev. avveXovri^ 8' eiTretv, 'Ayaju.e/xrcuv ovk eXvcre 
rrjv rod "Eacto/jos' ttpokXtjctlv dAA' €aa(f>'^via€v , ovSe 
743 pi€T€drjK€v dXXa TrpoaeOrjKev ro^ KvpLCorarov, iv rcp 
Kretvai* to VLKyjaai defxevos' avrr] yap iari vlkt] 
TTavreX'qs, a,l 8' dXXat 7Tpo(/)da€LS Kal dvriXoyias 
exovoLV, COS r) Trapd MeveAaou /xT^re rpcoaavros 
lirjTC Sico^avros. axjTrep ovv iv rais dXrjdivals 
dvTLVojjLLaLS ol SiKaaral rw firjSev dp,(f>LaPrjT'qaLiJiov 
e)(ovTi TT poor id evraiy rov daa(f)eaT€pov eaaavreSy 
ovTCOs ivravda rrjv dTTpo<j)daLarov /cai yvcoptpiov 
reXos^ dyovaav opioXoyiav ^e^aiorepav XPV '^<*^ 
Kvpicorepav vofii^eiv. o Se piiyiaTov iartv, avros 
6 So/ccov Kparetv, ovk dTroara? (f)vy6vros oj)8e Trau- 
adfjLevos, dXXd Travraxdcre ' (f)oi,Ta>v dv' o/juXov 

e'i 7TOV eaaQprjaeiev ^AXe^avBpov deoeihia,' 

B iJiefjiapTvpr]K€v aKvpov etvac Kal dreXrj rrjv* viktjv, 
€K€LVov ^lane^evyoTOS' 01)8" rjjjLvrjfxovei, rcbv vtt* 
avrov hieiprjpL,ivcjDv^ • 

rjixecov 8' oTTTTorepcp ddvaros Kal /xolpa rervKrai,, 
reOvalrj, dXXoL 8e StaKpivdelre rdxi-(JTa. 

Slo ^TjTetv fxkv dvayKalov rjv avrip rov 'AXe^avSpov, 

^ firjh^ avTivoftiKov Basel edition : firjBev ti vofiiKov. 

* avveXovrt Anon. 2 (Turn.) : oAA' exovri. 

^ TO Basel edition : t6v. 

* KTeivai Basel edition : KXlvai. 

* reXos Anon. 1 (Turn.) : reXovs. 

' TTjv added by Duebner. ' oi)S* Wyttenbach : oiv. 

' 8i€tpft]fieva}v Doehner : elpTjfUvcjv. 

262 



TABLE-TALK IX. 13, 742-743 

sion. It is therefore my opinion that the problem 
never was one invohing conflict of formulas, since the 
former agreement is embraced by the latter " : to 
kill gives victory, but the victor has not necessarily 
killed his opponent. To sum up, Agamemnon did 
not supersede Hector's challenge but clarified it. 
Nor did he change its terms ; he added the capital 
point by his stipulation that victory lay in killing the 
adversary. This is what constitutes complete victory ; 
any other kind admits of excuses and controversies, 
as did that of Menelaiis when he neither inflicted any 
wound on his adversary nor followed up his retreat. 
Now in real instances of conflict the jury give their 
votes to the case that has nothing controversial about 
it and disregard the one that is less plain ; just so we 
must here regard as firmer and more vahd the agree- 
ment that involves an unquestionable and ascertain- 
able conclusion. The most cogent point of all is that 
by not retiring or giving up when his opponent 
escaped, but by * traversing the crowd ' in all direc- 
tions 

In hope of setting eyes on godlike Alexander,* 

the very man who appears to have the upper hand 
has given his testimony that the victory was invaUd 
and inconclusive, because his adversary had made 
good his escape. Nor did he then forget what he 
had stipulated : 

But for whichever of us death stands ready and doom, 
Let him die ; and with all speed you others may part in 
peace. ' 

That is why it was necessary for him to hunt for 



" Cf. Hermogenes, Stat. 10. 
* Homer, Riad, iii. 450. « Iliad, ill. 101-103. 



263 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(743) 07T0JS OLTTOKreLvas avvreXecrr] ro rod aya>vos cpyov, 
IXTj Kreivas 8e /xTjSe Xa^ojv ov Si/cat'co? dTTTjret to 
viK'qr'qpLov. ouSe yap ivLKrjarev, el Set reKfirjpaadat, 
TOLS VTT* avTOV Xeyo^cvois, iyKaXovvros tco Att 
Kal Ttt? aTTorev^ets" ohvpofxevov 

"Lev TToirep, ov ris creto dewv oXocorepos ctAAos" 
C rj T^ i(f>dp,r]v riaaadai ^ KXe^avhpov KaKorrjrog, 
vvv 8e fjboi iv y^elpeaaiv dyq ^L(f>os, €K 8e /xoi eyx^S 
yjtxd'T) 7raXd[xrj(f)LV irwaiov, ovS' e^aXov /xiv 

avTos yap 6}xoXoyel fxrjhev elvai to Sta/cdi/rat ro 
dairihiov Kal Xa^elv diroppvev ro Kpdvos, el firj 
^dXoL p-rjh^ dTTOKreiveie rov TToXejjLLOv." 



nPOBAHMA lA 

Ilepi Tov dpidftov Tu>v Mouacov oaa}- AeycTot yA] koivws 

CoUocuntur Herodes, Ammonius, Lamprias, Trypho, 
Dionysius, Plutarchus, Menephylus 

1. 'E/c rovrov GTTOv^ds eTToir]adp,eda rals Mov- 
aaLS, Kal ro) MovoT^yerrj^ TraiavLaavres awi^aapbev 
rw 'l^pdrojVL vpos rrjv Xvpav e/c rwv 'HcrtdSoy rd 
7T€pl rriv rcbv M.ov<Jcov yevecnv. fierd Se rrjv (x)8r]v 

npa)Or]s o prjrojp, aKOver , €<pr], vpcets ol ri]v 
Y^oXXlotttiv dTTOOTToiivres rjfjidjv, at?* rots ^aaiXevaiv 
avrriv TTapelvai chriaLV,^ ovk dvaXvovai^ Stjttov avX- 

oytofiovs ovo epojrojui fxeraTTLTrrovras , aAAa 

^ oaa index : evs. 

* Movarjyerr] Hubert : MovaTj-yerrj 'AttoXXcovi. 

* aKover' Basel edition : aKoveiv. 

* to? Hubert : avv. * <l>r](7iv Madvig : <f>aaiv. 

* dvaXvovai Xylander, Anon. 2 (Turn,) : dvaXoyovai. 

264 



TABLE-TALK IX. 13-U, 743 

Alexander, >^ith the object of killing him and so 
completing the business of the contest ; and why, 
when he did not catch and kill him, he had no right- 
ful claim to the prize of \"ictory. He was not even the 
victor, if one can take his own words as evidence, 
when he upbraids Zeus in lament over his failures : 

father Zeus, no god of them all is your equal for mis- 

chief : 

1 did rely on avenging the villainy of Paris, 

But in my hands the sword was shattered, and from my 

palm 
The spear shot uselessly, and I failed to hit him." 

He himself confesses, you see, that so long as he did 
not hit and kill his enemy, it meant nothing to split 
his shield and seize the helmet that came away from 
his head." 

QUESTION 14 

Unusual observations on the numbers of the Muses. 

Speakers: Herodes, Ammonius, Lamprias, Trj'pho, 
Dionysius, Plutarch, >Ienephylus 

1. After this we made libations to the Muses and, 
having sung a paean to their Leader,*" joined Erato 
in singing to the lyre Hesiod's verses about the birth 
of the Muses.'' WTien the song was over, Herodes 
the teacher of rhetoric spoke up. " You hear," said 
he, " you who try to drag Calliope away from us 
rhetoricians, how Hesiod says that she is to be found 
in the company of kings ,<^ not, I imagine, while they 
analyse syllogisms or propound fallacies of equivoca- 

• Iliad, iii. 365-368, * Apollo. 

' Theogony, 35 ff. <* Theogony, 80. 

' fi€Tam-rrrovTas F. H. S., cf. Epictetus, ii. 19, ov avXXoyi- 
a/jLovs avaXvere, fteTaTriTrrovTas : fieyaXa elirovras. 

265 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(743) ravra Trpdrrovaiv a p-qropcov earl Kal ttoXltikcov 
epya. rwv 8' ctAAcov rj re KAeico ro iyKcofxiaarLKOv 
TTpoaayerai' ' /cAea ' yap cKoiXovv tovs eTTatvovs' t) 
T€ HoXvpLvia TO laropiKov eari yap /jbvqpir] ttoXXwv 
evtaxov 8e Kal Trdcras,^ Uiairep iv Xioj/ rds Movaas 
Mi^eias" KaXeladat Xeyovaiv. iyoj 8e /xeraTrotoujuat 
Ti Kal rrjs FiVTepnrj?,^ einep, cS? (ji'qai yLpvatmro?, 
avTT] ro TTepL ras opuXiag iTTtrepnes €'iX'q)(e Kal 
E Kexapt'Ofjievov o/aiAt^tiko?* yap ovSev rjrrov rj 8t- 
KavtKos 6 prp-oyp /cat avfji^ovXevriKos' at yap 
SiaAe'^ei?' e^ovai Kal evpLCvelas Kal avvrjyopias Kal 
dnoXoyias- TrXeicrrcp Se ro) eTTaiveZv ;^/)coyLte^a Kal rep 
ifsiyeiv €v rovrois, oj3* cftavXcov ovSe puKpuiV rvy^o.- 

^ Trdaas Basel edition : TrXdcras. 

" Xi'w Wilamowitz, Holland trans. : Act'wi. 

' Trjs EvrepTTTjs Basel edition : ttj . . . repTrrjs. 

* avrr] Graf : avrrj. 

* TO Anon, (Turn. ?) : ti. 

* oniXrjTiKos Xylander, Anon. 2 (Turn.) : 6fii\r]TT)v Kal. 

' 8iaAe'^€ty Hubert : e^cij. Perhaps another accusative has 
fallen out before exo"*^'- 

* ov Basel edition : wv. 

" We find it obvious that Polymnia is derived from the 
stems poly- (much, many), and hymno- (song of praise), and 
do not find it easy to understand that an ancient etymologist 
would not necessarily think this inconsistent with her name's 
indicating that she is the memory (mneia) of many things. 
OionistikS (augury) is obviously derived from oionos (bird) 
as augurium is from avis, but that does not prevent Plato 
from finding in the word an allusion to oiesis, nous, and 
historia {Phaedrus, 244 c). He has a sort of reason on his 
side, for it could be argued that augury need not have been 
called oionistikS ; it could as well have been, e.g. ornitho- 
skopia, but for the fact that such a name would not have 

266 



TABLE-TALK IX. U, 743 

tion, but as they engage in the business proper to 
orators and statesmen. Of the other Muses Clio takes 
laudatory eloquence, klea being an old name for praise, 
and PoljTiinia history, since she is the ' memory of 
many things.' " Actually all the Muses are said to be 
called Mneiai (Memories) in some places, as is the case 
in Chios.'' For my part I lay claim to some share in 
Euterpe also, if as Chrysippus says,*' she has as her 
province the pleasant (epiterpes) and delightful ele- 
ments in conversation and informal talk.** Such talk 
is as much in the orators' sphere as are litigation and 
pubUc pohcy ; expressions of good^nll, support of 
others' causes, and defence of others' acts all have 
their place in conversation.* We also make exten- 
sive use of praise or blame in these contexts ; if we 
do so skilfully, we achieve results that are neither 

combined the elements of oiSsis, nous, and historia that are 
included in its nature. 

* The place-name is introduced by an uncertain emenda- 
tion, there being no confirmatory evidence. 

« S. V.F. ii. 1099, cf. Cornutus, chap. 14. 

<* No single English word represents homilia, which covers 
not only what we call conversation {e.g. 629 f s^upra), but 
also continuous, but unrhetorical, discourse such as a philo- 
sopher may address to a small audience. 

« The text here is uncertain. Herodes appears to allude 
to the three branches of oratory, forensic or that of the law- 
courts, deliberative or that concerned with public pohcy, 
and epideictic, the oratory of display. He wishes to show 
that conversation shares the functions of all three, having 
praise and blame in common with epideictic oratory, sup- 
port and defence with forensic oratory, and something else 
(perhaps a pair of things) with deliberative oratory. The 
word translated " expressions of goodwill " is not associated 
elsewhere with deliberative oratory, the normal characteristics 
of which are persuasion and dissuasion, cf. Aristotle, Rhetoric, 
1358 b, a passage which establishes the lines of all later treat- 
ments of this subject. 

267 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(743) vovres", av rexviKcos rovro Tr/xarTcoyLtev, av 8 aTreipcog 
/cat dT€)(va>s, daroxovvres' re yap 

CO TTOTToi, <ji<5 oSe Trdai <f)iXos Kai rt/ito? ccttiv 

dv6p(X)TTOiS 

. . . Se /xaAAov', cl»? to Trept^ ras" o/AiAtas" evapfjio- 
arov exovai, rreidd} Kal X^P''^ oljxai TrpoarjKeLV.' 

2. Kat o 'Ap^pLcovLOS, " ovK d^iov," ecfyq, " croi ve- 
peadv, CO 'HpcoSr], Kal ' Trax^ij] '^ X^'-P'' "^^^ Mov- 
ad)V eTTiSparropevcp' Kowd yap rd cfilXcov, Kal hid 
rovro TToAAds" iyevvrjae Movaas 6 Zeu?, ottcos fj 
F TTttcrtv dpvaacrdaL rcov KaXa)v d(f)d6vcL)S' ovre yap 
Kvvqytas TTavres ovre arpareias ovre vavriALas 
ovre ^avavaovpyias , TraiSeias Se Kal Xoyov heopeda 
TTavres 

evpveSovs oool Kapnov ali'vp,e6a x^ovos' 

odev ^Adrjvdv piiav Kal "Kprepiv kol "Hcfyaicrrov eva, 
744 Movaas Se vToAAa? eTToi-qaev. 6 ri S' evvea Kal ovk 
eXdrrovs ouSe TrXelovs, dp^ av' rjpuv (f)pdaeias; 
olpai he (je 7re(f)povriKevaL (fyiXopovaov ovrco /cat 
TToXvpovaov ovra." " ri Se rovro ao(f>ov; ' enrev 
6 'Yipcohrjs- " rrdat ydp Sto. aroparos eari Kat. 
irdaai'S*' vp,vovp,evo£ 6^ rrjg evvedSos dpidpos, d>s 

^ TO Ttepl Basel edition : ru> aipi. 
^ naxeir] Doehner : wete. ^ ip 'av Bernardakis : dpa. 

* Tracrai?] irdaiv Leonicus. * o added by Meziriacus. 

<• Homer, Odyssey, x. 38-39. 

* This guess at the sense of the words lost is based on 
a passage of Stoic origin in Stobaeus, Eel. ii. 108 5 W. 
{=S.V.F. iii. 630): "the good man, being good at con- 
versation ... is well-adapted to the mass of mankind, as 

268 



TABLE-TALK IX. 14, 743-744 

small nor unimportant, while inexperience and clum- 
siness make us miss them. The line 

Heavens, how loved and honoured he by all mankind " 

(is claimed by some philosophers as appropriate to 
themselves),'' but it is rather to us orators, I think, 
that Persuasion and Charm belong, as being well- 
adapted to conversation." 

2. " It would be wrong, Herodes," replied Am- 
monius, " to resent your laying a hand, even ' a 
mighty hand,' '^ on the Muses. Friends' property is 
common property,^ and the reason why Zeus was 
father to many Muses was his wish that everyone 
might draw unstintedly from the well of beautv. We 
do not all have a use for hunting or going to war or 
to sea or for a mechanical trade, but education and 
speech are needed by every one of us. 

Who take the fruits of the broad-based earth. • 

So he made one Athena, one Artemis, one Hephaes- 
tus, but many Muses. But why nine, neither more 
nor less ? Could you tell us that ? I am sure you must 
have considered the question, being such a lover of 
the arts and master of so many." " There is nothing 
abstruse in that," answered Herodes, " the number 
nine is on the tongue of every man, and of every 
woman too, as ha\-ing the distinction of being the 

a result of which he is also one to arouse love and possess 
charm and persuasiveness." The quotation from Chrysippus 
may well not be the only element of Stoic origin in Herodes' 
words. 

« Cf. Homer, Iliad, iii. 376, etc. 

^ A familiar proverb. 

' Simonides, frag. 4 Diehl, cf. Plato, Protagoras, 345 c. 
Quoted also by Plutarch, Mar. 470 d, 485 c, 1061 b. 

269 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(744) TTpojTos aiTO Trpiorov Trepiaaov^ rerpdycovos cov /cat 
•nepiaaaKLs Trepicraos", are 817 Trjv SiavofMrjv els rpels 

B laovs Xa/jL^dvwv Trepiaaovs." 

Kat o ^ Afx/xcovLos iTTifxeSidaas , " dvSpLKws ravrl 
hiepLvrjiiovevaas' /cat Trpoades avrois eVt togovtov, 
Tov apidpLov e/c hveZv kv^cov* rcbv TrpcoTCov avvrjpixo- 
adai, fjLovdSos /cat oySodSos, /cat /ca^' irepav av 
TrdXiv orvvdeariv e/c Suetv rpiycovcov, rpidSos /cat e^a- 
So?, d)v cKdrcpos /cat reXeios icrriv. dXXd ri ravra 
rats Movaats fioiXXov r) rot? aAAotS" ^eoi? TrpoarJKev, 
coare^ Movcras exofxev evvla, Arjixrjrpas Se /cat 'Adrj- 
vds /cat AprepuiSas ovk exojxev; ov yap SrJTTov /cat 
ae TTeidei to M.ovaas yeyovevai Tocravras, on rov- 
vo/Lta rrjs fMTjTpos avrdJv e/c roaovrcov ypapip^drcov 
eariv." 

VeXdaavTos 8e tov 'HpcuSou /cat olcotttjs yevo- 

C nevTjs, npovrpeTTev rjfxds e7ri;^etpetv o 'A/it/xcovto?. 
(3) etTTev ow o dSeAc^ds", on rpels rjSeaav ol iraXai- 
OL Moucras" " /cat rovrov Xeyeiv aTToSei^tv oipcpiades 
eari /cat dypoiKov iv roaovrois /cat rotourots' av- 
Spdcriv. atrta 8' 01);^ w? ei^tot Xeyovat, rd fjueXwSov- 
fxeva yevr), to Sidrovov /cat to ;)^pcD/xaTi/c6v /cat to 
evapnovLov ovS' ot to. 8iaoT7j/zaTa rrapexovTes 

^ nepiaaov] ? reAeiou, cy". Cornutus, chap. 14, d tcDv cwea 
apLdfios, avviardnevos Kara to i(f)^ eairrov y^^^'^^'^'- ''■<'•' '"'pioTov 
ano TTJs fiovdSos reXeiorqros nvos fxeTeveiv SoKovvra dpidfiov. 

* Kv^uiv first added by Xylander, placed here by F. H. S. 

* coare Hartman : on. 

° An inexact phrase : it is the first square of an odd 
(? perfect) number, or the square of the first odd (? perfect) 
number. 

* A triangular number is one that can be represented by 
a triangular pattern of dots, thus : .*., :'.:, as can a square 

270 



TABLE-TALK IX. 14, 744 

first square of the first odd number " and the first 
product of odd numbers, since it can of course be 
di\aded into three equal odd numbers." 

Ammonius smiled at him. " You put up a good 
fight by your recital of these facts, and you should 
add to them this much more, that the nimiber nine 
is compounded of two cubes, namely the first two, 
one and eight, and by a different addition, of two 
triangular numbers, three and six, each of which is 
also a perfect number.^ But what had all this to do 
with the Muses any more than ^^^th the rest of the 
gods, to result in our having nine Muses, but not 
nine Demeters, Athenas, and Artemises ? I hardly 
suppose that you are convinced by the explanation 
that nine Muses were born because their mother's 
name '^ is spelled with that number of letters." 

Herodes laughed and there was a silence, where- 
upon Ammonius encouraged us to attack the pro- 
blem. (3) So my brother said that the ancients 
knew of three Muses only.** " To give proof of this 
fact," he continued, " in a company so niunerous and 
so learned would be boorish pedantry. But the 
reason for it does not lie, as some say, in the three 
types of melody, diatonic, chromatic, and enharmonic,* 
nor in the three notes that establish the intervals, 

number by a square pattern, thus: ::, Hi. It might be pos- 
sible to translate the text of the manuscripts " the number 
nine is compounded of two of the primary numbers, namely 
one and eight." explaining that eight is the first cube (738 f), 
as one is the first integer. But since -nparra usually means 
" prime numbers," this is difficult. Although eight is some- 
times regarded as the first cube, since a cube requires eight 
dots to delimit it, when Greek arithmeticians forget geometry, 
they speak of one as being a cube. 

* Mnemosyng. ■* Cf. Diodorus Siculus, iv. 7. 

* Enharmonic music employs quarter-tones. 

271 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

^744) opoi, VT^rrj /cat fxear] Kal vTrdrT]. Kairoi ^e\(f>oi ye 
Ttt? Mouaa? ovTCos wvofxal^ov, ovk opOws evl^ fJiaO'q- 
fiari, fidXXov 8e fxoplcp fiadtjixaros 4v6s rov fiov- 
(jLKov, rcb y* dpp,ovtKw, TrpoaridevTes. aTrdaas S' 

D ws eydi vofjiL^o) rag Sta Xoyov Trepaivofievas iTTiarrj- 
fias Kal rexvcLS ol TraXatol Karap^adovres ev rpial 
yeveaiv ovaas, tu> (f)t,Xoa6(f)cp Kal rep p'qropiKO) Kal 
Tip pa6r]p,aTiKcp,* rpicov €7tolovvto Scopa Kal X^P^" 
ra? dccov a?' Movaag <hv6pat,ov . varepov Se /cat 
Kad* 'HcioSov TJSr] p,dXXov eKKaXvTTTopevcov rcov 
8vvdp,€0}v* Btatpovvres els p-^pf] Kal ciSt^ rpeZs 
TToXiv €Kdarrjv e^oucrav iv avrij Sta<^opa?* ewpcav 
ev pev ydp^ rep paOiqparLKcp rd Trepl povaiKrjv iariv 
Kal rd rrepl dpi6pii)riK7]v' Kal rd rrepl^ yecoperpiav, 
€v Se TO) (f)LXoao(fiip rd XoyiKov Kal rd rjdiKdv Kal rd 
<f>vaiKdv, iv Se ro) p'qropiKO) rd iyKcopiaariKdv 

E TTpcorov yeyovevai Xeyovaiv Sevrepov Se rd avp^ov- 
XevriKdv ea)(arov 8e to BiKaviKov. dbv piqSev ddeov 
p-rjh* dpovaov etvai P'Tjh' dpotpov dpx'rjs Kpeirrovos 
Kal -qyepovia? d^covvre?, eiKorco's laapidpovs rds 
Moucras' OVK eiroi'qaav aAA' ovaas dvevpov. cooTrep 
ovv rd ivvea hiaipeaiv els rpeXs Xapi^dvei rpidSas, 
(Lv eKaarr) ndXcv els p^ovdSas Siatpelrai roaavras , 

^ evl Leonicus : eV. 

* fiadTjfiariKio Aldine edition : fiaOrjTiKw. 

' as Basel edition : ras. 

* Swd/iecov Anon. 1 (Turn.) : Svvafievcov. 

' Sio^opas Basel edition : 8iatf>opav. 

* yap Hubert : to. 

' apidfir]TiKr]v Xylander : ypafiiJLaTiKTjv. 

* irepi Basel edition : nepas. 

272 



TABLE-TALK IX. 14, 744 

top, middle, and bottom." It is true that the Del- 
phians gave the names of these notes to the Muses,* 
incorrectly associating them with a single science, or 
rather with a part of the single science of music, 
namely that concerned with scales. In my opinion 
the ancients, observing that all branches of know- 
ledge and crafts that attain their end by the use 
of words belong to one of three kinds, namely the 
philosophical, the rhetorical, or the mathematical, 
considered them to be the gracious gifts of three god- 
desses, whom they named Muses. Later, in Hesiod's 
days in fact, by which time these faculties were being 
more clearly seen, they began to distinguish different 
parts and forms ; they then observed that each faculty 
in its turn contained three different things. The 
mathematical genus includes music, arithmetic, and 
geometry, the philosophical comprises logic, ethics, 
and natural science, while in the rhetorical it is said 
that the original laudatory kind was joined first by the 
deliberative, and finally by the forensic.*' Thinking 
it wrong that any of these branches should be without 
its god or Muse or deprived of higher control and 
guidance, they naturally discovered, for manufacture 
they did not, the existence of as many Muses as 
there are branches. Now nine permits of division 
into three threes, each of which is again divided into 
as many ones. In the same way, correctness of dis- 

" Cf. Plato, Republic 443 d. The note called " top " by 
the Greeks was the lowest in pitch : from this to the " middle " 
formed a fourth, " middle " to " bottom " a fifth. 

* Cf. 745 B infra. 

' Cf. Tacitus, De Oratoribus, xii. 2. For the three divi- 
sions of oratory see note e on p. 267 supra. Here, as often, 
■' laudatory " replaces " epideictic," since the latter tended 
to deal in praise rather than blame. 

273 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(744) ovrois ev ^ev iari /cat koivov tj tov Xoyov irepl to 
Kvpiov^ opdorrjg, vevefxr^vrat 8e ovvrpeis rcov rptcov 
yevcov eKaarov, eira ttolXlv av jUovaSi/cois' eKaarr] 
pLiav TrepieTTei Xa^^ovcra /cat Koafxel Swa/xtv. ov yap 
oXp^aL Tovs TToti^Ti/cou?* /Cat Tovs daTpoXoyLKovs 
F iyKaXeZv rjiMV co? TTapaXeiTTovai^ ras rexvas avrcov, 
elBoras ovSev i^ttov Vfxcov* darpoXoylav yeojjxeTpia 
7Toir]TLKrjv Se {xovaiKfj avvcTTOfjbdvrjv."^ 

4. 'D.S 8e Tavr' eppiqdrj, tov laTpov Tpvcftcovos 
eiTTovTos, " Tjj 8' 'f]pbeT€pa^ '^^X^V '^'^ 7Tadci>v to 
M^ovGclov aTTO/ce/cAet/ca?; " vrroXa^wv Aiovvaios o 
MeAtreus", " noXXovs," €^'^, " cry/XTrapa/caAet?' em 
745 T'^v KaTrjyopiav /cat yd/o i^/xet? oi yecopyol ttjv 
©dAetav oLKetovfxeda, <f)VTcbv /cat aTrepfjidTwv evOa- 
XovvTCOv Kttt pXaaTavovTCDV evrt^eAetav aT^rry /cat 
acoTTjpLav a7TooLOovT€s . aAA ov ot/cat , e^T^v 

eyco, " TTotetre" /cat yd/) vfuv eoTi, At^/at^tt^P dvT^crt- 
Scopa /cat Atdvucros' 

SevSpecov vofiov^ TToXvyad-r]? av^dvcov, 
dyvov <f>eyyo9 ovcopas, 

(1)S HivSapos (f>rjaiv, /cat tovs laTpovs 'AokXtjttlov 
e^ovTas tajxev rjyefxova /cat 'ATrdAAcuvt Ilaidvt XP^~ 
[xevovs Trdvra, MovarjydTTj jjLTjdev Trdvre? yap ' dv- 

^ Kvpiov Aldine edition : Kopiov. 

* TToirjTiKovs Bernardakis : 7Tot.T]fiaTiKovs. 

* TrapaXiiTTOvai, Basel edition : TrapaXeiirovaas. 

* VfMOJV F. H, S. : -qfxojv. 

* avv€7T0iJ,evrjv Hubert : aw'efiofievrjv. 

* -fjixeTipq. Basel edition : irepa. 

' avuirapaKoXeis Anon. (Amyot) : avfiirapaKoXei. 

* vofMov Heyne : vofiov ; rpoTrov 757 f, yovov Sandys. 

274 



I 



TABLE-TALK IX. 14, 744-745 

course about valid truth " is a unity and the Muses' 
common property ; each of the three categories into 
which it is divided is the province of a group of three ; 
and by a further division each of them singly attends 
and embellishes the faculty she has been allotted. I 
do not imagine, you know, that the poets and the 
astronomers will charge me with passing over their 
arts ; they understand just as well as you do that 
astronomy goes with geometry and poetry with 
music." 

4. " What of our art ? " exclaimed Trj'pho the 
doctor at the end of these remarks. " Why on earth 
have you barred the Muses' temple to it ? " " There 
are many others," struck in Dionysius of Melite,* 
" whom you invite to join you in your protest. Here 
are we farmers, who claim that Thalia belongs to us," 
assigning to her the care and health of flourishing 
(eutkalounton) plants and growing seeds." " But," 
said I, " you are not playing fair. You see, you have 
Demeter, She-who-sends-up-gifts,'* and Dionysus 

Exultantly giving increase to the orchard-plot. 
Fruit-time's holy splendour, 

as Pindar says * ; and we know that the doctors have 
Asclepius as their guide and that they make every 
use of Apollo the Healer, but none of Apollo the 
Leader of the Muses. All men, it is true, ' need the 

" Meaning doubtful ; the right emendation may still be 
to seek. 

* An Attic deme. 

* Cf. scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, iii. 1, 
"* Cf. Pausanias, i. 31. 4. 

* Pindar, frag. 153 Snell, quoted again by Plutarch, Mor. 
365 A, 757 F. Dionysus is a divinity of all vegetation, and 
of trees in particular. 

275 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(745) dpcoTToi decov ;i^aTeoucrt ' Ka6^ "Ofxrjpov, ov rravres 
Se TrdvTiov. dAA' eKelvo 6avfj,dl,co, ttco? eXade 
AajXTTptav TO Xeyofjievov vtto A.€X(f)cbv. Xeyovai yap 
B ov <f)66yycov ovSe )(^opSa)v €7Tcovvfiovs yeyovevai rds 
Movaas Trap* avrols, dXXd rod Koafiov rpLxfj Trdvra 
veve/Jbrjuevov irpoiriqv fxev elvai ttjv tcov aTrXavcov 
fxeplSa, Sevrepav 8e r7]v rcov TrXavioixevcov, iaxdrrjv 
8e T7]V TCOV VTTO aeXrjvqv , avvqpTrjaOai 8e ndaas Kal 
avvT^Td)(daL Kara Xoyovs evapfxoviovs, cSv eKdarrjs 
<f)vXaKa Movaav etvai, ttjs fiev Trpcorrjs 'Yttcittjv, 
T-fjs S' iaxdrr^s Ncdrrjv, Mearjv 8e rrjs^ [xera^v, 
avv€-)(ovaav dfxa /cat avveTnarpi<^ovaav, ojs dwarov^ 
eari, rd dvrjrd rot? detots^ /cat rd vreplyeLa rolg 
ovpavioLS' CVS /cat IlXarcov yjvt^aro tols tcov M.oipcJijv 
C ovojJLaaLV T'r]v /xev At/jottov t7]v 8e KAa>^co* T'qv Se 
Aa;^eaiv Trpoaayopevaas' errel tols ye tcov oktcI) 
a(f)aipcov Trepicfyopais lleiprjvas ov Mouaas" laapid- 

fJiOVS €7T€(TT7]a€V."^ 

5. 'YTToXa^chv 8e Meve^uAo? o HepiTTaTrjTLKos , 
" Ta fiev AeXcfxjiiv ," €L7T€v, " dpbcoayeTTCos* pbeTiyei 
TTidavoTriTOS' 6 8e nAaro^v oltottos, tols /xev diSiotS' 
Kal dciais irepi^opals dvrl tcov Mouacoj/ rd? Hetpry- 
vag iviSpvcov, ov Trdvv (fyiXavOpcoiTOVS ovSe )(p'r]aTds 
Satfiovas, Tas 8e Movaas r) TrapaXeiTTcov TravrdrtaaLv 
ri Tols TCOV MotpcDr 6v6p.aaL Trpoaayopevcov Kal 
KaXcov OvyaTepas ^AvdyKrjS' dfjLovaov yap r^ 'Av- 

^ Tfjs Hubert : rrjv. 

* avvarov Xylander, Anon. 2 (Turn.) : av varepos. 

* delois Hubert : Oeois. 

* Tw Se KAcoflco added by Anon. 1 (Turn.), here by Ber- 
nardakis. 

* iTTearrjaev Xylander : eTriarqaav. 

* aiMnxryencDS Doehner : aAAw? ye vws. 

276 



TABLE-TALK IX. 14, 745 

gods,' in Homer's phrase," but all are not needed by 
all. But it puzzles me how Lamprias can have over- 
looked what the Delphians say. They tell us that it 
is not from notes of voice or string that the Muses 
have been given the names they have there. Rather 
the whole universe is dixided into three regions : the 
first is that of the fixed stars, the second that of the 
planets, '' and the last the sublunary region ; they are 
all knit and ordered together in harmonious formulae ; 
and each has its guardian Muse, the first region 
H}'pate, the lowest Neate, and the intermediate 
Mese, who holds together and intertwines, so far as 
is feasible, things mortal and divine, terrestrial and 
heavenly. Plato, too, put this in a disguised form, 
calling them by the names of the Fates, Atropos, 
Clotho, and Lachesis " ; observe that it was Sirens, 
not Muses, that he set to preside over the revolutions 
of the eight spheres, one for each." 

5. " The Delphians' opinion," said Menephylus 
the Peripatetic, taking up the conversation, " has in 
its way a measure of plausibility. But it is odd of 
Plato to give a home on the eternal divine revolutions 
not to the Muses but to the Sirens, divinities who are 
by no means benevolent or good, and either to pass 
the Muses over entirely or to call them by the names 
of the Fates and refer to them as daughters of Neces- 
sity. Necessity is a thing devoid of art ; it is Persua- 

* Homer, Odyssey, iii. 48. 

* Including the sun and moon. 

* Plato, Republic, X. 617 c. This association of the Fates 
with the three regions is found in Pseudo-Plutarch, De Fato, 
568 F, and a slightly different one in Be Facie in Orhe Lunae, 
945 c and De Genio Socratis, 591 b. The ultimate source for 
such speculation was Xenocrates, cf. Sextus Empiricus, 
Against the Logicians, i. 149. 

277 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(745) dyKT] fjiovGLKov 8' ^ Iletdd) /cat Movcrat? (f>iXov. Sio 
D Movaa^ TToXv /xaXXov otixai ttjs 'E/xTveSo/cAeous" 
XaptTOS' ' (TTvyeei SucttAtjtov ^AvdyKrjv.' 

6. " Ilavy /Ltev ow," o 'AjU./xcavto? eV*!?, " T17V ev 
rj/Mv oLKovaiov alriav /cat dTrpoalperov rj S' ev ^eot? 
dvdyKT] SvarX'qTOS ovk iar^ , oljjLaL 8' ovSe" SvaTret- 
drjs ovSe jStata, ttXtjv tols /ca/cots', tS? ecrrt vofios^ 
iv TToAet Tots* ^XeTTovaiv et?* to ^eXriarov avTTJs 
aTrapeKTpeTTTov^ /cat aTTapd^arov ov rip dhvvdrcp 
Tip 8' d^ovXiqTcp TTJs piera^oXrjs .^ at ye jLtev Stj* 
'OfJit]pov l^eLprjves ov Kara Xoyov 'quag rtp fjLvdcp 
<f>o^ovaiv, aXXd /cd/cetvos" opdoJs fjvi^aro^'^ rrjv ttjs 
fiovaiKTJs avrcx)v Bvvafxcv ovk aTrdvOpcoTTov ovS^ oAe- 
E Opiov ovaav dXXd rats ivrevdev d-movaais €K€l 
ijjV)(aZs, cos €OLK€, Kal TrXavcofJievats p,€Td ttjv reXev- 
rrjv epcora Trpos to. ovpdvia /cat ^eta X'qdrjv 8e rcov 
dvTjTcjjv ifjLTTOLovaav Karex^tv /cat /caraSetv" deXyo- 

* <f>iXov 816 MoCffo Anon. 2 (Turn.) : Movaaus ^tAoSo/ioCcra. 
^ ear', olfxai 8' ovSe Bemardakis : eaofiai Se. 

^ vofios Basel edition : /xovos- 

* Tois Anon. 2 (Turn.) : roiy. 

* pXenovaiv eiV F. H. S. doubtfully : ^eXrloTois ; PeXriarois 
to? Hubert. 

* aTTapeKTpeiTTOv Hubert : airapiTpe-mov. 
' Toi W5i;tenbach : roi /xev. 

* fieTa^oXrjs Basel edition : ^erajSouA^?. 

* al ye ^ei' Sij Anon. 1 (Turn.) : ayo/xev 8e. ? at Aeyo/xevai 
8' v(f>'. ^^ rjvi^aTo Basel edition : rividTo. 

^^ efiTTOiovaav Karexeiv Kal Karabeiv Leonicus : efivoiovoa 
KaT^xei Kal KardSei. 

" Diels-Kranz, Frag, der Vorsok., Empedocles, frag. 116. 
' Charm " {CJiaris) was used by Empedocles as a synonym 
for the cosmic force he usually calls " Friendship " (Philia). 

* Cf. Plato, Timaeus, 48 a, where Mind persuades Neces- 
sity to guide the greatest part of the world of change to the 

278 



TABLE-TALK IX. 14, 745 

sion that is artistic, and dear to the Muses. Hence, 
I think, the Muse 

hateth intolerable Necessity 

far more than does the Charm of Empedocles." " 

6. " She does indeed," said Ammonius, " if you 
mean the Necessity of our world, a constraining cause 
outside the sphere of our vdW. But the necessity that 
holds sway among the gods is not intolerable nor, 
as I believe, resistant to persuasion either * nor yet 
coercive, except for wicked men, just as in a city the 
law is for those who look to its best interests some- 
thing inflexible and immutable, not because a change 
would be impossible, but because it would be un- 
desirable. Now Homer's Sirens, it is true, frighten 
us, inconsistently with the Platonic myth ; but the 
poet too conveyed a truth symbolically, namely that 
the power of their music is not inhuman or destruc- 
tive ; as souls depart from this world to the next, so 
it seems, and drift uncertainly after death, it creates 
in them a passionate love for the heavenly and 
di\dne,*' and forgetfulness of mortality ; it possesses 
them and enchants them with its spell, so that in 

best possible result : that is to say, the undesigned fixed 
factors in the physical world can often be made use of by 
a designing intelligence : see F. M. Cornford, Plato's Cos- 
mology, pp. 160 ff. Plutarch's own interpretation of the 
Platonic passage {De Anhnae Procreatione in Timaeo, 1014 d, 
1026 b) takes Necessity to be a psychical, not a physical, 
factor in the world. When Ammonius proceeds to compare 
Necessity with law in a city, he seems to be thinking not 
of Necessity per se, but of Necessity as guided by Mind, 
being affected perhaps by the Stoic identification of Necessity 
with Fate, Zeus, and cosmic law. For the undesirability of 
changing laws cf. Plato, Politicus, 299 c, Aristotle, Politics, 
1268 b 27—1269 a 24. 

« Cf. Plato, Cratylus, 403 c-d. 

279 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(745) fievas, at 8' vtto xapds evovrai /cat avfiTrepiTToXov- 
aiv. ivravda Se Trpos rjfMois afxvhpa rt? olov rjxoi 
rrjs [jiovaiKrjs eKeivrjS i^iKVovfievr] Sta Xoycov ck- 
/caAetrat /cat dvafxtfivfidKet, rd? i/jv^as rcov rore' 
TO 8' cSra rcov fxev TrXeiarcov^ TTepLaXrjXnrrai /cat 
KaraTTeirXaaTai crapKcvots e/x^pay/Ltacrt /cat Trddeatv, 
ov K-qpLVOis' rj Be 8t'* ev<f)viav aloQdverat /cat pLvq- 
fiovevei, /cat tcDv ififMavearaTCDV ipcorcov ovSev 
F aTToSet TO TTO.do'S avrrjs, yXiXOjJiev'qs /cat TroBova'qs 
Xvaat re' /xt^ Svva/JLevqs eavrrjv oltto tov acofiaros. 
ov nrjv eyoyye TravTaTraai Gvp,(f)€poixat tovtois' dXXa 
pLoi So/cet nAarcov (hs drpaKTOvs /cat rjXaKdras 
Tovs d^ovas a(/)ovBvXovs 8e tovs darepas, i^rjXXay- 
[xevcos ivravda /cat rds" Moucra? Seipi^vas' dvopd- 
^etv,* ' elpovcras '* rd ^eta /cat Aeyovcras" ev ''At8oi», 
Kaddrrep o* 2o^o/cAeot»S' '08uCTCTeus' ^Tyat Seipr^va? 
elaa^LKeadai 

^opKov Kopas, dpoovvre' rovs "AtSoy vopiovs. 

746 MouCTat 8' etcrii' d/crco /u,ev' at avpLTTepiiToXovaai* 
rals d/cTco a(j>aipais, pia 8e rdr 7r€/)i yT^v" elXrjxe 
TOTTOV. at juev owv d/crcb TreptdSot? €(f)€aTcoaai rr)v 

■^ rd 8' aira Ttov /iev nXeiaTOiv Wyttenbach : /x.ei' TrAeiaroi'. 
^ rj Be St* Basel edition : oi Se. 

* re] 8c Meziriacus. Perhaps a word, e.^. f(f>€7rea0ai., is lost 
after Trodovarjs. * ovofid^dv Basel edition : ovond^eis. 

* flpovaas Bernardakis : epeovaas. 

• d added by Pohlenz. ' Opoovvre Lobeck : ulOpoCvros. 
" fiev added by Hubert. 

• ai ovuirepLTToXovaai van Herwerden : koX avfiTrepinoXovai. 
^° y^v Stephanus : yijs. 

" Plato, Republic, 616 c. In ordinary Greek the word 
means " distaflF," but Plato used it in the archaic sense of 
" spindle." Cf. Class. Rev. xxxviii (1924), p. 7. 

280 



TABLE-TALK IX. U, 745-746 

joj-fulness they follow the Sirens and join them in 
their circuits. Here on earth a kind of faint echo of 
that music reaches us, and appealing to our souls 
through the medium of words, reminds them of what 
they experienced in an earher existence. The ears 
of most souls, however, are plastered over and 
blocked up, not with wax, but with carnal obstruc- 
tions and affections. But any soul that through innate 
gifts is aware of this echo, and remembers that other 
world, suffers what falls in no way short of the very 
maddest passions of love, longing and yearning to 
break the tie -s^ith the body, but unable to do so. Not 
that I fall in with this interpretation at all points. 
My \iew is that just as Plato speaks of ' shafts ' and 
' spindles ' " instead of ' axes,' and of ' whorls ' for 
' stars,' so here, too, contrary to usage, he gives the 
name of ' Sirens ' to the Muses, because they ' seyen ' 
(eirousas), that is ' speak,' the di\ine truths in the 
realm of Death.* Similarly Sophocles' Odysseus " 
says that he visited the Sirens, 

Daughters of Phorcus,'' singing the tunes * of Death. 

There are, then, eight Muses that circle round with 
the eight spheres, while one has allotted to her the 
region of the earth. Now the eight that preside over 

* "Eeiprqv is supposed to embody either elptiv by addition of 
a or deV f'peiv by a change, paralleled in Laconian dialect, of 
e to a. 

" Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., frag. 777, from an unknown 
play. 

■* Elsewhere father of Scylla, Hesperides, Graiae, Gorgons, 
and Erinyes, but never of Sirens. 

« The word also means " laws," and Plutarch doubtless 
saw an allusion to that meaning here, cf. E. Maass, Orpheus, 
p. 270. 

281 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(746) Tcijv 7rAava>)U.eVa>v acrrptov vpos ra aTrXavrj Kal rrpos 
dXXrjXa avvexovai Kal Si.aa(x)^ovai,v dpfioviav^' fiia 
8e, Tov fiera^i) yrjs /cat aeXy^vijs tottov imaKOTTovaa 
Kal TrepLTToXovaa, tols dvrjTots oaov atadaveadai, 
Kal 8e;^eCT^at 7T€(f)VK€ )(^apLrwv Kal pvdjxov Kal dp- 
pLOVias evStSojcrt hid Xoyov /cat (hbrjs, ttci^co tto- 
XiriKTJs Kal KOLVcovrjTLKTJs avvepyov iirdyovaa 
TTapafjbvdovfjuevqv Kal K-qXovaav rj/xajv ro rapaxcohcs 
Kal TO TrXavo) fjievov cocrTrep i^ dvoSias dvaKaXov- 
fi€V7)v eTTtet/co)? Kal Kadiardaav.^ 

B oao-a 8e [xrj Tre^iXriKev 

Zeus", drv^ovrai, ^odv 
TliepiScov diovra 

Kara Uivdapov." 

7. TovTOis i7n<f)Cov'qaavTos tov ' AjXjjiOiVLov Ta 
TOV Bi€vo(f)dvovs waTTep elcodei 

TavTa SeBo^darOo)^ fiev eoLKOTa rot? €Tvp,OLai 

/cat irapaKoXovvTos d7TO(f)aiveadai Kal Xeyeiv to 8o- 
Kovv eKaoTOVy iyd) puKpov BiaaicoiT'qaas €(f>r]v ort 
" /cat UXdTCov avTos axnrep 'ixv^oi rot? ovofiaai 
TOiv QeGiv dvevpLOKecv oierat Tds Swd/xeL?, Kal 
"qfjicls ofiOLWS fjiev Tidwixev ev ovpavo) Kai ire pi ra 
ovpdvia fxiav TOiv MouctcSv*' /cat et/co? e/cetva pJx] 
TToXXrjs p-'qSe ttoikIXtjs KV^epv^aeojs heiadai, p^iav 

^ apuoviav Basel edition : ap/j-ovCat.. 

^ KaOioTaaav Meziriacus : KaBi.ar5.aa. 

' SeBo^dadai Amyot : 8e8o^dadai. 

* ^ Ovpavia tftaiverai deleted by F. H. S. after Movawv. 

282 



TABLE-TALK IX. 14, 746 

orbits maintain and preserve the harmony of the 
planets with the fixed stars and with one another, 
while one, who oversees and patrols the region 
between the earth and the moon, grants mortals 
through speech and song all that their nature allows 
them to perceive and accept of grace, rhythm, and 
harmony, calling in Persuasion the helpmeet of the 
arts of state and society to cast her calming spell on 
the tumultuous element in us, and gently to recall 
our errant steps when they have lost the path and 
set them in their place. 

But all things that are strangers to Zeus's love 
Shrink when they hear the ringing 
\'oice of the Pierides, 

as Pindar says." " 

7. Ammonius concluded these remarks with his 
favourite quotation from Xenophanes 

Let this be our opinion, with the look of truth, * 

and then urged each of us to speak up and say what 
he thought. For a short time I kept quiet ; then I 
said that Plato himself believes that he discovers the 
powers of the gods by using their names as clues " ; 
" let us then similarly place one of the Muses in the 
heavens,** and suppose her concern to be vrith the 
heavenly bodies. It is likely enough that they, 
having a single simple nature to account for them, 

" Pythians, i. 13-14, quoted again by Plutarch, Mor. 167 c, 
1095 E. The former passage makes clear the connexion of 
the thought here with Plato, Timaeus, 47 d. 

* Diels-Kranz, Frag, d^r Vorsok., Xenophanes, frag. 35. 

' Cratylus, 396 a, but at 401 a Plato modifies his opinion : 
the names show what men think of the gods, not necessarily 
their real nature. 

* Urania, whose name is derived from Ouranoa (heavens). 

283 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

n exovra koL arrXriv aXriov^ <f)V(nv ottov 8e TroAAai 
TrAT^/x/xeAetat TroAAat 8' a/xerptai Kal Trapa^daet,?, 
ivravOa ras oktch fieroiKiareov , aWrfv aAAo KaKiag 
Kal avapixoarias eiSo? eiravopdovfievag.^ eTret 8e 
Tov jStou TO jLtev CT7rou8'>7? TO 8e 7rat8ias'* fi^pos eari, 
Kal Setrai ToiJ [xovaLKcog Kal jxerpicos, to /xev ottov- 
hdt,ov rjjjiiov tJ t€ KaAAtOTrr^ Kal rj KAeia> /cat 17 0a- 
Aeta, TTJs irepl deovs eTnaTrjp/ris Kal deas rj-ye/Jicbv 
ovaa, So^ovaiv €7naTp€(f)€Lv Kal ovyKaTopdovv, at 8e 
XoiTTal TO /zerajSaAAov e^' rjhovrjv Kal vraiStav vtt* 
dadeveias firj Trepiopdv dviefievov dKoXdoTCO's Kal 
drjpLcoScj^y dAA' opx^aei Kal cphfj Kal ;i^o/3eta pvdpuov 

D ^X°^^27 '^"^ dpfxovia Kal Aoyoj Kcpavvvixevov eva^'f]- 
fxovcos Kal KoafiLios eKhex^adai /cat TrapaTrepiTTeLv . 
eyoj piivTOL, tov YlXdTiovos €v eKdoTCp hvo irpd^ewv 
aTToXeiTTovTos dpxds, ttjv fjuev epi(f)VTOv eTTLdvpiiav 
rjSovdJv TTjv 8' iTTCLaaKTOV*' So^av €(f)i€fx€vr)v tov 
dpioTov, Kal TO fxev Xoyov to 8e Trddog eaTiv otc 
KaXovvTos, CTcpas 8' av TrdXiv tovtcov cKaTcpov 
8ta0opa9* exovTOS, eKdoTrjv opw jxeydXrjs Kal deias 
d)S dXrjdoJs rratSaycuytas" Seojxevrjv. aurt/ca tov 
Xoyov TO fx€v eCTTi TToAtri/cov Kal ^aaiXiKov , i(f)* <5 

T7]V KaAAlOTT-T^V T€TdxGo.l <f)7]alv 6 *H(Tlo8oS"* TO 

E <^tAoTi)U.ov 8' rj KAetcb fxdXcaTa Kvhaiveiv Kal avvem- 
yavpovv etXrjx^v rj 8e HoXvpivia tov <f)LXop,adovs 

^ a'riov] aihiov Meziriacus : ? anavra F. H. S., riva Post. 
^ eTTavop9ov(j,evas Basel edition : inavopdovnevos. 
' CTTTouSijs . . . TTotSias' Bernardakis : cjTTovSfj . . . naiBia. 
Post suggests (lepl^eraL for [xepos eari. 

* eneiaaKTOv also at 1026 d : enlKT-qros Plato. 

* Si(K}>opas Anon. (Amyot) : Sta^opav. 

284 



TABLE-TALK IX. 14, 746 

do not need much or varied guidance. It is to a posi- 
tion here on earth, where mistakes and excesses and 
transgressions are numerous, that the other eight 
Muses should be removed, each correcting a different 
kind of evil and disharmony. Now since life consists 
partly of serious activity, partly of sport, and in both 
we need to act artistically and vnthout excess. Cal- 
liope, Clio, and Thalia, who is our guide in knowledge 
and \-ision of the gods," may be thought to act to- 
gether to direct our steps and maintain our course 
when we are serious ; and when we turn to pleasure 
and sport, the others will not suffer us in our weakness 
to relax vvithout discipline and like animals, but will 
take us under their care and escort us on our way in 
decent orderly fashion with dancing and song and 
with choric music that has measured motion fused 
with both tune and words. My own \iew is different. 
Plato lays downa two principles of action in every 
man, the one an ' inborn desire for pleasures,' the 
other an ' acquired belief that aims at what is best ' * ; 
sometimes he calls the one reason, the other emotion. 
Now each of these two principles has further sub- 
divisions and I observe that every one of these stands 
in need of extensive and, in the true sense of the 
word, divine tutelage. To begin with, one aspect of 
reason is characteristic of the statesman and the 
king ; to this Hesiod tells us that Calliope is assigned." 
It is Clio's province in particular to glorify the love of 
honour and add to its pride, while Polymnia belongs 

" The suggested etymology is from theos (god) and 
aletheia (truth). 

* Plato, Phaedrus, 237 d, quoted again, De Animae Pro- 
creatione in Timaeo, 1026 d. 

' Theog&ny, 80. Cf. 743 d supra and Praecepta Oerendae 
Reipublicae, 801 e. 

285 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(746) ecTTt /cat fivqfiovLKov rrjs ^vx'rjs, 8to Kal HcKvioviot 
ra)v rpicbv Moucrcov^ fiiav YloXvjjiddeLav KaXovatv 
KvrepTTT) 8e rrds dv res aTToSoLr) ro decoprjTiKov rrjs 
TTepl (f)vaiv dXrideias, ovt€ Kadapcorepas ovre KaX- 
Xlovs ire pep yevei rrapaXLTTcbv evTraOeias Kal repipeis. 
rrjs S' iTTidvfJiias to fxev Trepl iScoSrjv Kal ttoglv tj 
QdXeia KOivojvrjTLKov Trotet /cat avpLTTOTLKOv i^ oltt- 
avdpwTTov^ Kal dripiayhovs , 8t6 rovs (juXocjipovcos Kal 
lXapu)s avvovTas^ dXXriXoLS iv ocvo) ' daXLa^eiv ' 
Xeyopiev, ov rovs v^pit,ovras /cat Trapoivovvras' 
F rat? 8e irepl avvovaiav airovhaZs*^ rj 'Eparco Trapovaa 
fMera Tretdovs Xoyov^ exo'varfs Kal Kaipov i^aipeZ Kal 
Karaa^evvvai ro ju,avi/cov* t-^? t^Sovt^s" /cat olarpco- 
Ses, els (fiiXlav Kal rriariv ovx ujSpiv ouS' aKoAacrtav 
reXevrcoarjs . ro 3e 8i' ojrwv Kal ocfydaX/Jicbv iqSovrjs^ 
etSos, etre rep Xoycp pLaXXov etre rep Trddei TrpocrrJKov 
etre kolvov dfi(f>oLV iariv, at AotTrai Svo, M-eXTTOfievr] 
747 /cat TepipLXoprj, TrapaXa^ovaai Koapbovaiv u)are ro^ 
puev €V(f>poavvrjv pbr] KrjXrjaiv elvai, ro 8e pbrj yorjreiav 
dXXa repiljLv." 

* Movaojv Basel edition : ovawv. 

* OiTTavdpwiTOV Leonicus : dvdpu>nov. 
^ (rwovras Wyltenbach : avviovres. 

* oTrovbais Wyttenbach : oTTOvSals. 
' Xoyov Wyttenbach : ws Xoyov. 

• fiavLKov Wyttenbach : juoAa/coc. 

' TO . . . ijSovij? Emperius : ofSe Kal 6<f>6aXfiu)v rjBovrjv. 
* TO Bernardakis : r-qv. 



286 



TABLE-TALK IX. 14, 746-747 

to that part of the soul that loves learning and stores 
it in the memory — that is why the Sicyonians call 
one of their three Muses Polymathia." Then every- 
one would refer to Euterpe the study of the facts of 
Nature, and would reserve no purer or finer enjoy- 
ments and delights (terpseis) to any other kind of 
activity. To turn to desire, Thalia converts our con- 
cern for food and drink from something savage and 
animal into a social and con\i\ial affair. That is why 
we apply the word thaliazein (merry-making) to those 
who enjoy one another's company over wine in a gay 
and friendly manner, not to those who indulge in 
drunken insults and violence. And when our sexual 
urgencies enjoy the presence of Erato, '^ accompanied 
by rational, apposite persuasion, she eliminates and 
extinguishes the mad, frantic element in the pleasure, 
which then reaches a conclusion in love and trust, 
not rape and debauchery. As for the kind of plea- 
sure that comes by ear and eye, whether it belongs 
mainly to reason or to emotion or is their common 
property, the two remaining Muses, Melpomene and 
Terpsichore, take it under their care and give it 
orderliness." The result is that on the one hand 
there is enjoyment not enchantment, on the other 
not delusion but delight." 

" i.e. " Much-learning." See also note on 743 d supra. 

* Associated with erdn (to be enamoured). 

' Melpomene for the ear {melpein, to sing), Terpsichorfe for 
the eye, as if Terpsihore {terpsis, enjoyment, hordn, to see), cf. 
Cornutus, chap. 14. The fixed assignment of functions to 
Muses is a development that had not taken place in Plu- 
tarch's time. Fancy was long free. 



287 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(747) nPOBAHMA IE 

'On rpla fiepr] ttjs 6pxi]creo)S, <f>opa Kal axfjp-o- koX Sei^i?" koI ri 
eKaarov avrcov, Kai rt'va Koiva ttoltjtiktjs Kal opxrjariKrjs 

CoUocuntur Thrasybulus, Ammonius 

1. 'E/c Tovrov TTvpaixovvTes iTrrj-yovro rots Traial^ 
viKTjT'qpiov 6p-)(iq(7ea}£- aTreSetp^^Tj Se Kpirrj? /xera 

B MertCT/cof rov Traitor pi^ov Aa/XTrpta? o dSeA^d?" 
(hp-)(rj(yaro yap 'nidavcos rrjv TTvpptx'^v Kal x^''P'^~ 
voficov iv rals iraXaiaTpais^ iSoKei, Sia^e'peiv raJv 
TTaLhoiv. op^ovfievoiv Be ttoAAcu;' TrpoOvpiorepov ■^ 
pbovaiKoyrepov, hvo rovs evSoKLnovvras^ Kal ^ovXo- 
fjLevovs dvaacp^eiv rrjv ipL/xeXeLav tj^lovv rtves op- 
')(eladai (f>opav 77apa (f)opav. 

^YjTTet,rirrjaev ovv 6 ©paav^ovXos rl* ^ovXerai 
Tovvojxa rrjs cf)opds, Kal irapeax^ Tip 'A/Xjucovtoj 
Trept TcDv fxepaJv rrjs 6p-)(iqaeaiS TrXeiova SteA^etv. 
(2) "E^T^ 8e rp" etvat, ttjv (f)opav Kal to a^'^jp-a 
Kal TTjv Sei^tv. " 7) yap op)(rjaLS e/c re KLvqaewv 

C Kal aylaecov avv€aT7]Kev, ws to p^eXos tcov <j>66yyoiv 
Kal TCOV hiaoTT] p^aTCov ivTavda 8' at fioval rrepara^ 
T(x)v KLVTjaeayv elaiv. (j>opas /xev ovv ras /civi^creis' 

^ TTvpafMovvres . . . rots Wyttenbach, natal Anon. 2 (Turn.) : 
TTvpafiovvTOS eTTTJpav Tovres irdai. 

* TToXaicnrpaxs Basel edition : TrXdcn-pais. 
^ evBoKifjLovvTas Hartman : evSoKip-ovs. 

* ri Wilamowitz : 'A/xpicoviov ri. 
^ TTepara Anon. 2 (Turn.) : irepa. 

" The word translated " pose " is in other authors used to 
cover all " gesture " both fluid and static ; that translated 
" phrase " has as one sense " change of place." The words 
phora, schema, deixis do not seem to be technical terms (cf. 
L. B. Lawler, Trans. Am. Philol. Assoc, 1951, pp. 148 ff."), 
but to have been fluid and overlapping in meaning. Plu- 

288 



TABLE-TALK IX. 15, 747 



QUESTION 15 

That dancing has three elements, phrase, pose, and pointingi 
the nature of each, and the factors common to poetry 
and dancing." 

Speakers : Thrasybulus, Ammonius 

1 . After this cakes were brought in, to be the prize 
for dancing by the boys. My brother Lamprias was 
appointed, along Avith Meniscus the trainer, to be 
judge, as he gave a con\incing performance of the 
pyrrhic dance and had been thought better at shadow- 
fighting than any of the boys in the ■WTestling- 
schools.* Many boys now danced with more zest 
than art : there were two who gained approval, 
attempting to preserve gracefulness throughout ; 
some of the company demanded that these two should 
dance phrases alternately. 

Thrasybulus inquired the meaning of the word 
" phrase," and gave Ammonius the opportunity of 
giving at some length an exposition of the elements 
of dancing, (2) which he said were three in number : 
the phrase, the pose, and pointing. " Dancing," he 
explained, " consists of movements and positions, as 
melody of its notes and intervals. In the case of dan- 
cing the rests are the terminating points of the move- 
ments." Now they call the movements ' phrases,' 

tarch's source may have intended to define and distinguish 
them : if so, he had no success in getting his distinctions 
generally accepted. Cf. also H. Roller, Glotta, 37 (1958), p. 5. 

* Dancing, particularly by boys, was part of the gym- 
nastic training of the wrestling-school, and many dances 
had a close relation to the movements of combat, armed or 
unarmed. The pyrrhic was, in its proper form, danced in 
armour, cf. Plato, Laws, 815, 830 c ; Athenaeus, 631. 

* As the notes are of the intervals in music. 

VOL. IX L 289 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(747) ovofid^ovai, ax'^/Jiara 8e ras^ ax^aeis /cat Sta^eCTei?, 
€LS as ^epofxevat reXevrcoaiv at KtvTjcret?, orav 
A7ToAAa)vos ^ Havos rj rivos Ba/c;^r^s" axrJli'O- Sta- 
Oevres iirl tov acofxaros ypa^iKOis rdls eiSecrtv 
eTTCfxevcoai,. to he rpirov, r] Set^t?, ov ixipbrfriKov 
eariv, oAAa Sr^Acon/fov aXr^dcJbs rcov viroKeipievoiv 

COS yap OL TTOiTjTal TOLS KVptOLS ovopbaoL Set/CTt/ca)? 
Xpi^vrai,, TOV 'A;^tAAea /cat tov 'OSucraea /cat tt^v 
D y^v /cat TOV ovpavov ovofid^ovTcs cus" vtto tcjv 
TToXXcov Aeyovrat, Txpo? Se tols ipicfxiaeis /cat rd? 
pLifx-qaets ovopiaTOTTouats ;\;/3a)VTat /cat /Ltera^opat?, 
' KeXapv^eiv ' /cat ' /ca;;^Aa^etv' ' ret /cAco/zei/a tcDv 
pevpaTCov XeyovTes, /cat rd jSeA?^ (jtepeadai ' AtAato- 
/teva XP^^^ aaai,' /cat* T17V looppoirov pidxf]v ' laas 
vapLLVTj KeSaXds ^X^^>' ''"oAAd? 8e /cat avvdeueis tcov 
ovopaTCov KaTO. peXrj piipb7]TLKoJs ax'r]pM.Tit,ovaiv , (hs 
KvpiTTiB'qs, 

6 TTeTopLCvos^ Upov dvd Ato? aWepa yopyo(f)6vos, 

/cat TTcpl TOV Xttttov Ylivhapos , 

OT€ Trap' ^AX<f)€cp avTO Sepuas 
dKevTTjTOV €v SpopLoiaL 7Tapexdpi€vov,* 

^ ras added by Papabasileios. 

* Kol added by Meziriacus. Perhaps more is lost. 

^ ireTo/jLevos Nauck : veTaiJievos. 

* irapexofj-ivov] napexcuv Pindar. 

"In the artistic field diathesis can connote the descriptive 
or representative aspect of the " arrangement " or " composi- 

290 



TABLE-TALK IX. 15, 747 

while ' poses ' is the name of the representational 
positions to which the movements lead and in which 
they end, as when dancers compose their bodies in the 
attitude of Apollo or Pan or a Bacchant, and then 
retain that aspect like figures in a picture." The 
third element, pointing, is something that does not 
copy the subject-matter, but actually shows it to us. 
Poetry pro\ides a parallel. Poets employ the proper 
names of things to indicate or denote them, using the 
words ' Achilles,' ' Odysseus,' ' earth,' and ' heaven ' 
exactly as they are used by the ordinary man, but 
employ onomatopoeia and metaphor in their pursuit 
of imitative representation and \'ivid suggestion. 
Thus they say that broken streams ' plash ' and 
' babble,' and that missiles fly ' longing to take their 
fill of flesh ' * and of an evenly matched battle ' equal 
heads had the melley.' "^ Then they often shape the 
collocation of words in their songs to imitate the 
matter, as does Euripides with 

The slayer of the Gorgon in his flight through Zeus's holy 
aether ' ; 

and Pindar writing of the horse, 

When by the banks of Alpheiis he galloped, 
(Ungoaded his form could be seen in the race),* 

tion," which is its original meaning. Cf. Mor. 17 b. Life of 
Brutus, xxiii (994 d), Life of Demetrius^ xxii (898 e), Athe- 
naeus, 196 f, etc. 

* Homer, Riad, xi. 574, etc 

* Iliad., xi. 72, a metaphor of disputed meaning. 

■* Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Euripides, 985. The line 
begins with a succession of 12 short syllables. 

' Olympians, i. 20. Plutarch's memory failed him (see 
critical note), providing a longer run of short syllables than 
the correct text. 

291 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(747) /cat "Ofiripos iirl rrjs ImTohpoiiLas , 

E dpfjiara 8' av ;^aAK:ai^ TreTTVKaafieva KaaaiTepo) re 

LTTTTOtS (JoKVTToSeaaLV i7T€Tpe)(0V, 

ovrois €V 6pxrj(J€L to /xev Gxrjfio. pLLfirjrLKov ecrrL 
IJLop(f)fjs Kal iSe'as", /cat ttolXlv tj (f)opa nddovs rivos 
ilJi(f}avTLK6v 7] TTpd^ecos T] Swdiiecos' rals Se Sel^eai, 
Kvpiio'S avra hiqXovai rd Trpdyixara, rrjv yrjv, tov 
ovpavov, avrovs, roiis^ TrXrjalov o Srj rd^ei pL€v rivi 
Kal dpidfxo) ytvofievov eoiKev rois iv TTOirjTiKfj 
Kvpiois dvopiaaiv jjuerd tlvos Kocrfiov Kal XeioTrjTos 
eKcfiepofievoi^, d)s ra roLavra' 

Kal QdfiLV atSoL'qv iXiKo^Xecfyapov t' 'Ac/ipoSiTrjv 
"Uprjv^ T€ ■)(^pvao(JTe^avov KaXrjv re Atcovqv, 



F 'EiXXrjvos* 8' eyevovTO depLLcrroTToXoi ^aaiXrjes, 

A.a)p6s T€ "EovdoS T€ Kal A'ioXoS iTTTTLOxdpfjLrjS' 

el 8e pirj, rols dyav 7T€t,olg Kal KaKop^erpois, a*? ra 
rot,avra, 

iyevovro tov jjiev 'UpaKX'qs tov 8' "I<^t/cAos",* 



rrjs 8e Trarrjp Kal dvrjp Kal Tratg ^aatXets, Kal 
a8eA^ot, 
748 Kal TTpoyovoL. /cATj^et 8' 'EAAa? 'OAu/X7rta8a* 

^ 8' ad xoXkio] 8e XP^'^V Homer. 
^ avrovs, rovs Bywater : avrovs roiis. 

3 'Hfyr]v] 'Uprju Hesiod. 
* 'E)OiT]vos Basel edition : 'EXX-qves. 

292 



I 



TABLE-TALK IX. 15, 747-748 

and Homer describing the horse-race, 

In turn the chariots plated with bronze and with tin 
Ran after the swift-footed horses ..." 

Similarly in dancing the pose is imitative of shape 
and outward appearance. The phrase again is ex- 
pressive of some emotion or action or potentiahty. 
By pointing they literally indicate objects : the earth, 
the sky, themselves, or bystanders. If this is done 
>nth precision, so to say, and timing, it resembles 
proper names in poetry when they are uttered \\ith 
a measure of ornament and smoothness. To take 
an example. 

Revered Themis and quick-glancing Aphrodite 
And Hera golden-wreathed and beautiful Dione, * 
or 

And kings were Hellen's offspring, ministers of right, 
Dorus, Xuthus, and Aeolus the charioteer. ' 

Othervnse this pointing resembles excessively prosaic 
and unmetrical verses like 

He Heracles begat, the other Iphiclus,** 
or 

Her father, husband, son, her ancestors 

And brothers kings. Olympias Greece calls her.* 

' Iliad, xxiii. 503-504. " Hesiod, Theogony, 16-17. 

' Hesiod, frag. 27. 

"* Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Adespoton 400. Alcmene's 
twins, Heracles and Iphiclus, were begotten by Zeus and 
Amphitryo respectively. The line offends against " Porson's 
law." 

« Author unknown. Olympias, a Molossian princess, was 
wife of Philip I of Macedon, and mother of Alexander the 
Great. 

* 'I^txAos Nauck : 'liiro?. • koI added by Cobet. 

293 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(748) TOiavra yap afiaprdverat /cat Trepl rrjv 6p)(rjaLV iv 
raXs ScL^eaiv, av jxrj TTidavorrira {jurjhe X^P^^ /ier' 
€V7rp€7T€Las Kal a(f>eXeLas e^cucri. /cat oAoj?," €(f>rj, 
" ixerddeaLV to HipLCoviheLov diro rrjg t,a}ypa(f)tas 
€771 rrjv 6p)(f}aLV Xapu^dvei} ravrrjv ydp opdcog eari 
Xeyeiv TTOtTycnv^ aLcvircbaav, Kal (f>6€yyo[Ji€vrjv op^f]- 

GLV TTCtAtV^ TTjV TTOLTjaiV Ovdkv ydp €OlK€V OVT€ 

ypa^iKfi fji€T€Lvai iroirjTLKrjg ovre 7rot,r)riKfj ypa- 
(f>tKrjs* ovSe ;^/3a)VTat to Trapdnav oAAT^Aat?" dp^T]- 
aTiKTJ 8e Kal TToirjTLKfj^ KOLVOJVLa TTaaa Kal /xede^is 
dXXrjXojv ioTL, Kal [xdXiaTa pbiyvv fxevai^ nepl to' tcov 
VTTopxfJp-dTcov yevos ev epyov^ dfM<^6T€paL ttjv Sid 
B Tcbv ax't)P'dT(x)V Kal t(x)V ovofidTCOv fjiifXTjaiv dno- 
TeXovGL. S6^€i€ 8' av wanep iv ypacftiKfj Td /xev 
TTOLtjiiaTa rat? ypapLfxats, v(f)' cov opt^erat ra et- 
St] . . .^ 8r]XoL S' o fidXiGTa KaTCopdcoKevai So^as 
eV^" VTTopx'TjP'aaL Kal yeyovevai 7rtdava}TaTos eav- 
Tov TO Seladai ttjv eTepav ttjs erepas" to ydp 

ITeAao-yov" lttttov •^ Kvva 

'AfjiVKXaiav dycovLO) 

eAeAt^o/u-evo? 77o8t fiifieo Ka/JiTTvXov fxeXos Slwkcdv, 

^ Xafi.pdvei, added by F. H. S. 

^ Tavrqv . . . ■noiijaiv added by Wilamowitz. 

' TTaXiv Bernardakis : 8e ttolXiv. 

* ovdkv yap . . ypa<f>iKrjs Wyttenbach and Hubert : odev 
etirev ovre ypa(j>iKrjv eivai TTOfrjriKrjs ovre ttoitjtiktjv ypa<f>-qs. 

* opxqcmKfi . . . TToiijTiKjj Basel edition : opxrjcrTiKTjv . . . 

TTOirjTlKTJV. 

* p.iyvvp.evai F. H. S. : fjufMovfievai (deleted by Wilamowitz). 
' TO added by Bernardakis. 

* ev fpyov Bergk : evepyov, 

* Lacuna indicated by Xylander. 
^^ So^as fv Meziriacus : Sd^ctev. 

294 



TABLE-TALK IX. 15, 74-8 

Similar faults are committed in dancing whenever 
pointing is used mthout plausibility, grace, dignity, 
and simplicity. In short, one can transfer Simonides' 
saying " from painting to dancing, (rightly calling 
dance) silent poetry and poetry articulate dance. 
There seems to be nothing of painting in poetry or of 
poetry in painting, nor does either art make any use 
whatsoever of the other, whereas dancing and poetry 
are fully associated and the one involves the other. 
Particularly is this so when they combine in that type 
of composition called hyporchema, in which the two 
arts taken together effect a single work, a representa- 
tion by means of poses and words. '' In comparison 
with painting the lines of verse are like the lines that 
bound the shapes (while the movements and poses 
are like the colours and shapes). And that each art 
needs the other is made plain by the \\Titer who has 
been considered to be most successful in the composi- 
tion of kyporchemata. and nowhere to have carried 
more conviction. Take this passage : 

Pelasgian horse ' or Amyclaean hound '' 
Make your model as you whirl 
On competitive toe, 
Chasing the melody's twists ; 

• Cf. Plutarch, Mor. 17 f, 58 b, 346 f. 

' The hyporchema was a song accompanied by a mimetic 
dance. The view that it was a distinct genre of poetry seems 
to be mistaken, cf. H. Roller, Die Mimesis in der Antike, 
pp. 166 ff. 

* Thessaly, a district of which was known as Pelasgian 
Argos or Pelasgiotis, was renowned for its cavalry. 

•* Amyclae, once an independent town or village 2\ miles 
south of Sparta, was early reduced. Spartan hunting-dogs 
were famous. 

^^ HeXaayov Meineke : a-neXaarov. 

295 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(748) oV^ dva Acotlov dvdefjioev Trehiov 
Trererai ddvarov Kepoiaaa 
evpefiev [xarevcov' eXd(f)cp 
rdv S' eV avx^VL arpl^oiaav Kapa iravr* eV 

* 3 

Ot/AOV 

Krat TO. e^rjs fjiovov ov . . .* f Xeiodev^ ttjv €V op)ct]a€i 
C biddeaiv rd TToiiqixara koL TTapaKaXelv r<h X^^P^ '^'^^ 
rd) TToSe, jjidXXov S' oXov wanep rial pir^pivBois 
cXkclv to crcD/xa rolg fieXeac Kal evretVeiv, rovrcov 
Xeyofxeviov^ Kal aSo/xeVtov rjavx^av ayeiv fxr) Svvd- 
fxevov? avrds yovv eavrov ovk alaxvverai Trepl ttjv 
opx'^f^i'V ovx 'TjTrov i] rrjv TTOirjaiv eyKaj/xia^cov, orav 

A' 8 

eXacfipov opxf]p-* otSa* ttoScov p.eiyvvp,ev 
K.prjra jxev KaXeovai rpoTTOv. 

dXX ovhev ovtcjos to vvv dTToXeXavKe rrjs KaKO- 
fMovalas dis Tj 6pxf]cns. 8t6 Kai TreTTOvdev o <f)oPrj- 
dels "l^VKos iTTOLrjcje, 

SeSot/ca fiT] Ti TTapd deols 

dfJiirXaKajv rifxav vpos dvOpcoTTCov dpieiijjco. 

^ oV Reinach : olos, before which the mss. have the corrupt 
words Tov ^ikv. 

* Hareviov Schneidewin : fiavvcov ; ixarela Schroeder. 

' aTpe(f>oi.av erepov Kapa navTa cToifiov MSS. Text by Wytten- 
bach, Schneidewin, and Schroeder. 

* Loss of words suggested by F. H. S. ; to. Troi^/nara, which 
^^'ilamowitz arbitrarily deleted, requires a verb, e.g. v^yel- 
adai. 

* eicodev Anon. 2 (Turn.), Wilamowitz, evSodev CKKoXeiv 
loi/cev Pohlenz. So/cet -noOetv Post. 

296 



I 



TABLE-TALK IX. 15, 748 

As along the flowery plain of Dotion " he flies 

Seeking to find a way of death 

For the horned hind, who turns her head 

Back on her shoulder, trying every track . . , *■ 

and so on. Shall we not say that these Unes almost 
dictate representation in dancing, summoning our 
hands and feet, or rather t^Wtching and bracing our 
whole body to the tunes, as if on strings, so that when 
these words are spoken or sung it cannot keep still ? 
It is e\idence of the author's \iews that he is not 
ashamed to praise himself for his dancing as much as 
for his poetry, when he says,*' 

I know how to mLx my steps in light-foot dance ; 
They call it the Cretan style. 

But to-day nothing enjoys the benefits of bad taste 
so much as dancing. As a result it has really suffered 
what Ibycus feared when he AVTote, 

I dread that for some sin against the gods 
I may be honoured at the hands of men."* 

" In Thessalian Pelasgiotis. 

* Author unknown, perhaps Pindar (frag. 107 Snell). 
Athenaeus, 15 d, thinks the best hyporchemata belonged to 
the time of Xenodemus and Pindar. Bergk, Pindar, ii. 2, 
p. 596 opts for Simonides, Reinach, Melanges Weil, pp. 
413 ff., for Bacchylides, neither with much ground. 

' Included by Snell in Pindar, frag. 107 (see previous 
note). Athenaeus, 181b, cites the lines with the addition of 
the words to 8' opyavov MoAoaffor. 

" Ibycus, frag. 24 Diehl, cf. Plato, Phaedrm, 242 c. 

* Xeyofj.ivojv Bases : Se Xeyofxevayv. 

' Swdfievov Wyttenbach : Svvafievois. 

* The Mss. have 8e yrjpwaai vCv. Xeyr) is due to Blass ; the 
other eight letters defy emendation, although there have 
been many guesses. 

* oiSa] doiSa Bergk. 

297 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(748) ,,„_,, 

j\ /cat yap avrt] Tvavo'qyLov riva TTOtrjTLK'qv Trpoaerai- 

pLaa/jLevT] rrjs S' ovpavias eKTreaova^^ eKeivrjs, rGiv 

fji€V epLTrXrjKTCiiv^ koL dvoT]TCov Kparel dedrpcDV, oia- 

7T€p TVpaVVOS VTTiqKOOV iaVTTJ TTeTTOiTjlJievrj jjLOVai- 

KTjv oXiyov rrjv dnaaav* rrjv 8e Trapd tols vovv 
€)(ovaL Kal Qeioi'S dvhpdaLV uis dXrjddis rLfx-qv dno- 
XcoXeKe." 

Tavra crx^Sov, u) Socrcrie Hf^veKLCov, reXevrala 
TOJV €v TOLS Moucreiots" t6t€ Trap' 'AjXp^COVLCp tco 
ay add) (jytXoXoyrjdevrcxJV. 

^ ndvSi)ii.6v Basel edition : Kal iravSt} fiov. 

* eK-neaovaa Basel edition : efiveaovaa. 

' ifjLTrXrjKTOiv Anon. 2 (Turn.) : eKTrXij/criKcHv. 

* oAiyou TT]v anaaav Wyttenbach : oXlyrjv riva irdai. 

" An allusion to the profane and heavenly Love of Plato, 
Symposium, 180 e. 

* Although these sentiments may be borrowed from some 
earlier, perhaps Peripatetic, moralizer (c/. H. Koller, quoted 
in note on 748 b supra), Plutarch may have thought them 
particularly apt to the art of the pantomimi, so flourishing 



TABLE-TALK IX. 15, 748 

Dancing has indeed made a profane poetry her com- 
panion and fallen out of favour \\-ith the other 
heavenly kind " ; and ha\'ing tyrannously brought 
almost all music under her sway, she is mistress of 
the caprice and folly of the theatres,* but has lost 
her honour among men who have intelligence and 
may properly be called divine." " 

This was about the end, Sossius Senecio, of the 
learned conversation then held at the feast of the 
Muses in the company of the excellent Ammonius. 

in his daj\ The dancer was here the star performer (and 
often popular idol), supported by musicians and a choir 
whose songs were explanatory of the dance, whereas in the 
ideal hyporchema of the moralist dance and song were on an 
equal footing, and dancer and singer the same person. 

' The word theios is sometimes used in a weakened sense, 
" marvellous." The suggestion is that, since intelligence is 
the divine element in man, it is to the intelligent that the 
word should be applied. At the same time Plutarch may 
have in mind an etymologj- that connects theatron (theatre) 
with theios, cf. Pseudo-Plutarch, De Musica, 1140 e, Philo- 
demus, De Musica, pp. 13, 67 Kemke. 



299 



I 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE 

(AMATORIUS) 



INTRODUCTION 

This work is a dialogue only in form, for the presence 
of Fla^ian serves merely to introduce Plutarch's son, 
Autobulus, and lead up to the recital of Plutarch's 
ovm part in the debate on love at the sanctuary of 
the Muses on HeUcon. This took place years before, 
shortly after our author's marriage and before his 
son's birth, so that the latter knows of it only because 
his father remembered the scene vi\'idly and repeated 
it often. 

The recital is punctuated and sometimes motivated 
by a romantic upheaval in the town of Thespiae below. 
A rich young ^\•idow of the town is seeking to marry 
a handsome young man, somewhat her junior. His 
friends are diWded about the wisdom of this alliance ; 
the debate is at first between the adherents and 
the opponents of paederasty. But while both friends 
and enemies are arguing elsewhere, the widow takes 
control of the situation and abducts the boy. This 
recall from philosophy to life scatters both parties 
and Plutarch is left \^ith the more serious members 
of the group to whom doctrinaire partisanship is un- 
suitable. 

Now begins the apology for the god Love (Eros) 
in which his di\'inity is \indicated, his power affirmed, 
his benefits attested, and his apotheosis assured. But, 
in a part of the narrative now lost, conjugal love is 

303 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

attacked ; and the rest of the work provides a spirited 
and occasionally penetrating defence of the part that 
women play in the marriage bond. So, fittingly 
enough, when Plutarch and his friends arrive at Thes- 
piae, they find to their delight that the marriage is 
under way and only awaits their presence for its cele- 
bration. Love the god is as active in life as he is in 
philosophy. 

The work has been generally admired ; those who 
seek an appreciation of it may consult the interesting 
and enthusiastic edition of Robert Flaceliere (Paris, 
Les Belles Lettres, 1952), which also contains a good 
bibliography." 

The present editor must acknowledge a consider- 
able debt to Flaceliere 's spirited translation. It often 
lightened his troubles, when troubles were brewing 
in the somewhat poor condition of the text. But his 
chief debt is to his learned and generous colleague, 
W. G. Rabinowitz, who went over every word of the 
translation and removed innumerable blemishes. He 
also suggested so many interpretations that are both 
new and true that if any part of this edition is an 
improvement on Flaceliere and Hubert, '' the grati- 
tude for this not inconsiderable feat is to be accorded 
to Rabinowitz, and to him alone. 

The dialogue is transmitted in two mss. only, E 

"» It may be noted that the love celebrated in this essay 
is not Aphrodite, sensual love, but Eros, romantic passion. 
The Stoics had already advocated romantic married love 
(see Antipater, Stoic. Vet. Frag, iii, pp. 254 ff.) and Plutarch 
carries his preference for it a step further. Cf. L. A. Post, 
" Woman's Place in Menander's Athens," Trans. Amer. 
Philol. Assoc. Ixxi (1940), pp. 420 if., especially pp. 452-454. 

* The Teubner edition of 1938 : see Cla^s. Phil, xxxvi 
(1941), pp. 85 ff. 
304 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE 

and B, both of them full of lacunae and corruptions. 
The recent controversy about their relationship has 
been warm, and sometimes hot. It is admirably sum- 
marized by Harold Cherniss in the introduction to his 
edition of the De Fade (L.C.L. Moralia, vol. xii, pp. 
26, 27, 31, 32). The editor has collated both mss. 
from photographs (Class, Phil. xxx\-i (19^1), pp. 85 flP.), 
but is unwilling to take part in the controversy. 
It does seem certain, however, for one reason or 
another, that B is not copied directly from E. The 
fact that there must have been at least one inter- 
mediary will surely give it independent value. 

The work is no. 107 in the so-called Lamprias cata- 
logue. Bemardakis (\-ii, p. 151) claims that a Plu- 
tarchean fragment in Stobaeus once stood in the 
great lacuna at 766 d. This is possible, but by no 
means certain. 

W. C. Helmbold 



305 



(748) EPOTIKOS 

1. *AA0TIAN02. 'Ev 'KXlKCJVl <f>rjS , U) AvTO- 

jSoyAe, Tovs TTepl "EpoJTO? Xoyovs yeveadai, ovs 
€LT€ ypatfjdfji€vo£ etVe KaTafjLvqfiovevGas rco ttoXXo.- 
F /CIS" eTTavepeadai rov Trarepa vvvl [xeXXcLS rjpuv Serj- 
deicriv dnayyeXXeLV ; 

ATT0B0TA02. 'Ev 'EAi/ccDvt TTapd rals Movaais, 
w OAaoutave, rd 'EpcurtSeta^ QeaTTiecov dyovTCOV 
dyovGt yap dyiova TTevraerrjpiKov , coavep /cat Tat? 
Mowaat? /cat toj "Kpojri <j>iXoTipLios Trdvv /cat Aa/x- 
irpibs. 

*AAOT. Oicr^' ow o aov^ pLeXXofxev Seladai rrdv- 
T€s ot TTpos rrjv dKpoaaiv rjKovTes ; 
749 ATT. Ou/c- dAA' etaofiaL Xeyovrcov. 

*AAOT. "A^eAe Tou Aoyoy to vvv exov evo- 
TTOLoJv re XeL/jLoJvas /cat CT/cta? /cat djxa kittov re 
/cat afxtXaKcuv SiaSpopids /cat ocr' aAAa toiouto^i^ to- 
TTOJV iTTtXa^ofxevoL yXixovrai tov YlXdroivo'S 'lAtcraov 
*cai TOV dyvov CKelvov /cat t')7V rjpefxa Trpoaavrr] 
TToav 7T€(f)VKvXav TTpodvpLorepov Tj koXXlov i7nypa(f)€- 
adai. 

ATT. Ti he SetTat tolovtcov, S dpiare OAaov- 

^ 'EpwTtSeia Kaibel : epcuriKO.. 
* o (Tou Xylander : oaov. 

" Thespiae, in Plutarch's day, was the principal city of 
Boeotia, except perhaps for Tanagra (Strabo, ix. 2. 5, 25). 
Thebes, Chaeronea, and the rest were not even " respectable 

306 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE 

(Flavian and Plutarch's son, Autobulus, converse in the 
presence of some others.) 

1. FLAVIAN'. It was on Helicon, Autobulus, that you 
say the conversation on love took place of which at 
our request you are now going to give us an account ? 
Either you made a record of it or got it by heart from 
frequent probing of your father. 

AUTOBULUS. Yes, Fla\ian, it was on Helicon in the 
shrine of the Muses while the people of Thespiae ** 
were celebrating the Erotidia.** This they do every 
four years in honour of Eros as well as the Muses, 
with great zeal and splendour. 

FLAVIAN. Are you aware of the petition that all of 
us who have come to you intend to present ? 

AUTOBULUS. No, but I shall be when you state it. 

FLAVIAN. Discard for the moment from your re- 
cital the meadows and shady nooks of the poets, the 
gadding growth of ivy and smilax, and all the other 
commonplaces on which writers seize, as they en- 
deavour with more enthusiasm than success to endorse 
their work with Plato's Ilissus," his famous agnus 
castus and the gentle grass-grown slope. 

AUTOBULUS. My dear Flavian, why should my dis- 

villages." See also Frazer's Pausanias, v, pp. 140 fF. But 
Cicero ( Verr. ii. 4. 135) speaks of the great statue of Eros as 
Thespiae's only attraction. 

* See Gulick on Athenaeus, 561 e, 629 a (L.C.L.). 

' Phaedrus, 229 a, 230 b. 

307 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(749) tave, Trpooi^icov rj SLrjyr)ats; evdvs rj 7Tp6(f>aGi,s, e^ 
rjs ojpyLrjdfjaav ol Xoyoi, ^(^opov alreZ (7vp,7Ta6rj^ /cai 
OK'qvrjs Selrai, rd r aAAa Spd/xaros ovSev eAAet- 
7T€L- jjiovov evxc^fJieda rfj jjbrjrpl rcov MovaoJv lAeco 

B TTapelvat /cat avvavaacp^eiv tov puvdov. 

2. yap Trarrip, eirel TrdXai, TTplv -q/xas yeve- 
adai, rqv fjLrjTepa vecDcxri KeKop^iapLevos e/c Ti)S yevo- 
fievTjs Tols yovcvaiv avrwv Sia(f)opds Kal ardaecos 
d(f>iKeTO Toi "lEpcoTL dvcrcov, €7tl rrjv ioprrjv Tyye ttjv 
fjirjTepa- Kal yap -qv eKeivqs rj €V)(rj Kal rj dvaia. 
Twv Se (fjiXcov OLKodev jiev avrco Traprjaav ol avvrj- 
deis, iv 8e ©eCTTTiat? evpe Aa</)vaLov tov 'Apxi'^dfxov 
AvadvSpas^ ipdjvra ttjs Hljuovos Kal jidXiara rcov 
jivcojxevcov avTTjv evrjjiepovvra, Kal UtoKXapov e/c 
Ttdopas rjKovra tov 'ApiaTLa>vos' rjv'^ Be Kal Ylpco- 
Toyivijs 6 Tapaeti? Kal TLev^Lmros 6 Aa/ceSat/xovto?, 

C ^evof BoiojTcDv S' o TTaTrjp €(f>rj tcov yva)pifxci)v tovs 
irXeiaTov? TrapeivaL. 

Auo /xev ovv 'q TpeZs rjjxepas /card ttoXlv, cos 
€oiK€v, rjavxT] ttojs (f)iXoao(f)ovvT€s iv rat? TtaXai- 
OTpats Kal hid tcjv dedTpwv dXXi^Xois avvrjaav 
€7T€LTa (f)€vyovT€s dpyaXeov dycova KLdapcoScbv, ev- 
Tcv^eai Kal aTTovSais rrpoeiXrjjXjiivov , dve^ev^av ol 
ttXciovs oiOTTcp €K TToXejxlas elg tov 'EiXiKcova Kal 
KaTrjvXiaavTO Trapd Tats Movaais. 

^ avfinadij Post : to) Ttddei. 

* AvadvZpas Leonicus : koI Xvaavhpov. 

* TTapfjv van Herwerden. 

° Mnemosynfe : " Memory." 

' One of Plutarch's best friends. He appears often in the 
Symposiacs and is a speaker in De Sollertia Animalium. 

308 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 749 

course need such preliminaries ? The situation that 
gave rise to the debate merely wants a chorus to 
sympathize and lacks a stage, for no other element 
of drama is wanting. Only, let us pray to the Mother 
of the Muses " to be graciously present and help me 
to resuscitate the story. 

2. A long time ago, before I was born, when my 
father had only recently married my mother, he res- 
cued her from a dispute that had broken out between 
their parents and was so hotly conte<ited that my 
father came here to sacrifice to Eros and brought my 
mother to the festival ; in fact she herself was to 
make the prayer and the sacrifice. His usual friends 
came ^Wth him from home and at Thespiae he found 
Daphnaeus, son of Archidamus, the lover of Simon's 
daughter, Lysandra, and the most favoured of all her 
suitors. Soclarus,'' son of Aristion, had come from 
Tithora ; and there were present also Protogenes " 
of Tarsus and Zeuxippus <* of Lacedaemon, friends of 
his from abroad. My father said that most of his 
other Boeotian acquaintances were there. 

Now they passed, it seems, the first two or three 
days in the city, indulging mildly between spectacles 
in learned conversation in the athletic buildings. 
After that, routed by a stubborn feud among the 
harpists which was preceded by appeals for support 
and enlisting of partisans,* most of the visitors de- 
camped from the hostile territory' and bivouacked on 
Helicon as guests of the Muses. 

"= See Mor. 563 b. 

"* He appears as a speaker in two other works also {Mor. 
1-22 B and 1086 c). 

' The Thespians were notable for their excitability and 
contentiousness : Dicaearchus in Miiller, Geogr. Graec. Min. 
i, p. 104 ; Aelian, Varia Hist. xi. 6. 

309 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(749) "Eca^ev ovv a^LKero^ npos avrovs ^Avdefjutcov /cat 
ITetCTta? dvSpes evho^oL, Ba/<:;;^60Vt 8e ro) KaXo) 
Xeyofxevcp rrpoarJKovres Kal rporrov rivet St' evvoiav 

D d[ji(l)6r€poL TTjV eK€Lvov SLa(f)ep6[JL€voi, Trpo? clXXtJXov?. 
7]v yap ev SeoTnalg ^Yajxi^vohcLpa yvvr] ttXovto) Kal 
yevet XajXTrpd Kal vrj Ata rov aAAov evraKTOs ^iov 
e'Xrjpevae^ yap ovk oAtyov )(p6vov dvev ifjoyov, /cat- 
TT€p ovaa via Kal LKavrj to etSo?. rcb he Ba/c^^covt 
(fylXrjs ovTt Acat avvqdovs yvvaiKos via) TTpdrrovaa 
yafxov Kop'qs Kara, yevos 7TpoarjKovar]s €K rov av/x- 
TTapeivai Kal SiaXeyeadai TToXXaKig eTraOe TTpos to 
fjieipaKiov avTiq- Kal Xoyovs (jyiXavd pojirovs aKov- 
ovaa Kal Xeyovaa rrepl avTov Kal ttXtjOos opcvaa 
y€vvaLa>v epaoTcbv els to epdv TrpoT^x^'"] f^^l hi,€vo- 

E eiTO fjLTjSev TTOielv dyevves,^ dXXd yrjpiafJLevr] <f>ave- 
pdJs ovyKaTa^rjv tco Ba/c;)^a>vt. iTapaho^ov he tov 
TTpay/xaTos avTOV* (fiavevros , tj re fi'qTrjp v(j>eojpdro 
TO ^dpos TOV oXkov Kal TOV oyKov COS ov Kara tov 
epaarov,^ TLves Se Kal avyKvvrjyol to) fjur] Kad^ -qXi- 
Kiav T7]s 'laix-qvoScopas SeStrro/xevot rov Bawrp^cDva 
/cat (TKcoTTTOVTes epyajheoTepoL tcov aTTo aTTOvhrjs 
eviOTajJievajv rjoav dvTayojvLOTal irpos tov ydjjbov, 
r)heLTO yap e(f)7]^os eV cov XVP^ avvoiKelv. ov purjv 
dXXd Tovg dXXovs edaas 7rape;^C(jpi7ae* to) Iletcrta 
/cat Tw Avdep.La>Vi ^ovXevaaadac to avfjicfiepov, a)V 
6 piev dvei/jios avTov rjv^ npea^VTepos, 6 he Ileicrtas' 

^ d<f>tKovTo Meziriacus. 

* ixfipevae Passow : exripwae. 

' ayewf^ Xylander : ayfv4s. 

* avTov] avTois Reiske. 

* ipaarov Post : epaarrjv. 

' TTape)(ciipT]a€ Basel edition : napaxtjopijaai. 

^ ^i' avTov Benseler. 

310 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 7^9 

At dawn Anthemion and Pisias joined them, men 
of some standing and attached to Bacchon who was 
called The Handsome ; and because of their common 
affection for the youth there was a kind of quarrel 
between them. You must know that there lived at 
Thespiae Ismenodora, a woman conspicuous for her 
wealth and breeding who led, heaven knows, over 
and above this a life of decorum. She had been a 
widow for some little time ^vithout a word of censure, 
even though she was still young and comely." Now 
Bacchon was the son of an intimate friend of hers 
and Ismenodora, while promoting a marriage between 
him and a girl related to herself, had many meetings 
and conversations with the youth. The result was 
that she came to view him with different eyes ; what 
with hearing, what with saying many kind things 
about him and observing the throng of noble lovers 
who courted him, she was carried so far as to fall in 
love with him herself. Her intentions were far from 
dishonourable : she desired to marry him and be 
his companion for life. The situation was startling 
enough in itself and the boy's mother had misgi\ings 
that the dignity and splendour of Ismenodora 's house- 
hold were too grand to suit her loved one. Some of 
the boy's hunting companions, moreover, used the 
discrepancy in ages to deter him. Their making a 
joke of the marriage served to counter it more effect- 
ively than did the serious intervention of others. 
He was still a minor and felt shy of marrying a 
widow. Nevertheless, he ignored the others and left 
the decision to Pisias and Anthemion. The latter 
was an older cousin of his, while Pisias was the most 

• She was about 30 years of age, to judge from 753 a infra, 
while Bacchon was, as an ephebus, between 18 and 20. 

311 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(749) 

■p avarrjpoTaros tojv epauTcjv 8to /cat Trpos" tov yd- 
fjLov avreTTparre /cat Kad'qTrrero tov 'Av^e/xtoivo? to? 
TTpo'Ce/Juevov rfj ^lajjLrjvoScLpa ro ixeipaKiov 6 S' 
€K€LVov ovK opdcijs cAcye TTOtetv, aAAd raAAa XP''?" 
CTTov ovra fxipLeladai rovs <f)avXovs ipaaras olkov 
/cat yd/Jiov /cat Trpayndrcov fxeydXajv dTTOcrrepovvra 
TOV (f)iXov, oTTcos ddiKTos avTcbv^ /cttt veapos dnohv- 
750 oiTO TrAeicTTOv xpovov iv rals TraXaiarpat^. 

3. "Iv' ouv p.rj TTapo^vvovres ciAAt^Aoi;? /card /xi- 
Kpov els opyrjv Trpoaydyoiev, wanep Statrr^rds" iXo- 
fxevot /cat jSpajSeurd? rdv Trarepa /cat roi)? cn)v aurcD 
TTapeyevovTO' /cat tcov dAAojv (f)iXcov otov e/c Trapa- 
GKevrjs Tip pL€v 6 Aa(f>vaLOS Traprjv tco S' o Il/aaj- 
ToyevTjS' dXX* ovtos p-ev dveSrjv eAeye /ca/ccD? ti^v 
^laprjvoScopav 6 Be Aa(f>valos, " a> 'Hpct/cAet?," 
e^Ty, " Ti oi)/c dv rt? TrpoaSoK-qaeiev , ei Kat ITpcoTO- 
yevTjs "KpiOTL TToXepirjacov Trdpeariv <L /cat 77atStd* 
Tidaa /cat anovSr] nepl "Epojra /cat 8t' "EpaiTo?, 

Ar^^T^ 8e Aoyotv Atj^t] 8e Trdrpas, 

B ou;( ct)? TO) Aato) Trevre fxovov rjp^eptov aTrexovri ttjs 
TTarpiSos ; jSpaSu? ydp o eKeivov^ /cat x^paato? 
"Epcos", o Se 0-0? eK KtAt/cta? 'A^T^va^e 

Xanprjpd KVKXioaas Trrepa StaTTOvrto? Trererat.'* 

^ ailrtov] auToi Leonicus. 

* n-aiSta Xylander : iraiSeia. 

^ eKeivov Turnebus : e'icetVcov. 

* nererai Athenaeus, 165 a : ireVaTai. 

" Cf. Plato. Phaedrus, 240 a. 

" See the excellent interpretation of Bolkestein, Mnemo- 
synS, iv (1953), p. 300. 

312 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 749-750 

sober of his admirers. For this reason, he used his 
influence against the marriage and took Anthemion 
to task for surrendering the young man to Ismeno- 
dora. Anthemion, in his turn, found fault Mith Pisias, 
sajnng that in everything else he was a model, but 
that as a lover he was imitating the baser sort in 
trying to deprive one dear to him of an estate and an 
alliance and a great career " merely to keep him as 
long as possible untouched by these matters * and 
astripping of his clothes in the palaestra. 

3. So to avoid exasperating each other and gradu- 
ally falling into a rage they had chosen my father and 
his friends as arbiters and referees and had come to 
join them. And, just as though it had been arranged 
in advance, each of them found an advocate in this 
friendly circle, Anthemion Daphnaeus, Pisias Proto- 
genes. Protogenes, however, set no bounds to his 
abuse of Ismenodora, at which Daphnaeus exclaimed, 
" Good heavens, what is one to expect next, if even 
Protogenes stands by to combat Love, to whom all 
his time, when he works and when he plays, <^ is de- 
voted, with Love at heart. Love in hand. 

Forgetful of learning, forgetful of fatherland ? "* 

For it's not just five days' journey, like Laius, that 
you are away from home. His love traipsed slow, a 
landlubber, while yours. 

Circling on swift wings, flits over the sea • 

" Cf. Plato, Symposium, 177 z. 

** Possibly from Euripides' Chrysippus : cf. Nauck, Trag. 
Graec. Frag. p. 632. The subject was Lalus' rape of the son 
of Pelops, to which the next phrase refers. 

' Archilochus, frag. 9)2 b Diehl ; Edmonds, Eleqy and 
Iambus, ii, p. 142. Cf. Mor. 507 a. 

313 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(750) Toys' KaXovs i(f)opa>v /cat av^TrXavcofievos." dfieXet 
yap i^ OLpxfj? eyeydvei roiavTi^ rts" alrla rep IlpcoTO- 
yevet rrjs aTToSrjjjiias. 

4. Tevopievov 8e yeXcoros, 6 Upcoroyevrjs, " iyd> 
8e CTot SoKco," eiTTev, " "Epcurt vvv TToXep^^Zv, ovx 
V7T€p "Eipcoros StafidxeadaL Trpos aKoXaaiav Kol 
v^ptv alax^cTTots irpdypiafji Koi Trddeatv els rd /cctA- 
Xiara /cat aefivorara tcjv ovopbdrcov etCTj8ta^ojU.e- 
vqv; " 
C Kat o Aa(f)vaios, " atcrp^iCTra Se /caAet?," ^'<^^> 
" ydp.ov /cat ctJvoSov av'Spo? /cat yvvaiKog, rjs ov 
yeyovev oi5S' eariv UpcuTepa /cara^eu^t?; 

'AAAo, ravra fiev," eiTrev o npcDToyeVTys", 

dvay/cata Trpos yeveaiv ovra aepLVVvovoiv ov 
(f)avXa>s ol vopLodirai /cat KaTevXoyovai, Trpos tovs 
TToXXovs' dX'qdivov 8' "KpojTOS oi}8' OTiovv rfj 
yvvaLKCovinhi p^ereariv, ouS' ipdv vjxds eycuye (f>'qpit 
Toiis yvvai^l TTpoaTTeirovd or as r\ irapdevoLS, cuaTrep 
ovSe pvtai^ ydXaKros ovhk fieXtrrai K-qpiwv ipcoaiv 
ovSe (Tirevral /cat jxayetpoL (f>iXa ^povovai^ TTtat- 
vovres VTTO aKorco fioaxovs /cat opvidas- 

'AAA' ojoTTep €77t airiov ayet /cat dilsov t] (f)VGLS 
[xerptcos /cat i/cava»? rrjv ope^iv, rj 8' VTrep^oXr) 
D Trddos ivepyaaraixevTj Aat/xapyia rt? '^ ^iXoijjLa^ /ca- 
Aetrat, ovrcos evearL rfj ^ucret to 8eto'^at t-^? aTJ"' 
dAAryAatv i^Sovtjs" yuvat/ca? /cat dvSpas, rrjv 8' eTTt 
rovro Kivovaav oppu'qv a(f)ohp6rrjrL /cat pcop-rj yevo- 
jxevrjv TToXXrjv /cat BvaKddcKrov ov TrpoarjKovrws 
"Eipcora KaXovaiv. "Epcy? yap ev<j>vovs /cat vea? 

^ fivlai Reiske : fivia. 
^ <f)iXa <f>povov(n Bernardakis : <f)i\o<f>povovai. 

314 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 750 

from Cilicia to Athens to look over the handsome 
lads and make the rounds w^ith them." No doubt it 
had been some such reason that originally caused 
Protogenes' journey from home. 

4. This raised a laugh and Protogenes said, " So 
you think that I'm at war viith Love now, do you, 
and not fighting on his side against lechery and inso- 
lence when they try to force the foulest acts and 
passions into the company of the most honourable 
and dignified of names ? " 

" When you s&y foulest," asked Daphnaeus, " are 
you referring to marriage, the union of man and 
wife, than which there has not existed, now or ever, 
a fellowship more sacred ? " 

" Why, of course," said Protogenes, " since it's 
necessary for producing children, there's no harm 
in legislators talking it up and singing its praises to 
the masses. But genuine Love has no connexion 
whatsoever vrith the women's quarters. I deny that 
it is love that you have felt for women and girls — 
any more than flies feel love for milk or bees for honey 
or than caterers and cooks have tender emotions for 
the calves and fowls they fatten in the dark. 

" In a normal state one's desire for bread and meat 
is moderate, yet suflicient ; but abnormal indulgence 
of this desire creates the vicious habit called gluttony 
and gormandizing. In just the same way there 
normally exists in men and women a need for the 
pleasure derived from each other ; but when the 
impulse that drives us to this goal is so vigorous and 
powerful that it becomes torrential and almost out of 
control, it is a mistake to give the name Love to it. 
Love, in fact, it is that attaches himself to a young 

' <f>iXoi/iCa Xylander : K^tXo^fivxia. 

315 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(750) ipvxyj? aifjafievos et? dperrjv bia (^lAta? TeXevra.- 
rals Se Trpos yvvalKas eTrt^y/xiat? ravrais, av dptara 
TTccrcoaiv, rjSovrjv TrepUari Kapirovadai /cat a77dAai;- 
CTiv (Zpas Kal awfxaros, cos ip.aprvp'qaev 'A/atWtTr- 
TTOS, TCp KarrjyopovvTL AatSo? Trpos avrov ojs ov 
(f)LXovarjs aTTOKptvap^evos otl Kal rov olvov oterai 
E Kal rov IxOvv p,r} ^iXeZv avrov, dAA' 'qSecos eKarepcp 
XP'^Tai. reXos yap iTTidvpiag rjSovr] Kal aTToXavats' 
"Epcos' Se vpoaSoKLav <^iAta? aTTo^aXcbv ovk edeXei 
7Tapap,€V€iv ouSe OepaTreveiv e^' 'wpa ro Xvnpov^ 
Kal dKp,dt,ov,^ el Kapnov rjOovg oIkclov et? (f>iXCav 
Kal dperrjv ovk a77o8t8a»atv. 

'A/coueis' Se rivos rpayiKov yap,erov Xeyovros 
TTpog rrjv yvvaiKa, 

p^iaets ; iycb Se paSlcos piia'qaop.ai, 
77/309 Kephos cXkcdv rrjv ip,rjv dri/xtav. 

rovrov yap ovSev eariv ipcoriKcorepos^ 6 p.r] 8id 
KepBos dAA' d<f)po8L(JLa>v eVe/ca Kal avvovaias vtto- 
F p,€va>v yvvaiKa p.oxd'Qpdv Kal daropyov iooTTep 
HrparoKXel rut prjropi OtAiTTTrtSi^S' o KtopuKos ctt- 
eyyeXcov eTToirjaev 

d7Toarp€(f)op,evrjs rrjv Kopv<f)r)v ^lAeiS" fioXis. 

Et S' ovv Kal rovro ro rrdOos Set KaXelv "Epajxa, 
drjXvv Kal vodov ioaircp els K.vv6aapyes avvrc- 

1 \vnp6v Rabinowitz : Xxmovv. 

2 (XTtjLta^or Kronenherg (see also Bolkestein, MnemosynS, 
1953, p. 300) ; dnaKfj.d^ov van Herwerden. 

^ epojTLKMTepov BE, corrected by the Basel edition. 

316 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 750 

and talented soul and through friendship brings it to a 
state of virtue ; but the appetite for women we are 
speaking of, however well it turns out, has for net 
gain only an accrual of pleasure in the enjoyment of a 
ripe physical beauty. To this Aristippus bore witness 
when he replied to the man who denounced Lais " to 
him for not lo\ing him : He didn't imagine, he said, 
that wine or fish loved him either, yet he partook of 
both with pleasure. The object of desire is, in fact, 
pleasure and enjoyment ; while Love, if he loses the 
hope of inspiring friendship, has no wish to remain 
cultivating a deficient plant which has come to its 
prime, if the plant cannot yield the proper fruit of 
character to produce friendship and virtue. 

" You know the husband in the tragedy who says 
to his wife : 

You hate me ? I can lightly bear j'our hate 
And make a windfall of my slighted state. '' 

Yet the man who, not for gain, but for lust and inter- 
course, endures an evil, unloving woman is no more 
in love than the husband in the play. Such was the 
orator Stratocles whom the comic poet Philippides " 
ridiculed : 

She turns away : you barely get her braids to kiss. 

" If, however, such a passion must also be called 
Love, let it at least be qualified as an effeminate and 
bastard love that takes its exercise in the women's 

• Cf. 767 F infra. 

' >fauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 916, Adespota 401. 

« Frag. 31 Kock, Com. Att. Frag, iii, p. 310. For Strato- 
cles and Philippides see Plutarch, Life of Demetrius, xii 
(894 c) and xxvi (900 f). 

317 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(750) Xovvra rrjv yvvaiKcovlTLv fidXXov 8' (Zavep derov 
751 Tiva XeyovGL yvrjoiov /cat dpetvor/ ov "OfJi'qpos ' /jlc- 
Xava ' /cat ' drjpevrrjv ' TrpoaeiTrev, dXXa Se yevrj 
vodcov icrrlv Ix&vg Trepl eXr) /cat opvidas dpyovs 
Xajji^avovrcov , aTTopovpievoL Se 77oAAa/ct? dva<j}d€y- 
yovTai tl Ai/xcDSe? /cat oSupri/cov ovtcos et? "Epa/?* 
yv^CTto? o 7rat8t/cd? eanv, ov ' nodo) ariX^iov,' (hs 
€<f)7) Tov TTapdevtov 'Ava/cpe'cuv, ovSe ' [xvpcov dvd- 
rrXecDS /cat yeyavcufievos ,' dXXd Xirov avrov 6t/j€L 
/cat ddpvTTTOV iv axoXals <f>iXoa6(f)oi,s rj ttov Trepl 
yvfxvdata /cat TraXaiarpas Trepl dijpav vecov d^y 
fxaXa /cat yevvalov iyKeXevofxevov irpos dperrjv rois 
d^tot? CTrtjUeAetaj. 

Tor 8' vypov tovtov Kal OLKovpov ev koXttois 
StarpijSovTa /cat /cAtrtStot? yvvaiKcov del SicoKovra 
B ra jxaXdaKa /cat dpvTrropievov -qbovalg dvdvSpois /cat 
a^tAot? /cat dvev^ouCTtacTTOtS' Kara^dXXeiv d^iov, cos" 
/cat SdAcov /carejSaAe* SouAot? /Ltev ydp epdv dppevcov 
TratSojv (XTretTre /cat ^rjpaXoL(f>elv , )(prjadaL Se ctuv- 
oucrtat? yurai/ccav oi)/c eKcoXvae- KaXov yap rj ^tAta 
/cat doTetov, rj 8 rjSovq koivov /cat dveXevdepov. 
odev ou8e' SouAoiv* epav "naihcov eXevdepiov earrtv 
ov8' darelov avvovaia^ yap oSros 6 epcos, Kaddnep 
d* Tctiv yuvat/ccur." 

^ opciov van Herwerden. 

* 'Epwj Wilamowitz : epw? o. ' ojJSe Reiske : ov. 

* SovXcov Wyttenbach : 8ovXov BE. 

* awovaia Flaceliere : ovaia. 

* o added by Wyttenbach. 

" The gymnasium at Cynosarges was the only one in 
Athens which residents of illegitimate birth or born of a 
foreign mother could frequent : Life of Themistocles, i 
(112 a). 

318 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 750-751 

quarters as bastards do in the Cynosarges." Or 
rather, just as there is one eagle, called the true or 
mountain eagle, which Homer * qualifies as ' black ' 
and ' the hunter,' though there are other bastard 
varieties which catch fish and slow- flying birds in 
marshes ; when they grow hungry, as they often do, 
they give a famished and plaintive scream — ^just so : 
there is only one genuine Love, the love of boys. It 
is not ' flashing with desire,' as Anacreon "^ says of the 
love of maidens, or ' drenched with unguents, shining 
bright.' No, its aspect is simple and unspoiled. You 
will see it in the schools of philosophy, or perhaps in 
the gymnasia and palaestrae, searching for young 
men whom it cheers on with a clear and noble cry ** to 
the pursuit of virtue when they are found worthy of 
its attention. 

" But that other lax and housebound love, that 
spends its time in the bosoms and beds of women, 
ever pursuing a soft life, enervated amid pleasure 
devoid of manliness and friendship and inspiration — ■ 
it should be proscribed, as in fact Solon * did proscribe 
it. He forbade slaves to make love to boys or to 
have a rubdown, but he did not restrict their inter- 
course with women. For friendship is a beautiful and 
courteous relationship, but mere pleasure is base and 
unworthy of a free man. For this reason also it is not 
gentlemanly or urbane to make love to slave boys : 
such a love is mere copulation, like tHe love of 
women." 

'' Iliad, xxi. 252 ; xxiv. 315 f. ; see also Aristotle, Hist. 
Animal, ix. 2 (618 b 26 ff.). 

" Frag. 13 a Bergk and Diehl ; frag. 62 Edmonds {Lyra 
Graeca, ii, p. 168). 

** Not the " starveling scream " of base-born eagles. 

* Life of Solon, i (79 a-b) ; cf. Mor. 152 d. 

319 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(751) 5. "Ert 8e TrAetova Aeyeiv TrpoOvfiovfievov rov 
U pcoroyevovs , dvTiKpovoas 6 lS.a<f)vaZos , " ev ye vrj 

Al"," €(1)7], " TOV HoXoJVOS epLVqadriS KOt )(p7](7T€OV 

avro) yvco/xovi, rov ipcoriKov dvhpog, 

C ea^' -rj^r^g eparotcnv iir* dvdeai 7Tai8o(f)LX'qa7) 
fxrjpajv IpLeipojv^ /cat yXvKepov arofxaros. 

TTpoaXa^e he rw SoAcovt /cat rov AlaxvXov Xeyovra, 

aepas he fj.rjpaJv'^ ovk eTTrjheaco,^ J 
u) Svax^LpicxTe rcov ttvkvcjv* (^LXrjfjidTOJV. 

erepoi fxev yap KarayeXcoaiv avrwv, el KadaTrep 
dvras /cat p-avreis els rd jxrjpia Kal rrjv oa(f>vv 
dTTo^Xeveiv tovs epaards KeXevovaiv eyd) he Trafx- 
ixeyedes rovro Troiovfiat a'qjjie'iov inrep tu)v yvvai- 
Kiov el ydp t) trapd (f)vatv ojxiXia irpos dppevas ovk 
dvaipet TTjV ipojriKrjv evvoiav ovhe jSAaTrret, ttoXv 
D fxdXXov elKos eari rov yvvaiKcbv Kat* dvhpcbv epojra 
TTJ (f)vaei, xpoiixevov els <f>LXtav hid ^dpiros e^iKveX- 
adai. X^P''^ y°-P '^^^> ^ ^poiToyeves, tj tov drjXeos 
VTTei^LS TO) dppevi KeKXrjraL rrpos rdjv TraXaiiov ws 
Kal ritvSapo? €^17 TOV "He^atcrrov ' dvev ;!^a/3tTajv ' 
e/c T'^S' "Hpa? yeveadav /cat rrjv ovttcj ydficov e^ov- 
aav wpav rj HaTT(f)(h Trpoaayopevovaa (f>7]aiv, on 

ajxtKpa fiot, Ttdis e^/xev e(f)aiveo^ /cap^apt?. 

• i/icipcuv] om. BE ; added by Stephanus. 

^ Bernaraakis adds ayvov from Athenaeus, 602 e. 

' OVK ivr)8fau> Athenaeus : ov KarrjSeaw. 

* irvKviov Athenaeus : ttikpmv. ^ /cat Xylander : ^. 

* Bergk : a/jLiKpa fioi rrai emxevai (jjaiveai. 

320 



THE DIALOGUE OX LOVE, 751 

5. Though Protogenes would cheerfully have added 
other arguments, Daphnaeus cut him short. " Good 
heavens," said he, " many thanks for citing Solon. 
Let us take him as the criterion of the lover," 

Till he loves a lad in the flower of youth. 
Bewitched by limbs and by sweet lips. 

And to Solon you may add Aeschylus,^ who says : 

You had no reverence for the splendour 

Of your limbs, ungrateful for our many kisses. 

Others, to be sure, have a good laugh at these gentry 
for urging lovers to fix their gaze on hams and 
haunches like priests bent on sacrifice or divination. 
But I count this as a great argument in favour of 
women : if union contrary to nature with males does 
not destroy or curtail a lover's tenderness, it stands 
to reason that the love between men and women, 
being normal and natural, will be conducive to friend- 
ship developing in due course from favour. For, you 
see, Protogenes, a woman's yielding to a man was 
called by the ancients ' favour.' So it was that 
Pindar '^ declared that Hephaestus was born from 
Hera ' without favour.' And Sappho ** addressed a 
young girl not yet ripe for marriage : 

You seemed to me a small child without favour. 

" Frag. 25 Diehl ; frag. 25 Edmonds {Elegy and Iambus, 
i, p. 138). 

* Frag. 135 Nauck, Trag. G'raec. Frag. p. 44, from the 
Myrmidons ; probably spoken by Achilles over the corpse 
of Patroclus, reproaching him for having allowed himself to 
be killed. Cf. also Mor. 61 a, 

* Perhaps a confusion of Pyth. ii. 4-2 with Hesiod, Theo- 
gony, 927. 

"* Frag. 34 Diehl ; frag. 48 Edmonds {Lyra Oraeca, i, p. 
220). 

VOL. IX M 321 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(751) o 8* 'UpaKXijs VTTO rivos ipcordrai 

jSia 8' eirpa^as^ ;)^apiTa? r) Tteiaas Kopiqv; 

7) 8' ttTTO ra>v dppevojv clkovtcov p,€v [xera^ ^cas yivo- 
pbivyf Kal X€7]XaGLag, av 8' eKovaicxys, crvv p.a\aKia 
/cat 6rjXvT7]TL, ' ^aiveadai ' /cara YiXdrwva ' vo[xa) 
E rerpdiTohos koI TraihoaTTopeladai ' Trapd (f)vaLV ev- 
8180VT6UV, dxapi-S X^P^^* TTavraTTaai Kal dax'>]l^(^v 
/cat dva^poStro?. 

" "O^ev, olfxat, Kal 6 HoXcov e/cetva fiev eypaifjc 
veos cov ert /cat ' aTrepfxaro? rroXXov fiearos, cog 
6 riActTCOv <f)rjaL' ravrl he Trpea^VTTjs yevofxevos- 

epya 8e l^VTrpoyevovs vvv fxoi <j>iXa /cat AtovuCToy 
/cat yiovaeoiv, a ridrja^ dvhpdaiv €V(f>poavvas , 

woTTep €/c t,dX'qs Kal ;^et)Lta»P'o? tcov^ TratSt/ccuv epo)- 
roiv €V Tivt yaXiqvrj rfj nepl ydfiov Kal (f)LXoao(f)iav 
dep-evog Tov ^lov. 

" Et fiev ovv rdXrjdeg aKOTTOvfxev, c5 WpcjToyeveg, 
F ev Kat ravTov ecrrt TTpog TratSa? /cat yui^at/ca? irddos 
TO Tcav 'E/ocirajv ei 8e ^ovXoio (jicXoveLKcov htaipeXv, 
ov iierpi civ* 8d|-ete Trotetv o 7rat8t/co? ouro?, dAA 
cjorrep oi/je yeyovoj? Kal Trap ojpav rw pico vooos 
Kal GKOTLOS i^eXavvetv^ tov yvqacov "Epcura /cat 
TTpea^vrepov. ex^es ydp, J) eralpe, Kal Trpcorjv 

^ 8' enpa^as Reiske : 8e irpd^as. 

^ /xev jxeTCL Reiske : fieTo.. 
^ yivofieim Emperius : Xeyop-evrj. 

* x<ip'? added by Winckelmann. 
' Tcov Meziriacus : koI tcjv. 

• fierpi' av Bernardakis : piirpia. 

' e^eXavveiv Meziriacus : i^eXavvei. 

322 



THE DIALOGUE ON LO\^, 751 

And Heracles is asked by some one or other, 

Did you persuade the girl or take your favour by force ? " 

But to consort with males (whether \^-ithout consent, 
in which case it involves \'iolence and brigandage ; or 
if with consent, there is still weakness and effeminacy 
on the part of those who, contrary to nature, allow 
themselves in Plato's ^ words ' to be covered and 
mounted like cattle ') — this is a completely ill-favoured 
favour, indecent, an unlovely affront to Aphrodite. 

" Whence I conclude that those verses I quoted 
were written by Solon when he was still quite young 
and ' teeming,' as Plato '^ says, ' wth abundant 
seed.' Here, however, is what he wTote when he 
had reached an advanced age ^ : 

Dear to me now are the works of the Cyprus-bom, 

Of Dionysus and the Muses, works that make men merry, 

as though after the pelting storm of his love for boys 
he had brought his life into the peaceful sea of mar- 
riage and philosophy. 

If, then, Protogenes, we have regard for the 
truth, excitement about boys and women is one and 
the same thing : Love. But if, for the sake of argu- 
ment, you choose to make distinctions, you will see 
that this boy-love of yours is not playing fair : like 
a late-born son, an aged man's bastard, a child of 
darkness, he tries to disinherit the Love that is his 
legitimate and elder brother. It was only yesterday, 
my friend, or the day before, in consequence of young 

" Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 916, Adespoton 402. 
' A paraphrase of Phaedrus, 250 e ; cf. Laws, 636 c. 
<= Laws, 839 b. 

■* Frag. 26 Diehl ; frag. 26 Edmonds {Elegy and Iambus, 
i, p. 140). 

323 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(751) jMera ras" drroBvcreis /cat oLTToyvfxvcoaeLg rcov vecov 
TTapaSvs^ els ra yv^ivdaia kol TTpoaavarpi^ofjievog 
rjavx'^ xal TrpoCTay/caAt^d^evo?/ etra Kara. fxiKpov 
ev rat? TTaXaiarpaLS Tnepo(j)vrjaas ovKeri KadeKTOS 
752 eariv, aAAa XotSopel /cat TrpoTT'qXaKL^ei rov yafju-q- 
Atov eKeZvov /cat cruvepyov ddavaaias rib dvrjTU) 
yeVet, ajSewvjjLevqv rj/xcov rrjv (f)vaLV avOts^ i^av- 
aiTTOvra 8ta rcov yeveaecuv. 

OuTOS" S' dpvelrai rrjv rjSovT^v ala^vv^rai yap 
/cat <f>o^eiraL. Set 8e rtvo? evTrpeTrelas aTrro/xeVa) 
/caAaiv /cat (hpaioiv 7Tp6(f)acns ovi^ <^tAta Kat dper?^. 
KovUrai 817* /cat ^vxpoXovrel /cat ra? 6(J)pvs atpei 
/cat <f)iXo(JO(f)€LV (f>7]ai /cat aaK^povetv e^co 8td tov 
vofiov elra vvKTCop /cat /ca^' -qavxiav 

yXvKcV oTTwpa (jivXaKos e/cAeAotTToros". 

et 8', cS? ^Tycrt npfOToyeVTy?, oy/c ecrTtv d(f)poSiaLOJV 
7rat8t/caiv Koivcovia,^ ttcos "Epcus" eariv ^ A(j>pohiTr]s 
R />ti7 TTapovarjs , rjv eiXrj^^e depmreveiv e/c ^ecDr /cat 
TrepieTTeiv, tljjltjs re pier€)(€iv /cat Svvdjjiews oaov 
: eKeivrj SlSojctlv; et 8' eart rt? "Epoj? x^P^? 'A^po- 

81x17?, (Zarrep fiedrj p^ojpts" otp-ou Trpds" cru/ctvov* TTopua 
/cat Kpidivov, aKapnov avrov /cat dreAe? to rapa- 
KTiKov iari /cat TrXt^a/jLiov /cat dipiKopov." 

6. Aeyojxevoiv he' rovrcov 6 Detatas" '-^t' St^Ao? 
dyai'a/CTcuv /cat Trapo^vvop^evos eTrl rov Aa(j)vaLOV' 
pLiKpov 8' auTou /caraAtTTOVTOS", " c5 'Hpd/cAei?," 
e^i], " TT^? ev)(epeia£ /cat 6paavrr)ros' dvdpcorrovs 

^ rrapaSvs Basel edition : TrapaSovs. 

^ TTpoaayKaXi^ofxevos Pohlenz : npoaeyKaXiov, » 

^ au^t? Reiske : evOiis. 

* S17 Xylander : 8e. 

^ aKoiviovia BE. * npooiKvvov BE. 

324 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 751-752 

men's stripping their bodies naked, that he crept 
furtively into the gj-mnasia. At first he merely 
caressed and embraced ; then gradually he grew 
Mings in the palaestra and can no longer be restrained. 
He rails against and vilifies that great conjugal Love 
which co-operates to vvin immortality for the human 
race by kindling afresh through new generations our 
being, prone as it is to extinction. 

" Boy-love denies pleasure ; that is because it is 
ashamed and afraid. It needs a fair pretext for 
approaching the young and beautiful, so it pretends 
friendship and virtue. It covers itself vvith the sand 
of the wrestling-floor, it takes cold baths, it plays the 
highbrow and publicly proclaims that it is a philo- 
sopher and disciplined on the outside — because of the 
law. But when night comes and all is quiet, 

Sweet is the harvest when the guard's away." 

If, on the one hand, as Protogenes maintains, there 
is no sexual partnership in paederasty, how can there 
be any Eros without Aphrodite, whom it is his god- 
given function to serve and wait upon, as well as to 
receive such portion of honour and power as she be- 
stows ? But if, on the other, there is an Eros with- 
out Aphrodite, then it is like drunkenness without 
\\ine, brought on by a brew of figs and barley. No 
fruit, no fulfilment comes of the passion ; it is cloying 
and quickly wearied." 

6. During this speech it was obvious that Pisias 
was full of anger and indignation against Daphnaeus ; 
hardly had the latter ceased when Pisias exclaimed, 
" Good lord, what coarseness, what insolence ! To 

" Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Adespoton 403. 

» hk added by W. C. H. 

325 



(t 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(752) o/xoAoyowras' ujoTrep ol Kvves ck tcov^ fMopltov avv- 
rjprrjadat, Trpos to drjXv jxedLardvaL Kal fieroiKLl^etv 
C rov deov e/c yv^vaalcov /cat TTepiTrdrcDV /cat Trjg iv 
rjXlcp Kadapds /cat dva7T€7rrap,evrjs StaTpL^rjs et? 
pLarpvXela /cat /cotrtSas"* /cat ^ap/xa/ca /cat fjuayev- 
fiara Kadetpyvv/jievov dKoXaarojf yvvaiKcov' iirel 
Tat? ye aa)(f)poaiv ovt* ipdv ovr^ ipdadai St^ttou 
TTpoarJKOV ear IV." 

^Yjvravda /xeWot Kat o iraTrjp ecfitj rod IlptoTO- 
yivovs eTTiXa^eadai /cat elTxeZv, 

" ToS' €^o7tXl^€i rovTTos *Apy€iov Xecov, 

/cat vt) Ata /\a(f)vaLCp ovvSlkovs rjfids TrpoartdrjaLV 
ov iJuerpLd^cDV 6 Iletatas', dAAct rot? ydpiOLS dvepa- 
arov eirdycov /cat dfxoipov evddov (fiiXias Kotvcovtav, 
T^v rrjs ipojTiKTJg Treidovs /cat ;\;aptTos" dTToXcTTovarjs 
D fxovovov t,vyoi£ /cat ;(aAtvots' ?37t' alaxvvrjg /cat ^o- 
jSoy fidXa [jloXls crvvexofjievrjv opcofxev." 

Kat o Hetcrtas', " ipiol p-ev," elnev, " oXiyov 
fieXei rov Xoyov Aa(f)vaiov S" opco ravrov nda- 
j^ovra rep ^^aA/cai* /cat yap e/cetvos" ovx ovrcos vtto 
rov TTvpos, oj'S VTTO rov TTeTTvpcopevov x^Xkov /cat 
plovros, dv eTTtx^Tj ns, dvar-^Kerat Kal pet avv- 
e^vypaivopevos' /cat rovrov ovk ivoxXel ro Avadv- 
Spas /caAAo?, ciAAa o-yrSta/ce/cau/xeVoj* /cat yepovrt, 
TTvpos tJSt]^ ttoXvv xpdvov^ nXriatd^cov /cat dvropevos 
dvaTTipTTparai' • /cat St^Ao? eartv, el p-fj ra^v (j)vyoL 
TTpos rjp,ds, avvraK7]a6pevos- dXX opd)," enre, 

1 Twv added by Duebner. 

" /com'Sa? Post : Arom'Say. ^ g^ Aldine ed. : 817 BE. 

* avvhiaK€KaviJi€v<x) Stephanus : avv8iaK€KaXvfi.fi€vu). 

* ^Stj Meziriacus : S'. * XP°^°^ Wyttenbach : xP°vov o. 

' dvamnTTpaToi Blumner : dvaTrifivXaTai,. 



I 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 752 

think that human beings who acknowledge that they 
are locked like dogs by their sexual parts to the 
female should dare to transport the god from his home 
in the gymnasia and the parks \Wth their wholesome 
fresh-air life in the sun " and confine him in brothels 
with the vanity-cases and unguents and philtres of 
disorderly females ! Decent women cannot, of course, 
without impropriety either receive or bestow a pas- 
sionate love." 

At this point, however, my father relates that he 
too attacked Protogenes and said, 

" This word now calls the Argive host to arms.* 

I swear that it's Pisias' lack of moderation that makes 
me join forces with Daphnaeus. So marriage is to be 
a loveless union, devoid of god-given friendship ! Yet 
we observe that an alliance, once it is deserted by 
courtship and ' favour,' " can scarcely be held to- 
gether by such yokes and reins as shame and fear." 

" As for me," said Pisias, " I don't take this state- 
ment very seriously. But Daphnaeus, I perceive, is 
acting like copper. It is a fact that copper is not so 
much affected by fire as it is by molten copper ; when 
this is poured over it, it softens bit by bit and becomes 
fluid. And it is not Lysandra's ** beauty that troubles 
him. Rather by his proximity and contact with one * 
who is all ablaze and burning he is now himself 
catching fire. It's evident that if he doesn't come 
running to us,' he too will go soft. . . . But I ob- 

» C/. Plato, Phaedrus, 239 c. 

* Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 916, Adespoton 404. 
' See 751 D supra. "* See 749 b supra. 

' Presumably Plutarch himself. 

^ That is, if he doesn't change sides in a hurry, he will lose 
whatever manhood he has left. 

327 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(752) " yLVOfxevov onep av fxaXiara aTTovSdaeiev *Avde- 
E fxiojv, TTpouKpovovra roZs Si,Kaarals Kal ifiavrov, 
cScrre Travofxat." 

Kat o 'Avdefiicov, " ojvrjaas," eiTrev, " (Ls eSei y' 
aTT apx'^s Xeyeiv ti Trpos ttjv VTTodeaiv." 

7. " Aeyoj TOLVVV," 6 Oeiatas' €(f)r], " TrpoKTjpv^as — 
ifiov y' €V€Ka Trdaats yvvai^lv dvepaariav,^ oti h 
rrjs yvvaiKos 6 ttXovtos eoTi (jivXaKrios rep vea- 
vioKcp, pLT] avfXjjiL^avTes avTOV oyKco Kal ^dpet 
roaovTW Xddoip,ev warrep iv x^Xko) Kaaairepov 
d(f)aviaavre?. fieya yap av eXa(f)pa Kal Xirfj yv- 
vaiKl jxeipaKiov avveXOovros els ravrov rj KpdoLS 
OLVov hiKiqv iTTLKpaTrjar)- ravrrjv S' opco/Jiev dpx^iv 
Kat Kparetv SoKovuav^' ov yap dv diroppiiljaaa 

T So^a? Kat yevT] rrjXiKavTa Kal ttXovtovs ifjLvdro 
fxeipaKLov €K x^anvSog, en TraiSaycoyeZcidaL Seo- 
fxevov. odev ol vovv exovres avrol TrpotevraL Kal 
nepLKOTTTovaLV (jjOTTep coKVTTrepa rcov yvvaiKcov rd 
irepirrd^ XP'qp-o-ra, rpv^ds i/J-Troiovvra Kal ;^ai;vd- 
rrjras d^e^aiovs* Kal Kevds,^ ixjy' (Lv inaLpofxevac 
TToXXdKis aTTOTTerovraL' /car [xevcoat,^ ' jj^pyaats' 
753 oiOTTep iv AWlottlo. ' Tre'Sat? SeSe'cr^at ' ^eXriov^ 7] 
ttXovtco yvvaLKos." 

8. " 'EKretvo* 8' ov Aeyets"/ " o^" UpcoToyevrjs etnev, 
OTt KivSwevop^ev dvaarpe(f)€iv droTTWs Kal yeXoicog 

^ dvepaariav Tucker : av epacjT-qv. 

^ SoKovaav] noOovaav Emperius. 

^ TTepiTTo. Salmasius : Trepi ra, 

* d^e^aiovs Xylander : eK^e^aiovs. 

* K€vds Jacobs : KeXCovs. 

• Hev (Lai BE. ^ ^eAriw BE. 

* eKetvo Winckelmann : eKelva. 

• Ae'yei? Xylander : Xeyei. 

1' o added by Bernardakis. 

328 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 752-753 

serve," he added, " that the very thing that Anthe- 
mion would like best is happening : I myself am 
offending the judges, so no more." 

Anthemion said, " Well and good, since you really 
ought to have spoken to the point in the first place." 

7. " Well then," said Pisias, " after fair warning to 
all women that as far as I am concerned, love doesn't 
exist, I must say that the young man must beware of 
the lady's wealth." If we were to plunge him into 
such pomp and high estate, we might unwittingly 
make him disappear, as tin disappears when mixed 
■with copper. It would be something to brag of if a 
boy of his age were to marry a simple, unassuming 
woman and yet keep his quality unchanged in the 
union, like ^\ine mixed with water. But as for this 
woman, we can see her determination to command 
and to dominate. Other^\'ise, she would hardly have 
rejected so many eminent, noble, and wealthy suitors 
and be wooing a stripling who has not yet discarded 
his school uniform, who still needs a tutor.* So it 
comes about that men of sense throw away their 
wives' excessive fortunes " and clip their ■wings, as 
it were. For such wealth makes women frivolous, 
haughty, inconstant, and vain ; often it elates them 
so much that they fly aAvay. Even if they stay, it 
is better to be fettered ' \\ith the golden chains of 
Ethiopia ' ** than by a wife's wealth." 

8. " And this you don't mention," said Protogenes, 
" that we risk being silly and ridiculous to reverse the 

" Ismenodora and Bacchon. 

* The slave who accompanied a child to and from school ; 
but in 754 f infra we see that Bacchon was not so accom- 
panied. 

* Cf. Euripides, frag. 502 (Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 
522). " See Herodotus, iii. 23. 4. 

329 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(753) TOP 'HcrtoSov, av eKeivov Xeyovros ^ 

lirjTe TpirjKOVTCOv^ irecov /xaAa ttoAA* OLTroXetTTCuv 
IxrjT^ imdels fJidXa ttoXXo.' ydyuos 8e rot oipio? 

OVTOS' 

T) 8e yvvrj rerop' rj^cooi, Tre/xTrrw 8e yapioZro' 

a-)(€h6v rjjjieis ereat^ rocrovroLS yvvaLKL irpea^vrepa, 
KadoLTrep ol <f>oivLKa9 rj avKas ipivd^ovres, 6fji(f)aKa* 
/cat doipov dvSpa TrepLdiptojJLev. 

'Eparai yap avrov vrj Ala /cat /caerat* tls ovv 
B o KcoXvcx}v iarl Kcofxdl^eLV em dvpas, aSetv ro napa- 
KXavcrldvpov, dvaSetv rd ei/covta, TTayKparid^ecv Trpos 
Toil's dvrepaaras; ravra yap epcoTLKd' /cat Kadei- 
adco rd<s^ o(f)pvs /cat rravaaadco rpu^ajCTa, axyjfxa* 
Xa^ovaa ra>v rod Tradovs ot/cetcov. et 8' atCT;;^we- 

Tttt /cat aCO(f)pOV€L, KOafJLLOJS OLKOL KadTJddcti^ 7T€pL- 

ixevovaa tovs fMvcoixevovs /cat a7TovSdt,ovras . ipdv 
Se <f)daKovaav yvvatKa <j>vyelv tls av e^ot /cat ^8e- 
Xv)(delrj, [jiTjTi ye Xd^oi^ ydp,ov 7TOLrjad[X€vos dp- 
^Crjv TYjv TOiavTTTjv dKpaatav." 

9- Ilaucra^evou 8e tov YlpcoToyevovs, " opas," 

eiTTCV o TTaTrjp, " d) ^Avdepblcov, oti ndXiv kolvtjv 

TTOiovat TTjv VTTodecnv /cat tov Xoyov dvayKalov rjpuv 

C Tols ovK dpvovp,€VOLS ovSe (/)€vyovai* tov Trepi yd- 

fxov "KpcoTog elvac ^opevTals ; " 

^ Xf-yovTos Madvig : Xoyos. 

* Tpi-qKovTcav Winckelmann : rpii^Kovr^ a>v. 

' ereai Reiske : oStol. 

* avKas epivdCovres, o/x(^a/ca added by Hubert. 

* KaOeiadct) Tas G. Hermann : Kado aiadtjTai. 

* crxrjixa. Emperius : koI axvfia. 

' KeKadrjodw BE corrected by Stephanus. 

* Aa^oi] Aa^oi Apelt. * <f>evyovai Reiske : <j>evyeiv. 

o Works and Days, 696-698. 
330 



THE DIALOGUE ON L0\T:, 753 

words of Hesiod * if, though he says, 

No marriage much before the age of thirty. 

Nor much after it : this time's the ripe one ; 

Let a wife be matured four years, married the fifth — 

if, I say, we are going to join a green, immature man 
to a woman as many years older than he as the bride- 
groom should be older than the bride * — and so follow 
the example of those who artificially polUnate dates 
and figs.'' 

" ' Yes,' you say, ' for she's in love "\\ith him, she's 
all on fire.' Who, then, prevents her from making 
revel-rout to his house, from singing the Complaint 
Before the Closed Door,** from putting nosegays on 
his portraits, from entering the ring with her rivals ? 
These are the actions of true lovers. Let her lower 
her brow, renounce her easy life, and put on the dress 
of those who are in the service of passion. But if she 
is really modest and orderly, let her sit decently at 
home awaiting suitors, men with serious designs. Forif 
a woman makes a declaration of love, a man could only 
take to his heels in utter disgust, let alone accepting 
and founding a marriage on such intemperance." 

9. Protogenes stopped and my father said, " Do 
you observe, Anthemion, that they are again making 
a public issue of the matter, forcing a rebuttal from 
us who neither deny that we are devotees of conjugal 
love, nor seek to escape from our position ? " 

* See Einarson's explanation (Class. Phil, xlix, p. 278, 
n. 1) : marrying Bacchon to Ismenodora would be reversing 
Hesiod's 30 for the man and 17 for the woman, (C/. 754 d-e 
infra where Megara is 33 and lolaiis 16.) 

' Hubert's supplement seems just right in view of Mor. 
700 F supra and Theophrastus, De Causis Plant, ii. 9. 5. 

•* Songs like Horace, Carm. iii. 10 were not uncommon in 
ancient literature and life. 

331 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(753) " Nat^ ^a At"," eiTrev o 'Av^e/xta>v " a^ivv* ovv^ 8ta 
TrXetovoyv vvv avrovs rco^ ipdv en* he rep nXovrcp 
^OTjdrjcrov,^ w ixaXiara hehiTrerai Hetcrtas' rjixais." 

Tt S\" €L7T€V 6 TTarrjp, " ovK av ey/cAi7ju,a 
yevotro yvvatKos , et 8t' epcora /cat ttXovtov aTTop- 
piifjofxev ^lafirjVoScopav ; jSapeta yap /cat* irXovaia' 
ri 8' et KaXr^ /cat vea; rt 8' et' yevei cro^apa /cat 
evSo^os; at 8e aa)(f)pov€s ov 8ta to* avurrjpov /cat 
KareypvTTcopievov €7Ta)(des ovofia' /cat SvaKaprepr]- 
Tov exovai, /cat Iloivds"^" /caAouatv aura? aet" toi? 
D av8pacrtv 6pyi,t,op,evas ; ap"^^ ovv Kpariarov ef ayopa? 
ya/xetv ' A^porovov^' nva Qp-^aaav t] Ba/c;)^i8a MiAtj- 
crt'av aveyyuov" irTayoixevqv 8t' covtjs" /cat Kara^v- 
ajxdrcjjv •''^ 

'AAAa /cat rayrats' ta/xev oi3/c oAtyous atCTp^tara 
8oyAeuo-avTas". avXrjrpihes 8e Sa/xtat /cat opxf]- 
arpihes, 'ApLorovLKa /cat rvjJiTravov €-)(ova^ Otvdvdr) 
/cat 'Aya^d/cAeta 8ta87^ju.acrt ^aaiXecov eTre^rjaav. rj 
Se J^vpa TiepiipafiLS oLKorpL^os /^ev •i^i' ^aaiXiKov 
Q^pa-rraiva vraAAa/ceuo/xevTj • NtVou 8e tou fieyaXov 

^ val Wilamowitz : kol val. 
^ dfiw' ovv liernardakis : a/iw€i. 

* Tw added by Hubert. * In Wjitenbach : et. 

* ^o-qO-qaov Wyttenbach : Porjdriawv. 

* Kal] el Emperius. ' ei . . . et Leonicus : ij . . . 17. 

* ov Sid TO Wilamowitz : oi5Se. 

* ovofj-a added by Post to fill a lacuna. 

!• rioii'ds Hasel edition : neivas. ^^ aei Emperius : Kal. 

^^ dp' Post : oTt a(xi<l>povovaiv ; dp'. 

^* 'APpoTovov Life of Themistocles : 'APporovov. 

^* dveyyvov ^^'inckelmann : eyy^o^- 
1* KaTaxvafi-aTCDv Winckelmann : KaTecrvfifiaTcov. 

" There is probably a lacuna at this point. 

* The name and nationality of Themistocles' mother : Life 
of Themistocles, i (111 f). 

332 



THE DIALOGUE ON LO\"E, 753 

" Good Lord, yes," said Anthemion. " So now 
undertake against them a somewhat fuller defence 
of Love — and put in a word for Wealth, too, of which 
Pisias is making such use to frighten us." 

" What charge," asked my father, " ^dll they not 
bring against a woman if we are to reject Ismenodora 
because of her love and her wealth ? She does, in 
fact, live in grandeur and opulence. And what of 
that if she is beautiful and young ? \\'hat of her 
proud and eminent birth r . . ." Isn't it true that 
decent women have a name for being disagreeable 
and intolerable because of their severity and eagle- 
beak noses ? Aren't they nicknamed Furies because 
they're always angry with their husbands ? So the 
best plan is to marry a Thracian Habrotonon ^ or a 
Milesian Bacchis '^ from the market-place without 
benefit of ceremony and bring her home for a price 
and a shower of nuts.** 

" Yet we know a good many men who have been 
abject slaves of women like this. Samian flute-girls, 
ballet dancers, women like Aristonica * and Oenanthe 
with her tambourine and Agathoclea ^ have trampled 
on the crowns of kings. The Syrian Semiramis ^ was 
the servant and concubine of a house-born slave of the 
king, Ninus the Great, who one day caught sight of 

' Of Samos according to Athenaeus, 594 b, where the 
pleasant story of her friendship with Plangon is related. 

** Brides and new slaves were showered with nuts when 
first brought home. 

* Unknown ; perhaps a mistake for Stratonice (Athe- 
naeus, 576 f or Plutarch, Life of Pompey, xxxvi, 638 d). 

' Agathoclea was the mistress of Ptolemy IV {Life of Agis 
and Cleomenes, liv, 820 d) ; Oenanthe was her mother. The 
former had immense power (Polybius, xiv. 11. 5). 

» An account of this queen of Assyria will be found in 
Diodorus, ii. 20. 3 ff. 

333 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(753) paaiXecog evrv)(6vTos avrfj Kal arep^avros ovtcos 
eKparrjae kul Kar€(f)p6vrjcr€v war' d^icoaai Kal pilav 

E rjlJ-epav avrrjv TrepuSelv iv rip dpovcp Kade^oiJi€vr]v 
eyovaav to SidSrjfjia Kal ■)(p7]ixaTit,ov(jav . hovros 8' 
eK€LVov Kal KeXevaavros Ttavrag vTrrjperetv a)a7T€p 
avrcp Kat TreWeadai, jxerpiais exprjro rols Trpojrois 
eTTLrayp^acn, Treipoj/LtevT^ ra>v 8opv(f)6pcov Irrel 8' 
etopa /X7j8ev avriXiyovTas pL'r)h^ oKvovvras , eKeXevae 
avXXa^eZv rov Ntvov etra hrjaai, reXos 8' oltto- 
KTclvaf 'TTpa-)(devT(x)V 8e Travroiv, i^aaiXevae ttjs 
Aaiag eTTK^avcos ttoXvv xpovov. 

" 'H 8e BeXeartxr},^ Trpo's Ato?, ov ^dp^apov i^ 
dyopds yvvaiov, rjg Upd Kal vaovs 'AXe^avSpecs 
exovatv, eTTiypdijjavros 8t' epojra rov ^aaiXecos 

F ' AcfypoSLr-qs BeXearlxV^ '^ > r) Se avvvaos fxev iv- 
ravdol Kal avvlepos rov "Epcoros", iv 8e' AeA^ot? 
Kardxpvaos iarcoaa* jxerd rcov ^aaiXecjv Kal ^a- 
(TiAeiaiv, TTola irpoLKl rchv ipacrrcov eKpdrrjaev ; 

AAA' cooTTep €KeZvoi hi dadeveiav eavrdjv Kal 
/xaXaKiav eXadov ^avAoiv* yevofievoL Xeia yvvaiKcov, 
ovrco TrdXtv dho^oi Kal Trevqres erepoi rrXovaiais 
754 yvvaL^l Kal XafiTTpals avveXdovres ov hie<j)ddpr]aav 
oi38' v(f)rJKdv n rov <j>povrjp,aros , dAAa ri/ico^evoi 
Kai Kparovvres jLier' evvoiag avyKare^iwaav . 6 8e 
avareXXcov rr)V yvvaiKa Kal avvdyojv els fXLKpov, 
looTTep SaKrvXiov laxvos cov^ fir) rrepippvij SeSio)?, 

^ BcAeaTi^Tj Winckelmann : ^eXeoTi-q, 
^ BeXearixrjs Winckelmann : ^eXeariKrjs. 

* 8e added by Bernardakis. 

* earwaa Wyttenbach : 8' eoTaxya. 

* (jyavXojv added by Bolkestein to fill a lacuna. 

* SaKTvXiov iaxyos cSv Basel edition and Coraes : haKTvXwv 
Ixvos cov. 

334 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 753-754 

her and fell in love. She grew to have such power and 
such contempt for him that she asked to be allowed 
to direct the affairs of state, crowned and seated on 
his throne, for one day. He granted this and issued 
orders for everyone to serve and obey her just as they 
would himself. At first her commands were moderate 
while she was making trial of the guards ; then, when 
she saw that there was no opposition or hesitation on 
their part, she ordered Ninus to be seized, put in 
chains, and finally put to death. When all this was 
done, she ruled gloriously over Asia for many years. 

" Good heavens ! Wasn't Belestiche " a barbarian 
female bought in the market place, she to whom now 
the Alexandrians maintain shrines and temples dedi- 
cated through the king's love to Aphrodite Beles- 
tiche ? And that woman dowTi there ^ who shares a 
temple and worship \\ith Eros, whose gilded statue 
stands at Delphi with those of kings and queens, 
what dowTy had she to subjugate her lovers ? "^ 

"The men these worthless females exploited became 
their prey unwittingly through their own weakness 
and softness ; yet other men, though poor and obscure, 
have married rich and noble women and have not been 
destroyed or lost one particle of dignity ; they have 
enjoyed honour and exercised benevolent authority 
to the end of their life together. But the man who 
cramps and diminishes his ^vife (as a thin man does 
his ring for fear it may fall off) is like those who shear 

" One of the mistresses of Ptolemy II. 

* He points down to Thespiae. 

* Phryne of Thespiae shared Eros' temple there and dedi- 
cated a golden statue of herself by her lover Praxiteles in the 
precinct of Apollo at Delphi {Mor. 336 c-d ; 401 d ; Pau- 
sanias, x. 15. 1). 

335 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(754) ofxoios eari rot? aTTOKeipovai ras lttttovs elra trpos 
TTorafxov t) XifJiVTjv ayovai- Kadopcoaav yap eKo.ar'qv 
rriv eiKova rrjs oipecos oLKaXXrj /cat apiopjiov, d^teWi 
Ttt (f)pvdyixaTa^ Xeyerai Kal TrpoaSex^crdaL ras twv 
ovcov eTTi^daeis. 

TVXovTov 8e yvvaiKos aipeladat fxev irpo dperrjs 
7] yevovg dcfjiXoTi/Jiov Kal dveXevOepov, dperfj Se /cat 

B yeVet irpoaovra <j)evy€iv d^eXrepov. 6 fxev yap 
*Avriyovos (hxvpco^evo) ttjv Mouvi;^tav roi (f)pov- 
povvTL ypdcfxDV e/ceAet»e Troietv fir] p,ovov rov kXolov 
laxvpov dXXd /cat rov Kvva Xctttov, ottojs ixjiaipfj 
rds evTTopias rcov ^Adrjvatojv dvSpl 8e TrXovmas ^ 
KaXrjs ov 7TpoaTjK€L /xTjSe rr^v yvvalKa 770tetv dfxop- 
(f)ov rj 7T€VLXP0.v> aAA' eavTOV eyKpareia /cat (fipovqaei 
/cat TO) firjdev iKTreTrXrixdat rcov TTepi eKctvrjv laov 
Trapix^iv /cat dSovXojrov, warrep inl ^vyov poTTTjv 
TO) yjdet TTpoaridivra /cat ^dpos, i5</>' ov KpareiTai 
/cat dyerai St/caio)? dpia /cat* avpi(f)ep6vTO)9. 

" Kai p.r]v rjXtKLa ye Trpos ydfiov /cat cupa to 

C Tt/CT€tv e^ovaa /cat ro yevvdv evdppioaros eariv 
aKfjid^eiv Se tt^v yvvalKa 7Tvv6dvop.aL "' /cat a/ita 
Tip ITetcrta TrpoapeiSidaag , " ovSevos ydp," ^(prj, 
" TO)V dvTepacrTOJv rrpecT^VTepa, ov8' e^et TToAtas", 
a)a7T€p evLOL tiov Ba/c;^a>vi' TrpoaavaxpoyvvvpLevcov. 

€L 8' OVTOt Kad* COpaV OpilXoVGLy TL KOjXv€l /cd/Cftl^V 

iTTLfjieXTjdrjvai tov veaviaKov ^eXriov rjarLvoaovv 

^ <f>pvdy^aTa Basel edition : <j)pnid.yft,aTa. 
* hiKaicos dfia Kal Bemardakis : Kal to? dfia. 

336 



i 



THE DIALOGUE ON LO\'E, 754> 

their mares " and then lead them to a river or a pool : 
when the poor beast sees how she looks in the reflec- 
tion, ugly and unsightly, they say that she abandons 
her haughty airs and allows asses to mount her. 

" To choose a woman for her wealth rather than 
for her character or birth would be ignoble and base ; 
but if character and good breeding are added, it 
would be ridiculous to shun her. Antigonus,** to be 
sure, wTote to the commander of the garrison which 
had fortified Munychia that it wasn't enough to make 
the collar strong : the dog must also be made lean. 
This was in order to drain off the resources of the 
Athenians. The husband, however, of a rich or 
beautiful woman must not make her unsightly or 
poor ; rather by his o\vn self-possession and prudence, 
as well as by his refusal to be overawed by any of her 
advantages, he must hold his o^%•^l without serviUty. 
The extra weight of his character must turn the 
scales ; thus his ^\'ife is controlled and guided vrith 
as much profit as justice. 

Moreover, the right age and proper time for 
marriage are suitably matched as long as both parties 
are able to procreate. I understand that the lady is 
in the prime of life, for " (he added with a smile at 
Pisias) " she is no older than any of her rivals ; nor is 
her hair grey as is that of some of the gentlemen who 
try to give their own colour to Bacchon. If they are 
young enough to frequent his company, what is to 
hinder her looking after the young man better than 

" Aristotle, Hist. Animal, vi. 18 {o~-2 b 7); contrast 
Columella, vi. 35. 

* For the date and occasion see Tarn, Antigonus Oonatas, 
p. 126 and note 35. 

* evioi Tu)v 'Ba.Kxojvi Basel edition : eviat tcD;' ^olkxoiv. 

337 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(754) vea?; SvcrfjLiKTa yap ra via koI BvaKepaara Kal 
fioXis iv xpovo) TToXXw TO (f)pva'yfjLa Kal rrjv v^pt,v 
d<f>L7]aiv, iv dpxfj Se KVfiaivei Kal l^vyofiax^T Kal 
jjidXXov dv "Epco? iyyivrj-rai Kaddrrep^ TTvevfxa Kv^ep- 
D VTjTov p,rj TTapovTos erdpa^e Kal cuvep^ee tov ydpiov 
ovr* dpx^iv Swafievcov ovr^ dpx^adai ^ovXop^evojv. 

" Et 8' dpx^i' ^p€cf)ovs fxev 7) Tirdr) Kal TraiSo? o 
StSacr/caAos", i(f>'r]^ov 8e yvfjivaaiapxcs , epacrrrjs 8e 
fieipaKLOV, yevofievov S' ev i^At/cia vojxos Kal arpa- 
r7]y6g, ovhels 8' dvapKTos oj58' auTOTeAi^S", ri BeLvov 
el yvvrj vovv cxovaa Trpea^vrepa KD^epvrjaei veov 
^Lov dvSpos, ci^eAt/Aos" ju-ev ovaa rip cjjpoveiv fiaXXov 
'qSela 8e rep ^iXelv Kal Trpoarjvijs ; 

To 8' oXov," €(f)r], " Kal tov Hpa/cAea Bot- 
COTOVS dvTas e8et ae^eaOat, Kal fjirj Svax^patvetv Tip 
Trap' riXiKiav tov ydpiov, yiVioaKovTas otl KdKeZvos 
E TTjV iavTOV yvvaiKa Meyapav 'loAaoj ovvcpKiaev 
e/CKraiSe/faeVet tot' oVti Tpia Kal TpidKovT^ CTrj 
yeyev'qp.evrjv." 

10. ToiouTCOv Xoycov, 6 TraTrjp €(f)rj, rrapovTcov 
avToZs, iXdelv T(p^ IletCTia cTalpov Ik ttoXccos ctttto) 
deovTa, TTpdyp-a OavpLaoTov dTTayyeXXovTa TeroXpur]- 
jjievov. 

'H yap ^lap,rjvoBa)pa, (Ls eoLKev, avTOV p,€v ovk 
drjSws ex^iv olopevrj tov Ba/<:;\;a>va TTpos tov ydpLov, 
alaxvveadai Se tovs dTTOTpenovTas , eyvo) pirj npo- 
eadai to p^et-paKiov. Ta)V ovv <j)iXcov tovs pt,dXt,(TTa 
TOLS piotg veapovs Kal avvepcovTas^ avTTJ Kal tcov 

^ KaOdnep Xylander : Kal KaOdnep. 
* Tw Reiske : tov. * awepyovvras Naber, 

" Cf. Diodorus, iv. 31. 1 
388 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 754 

any young wife in the world ? It is true that young 
people find it difficult to fuse and blend well ^vith 
each other. Only after a long time do they abandon 
their stiffness and self-assertion. At the beginning 
they have stormy weather and struggle with their 
partners — and still more so if Love is involved. Just 
as a high wind upsets a boat without a pilot, so Love 
makes stormy and chaotic a marriage of two people 
who cannot both command and will not either of 
them obey. 

" The nurse rules the infant, the teacher the boy, 
the gymnasiarch the youth, his admirer the young 
man who, when he comes of age, is ruled by law and 
his commanding general. No one is his own master, 
no one is unrestricted. Since this is so, what is there 
dreadful about a sensible older woman piloting the 
life of a young man ? She will be useful because of 
her superior intelligence ; she will be sweet and 
affectionate because she loves him. 

" To sum up," my father said, " we are Boeotians 
and so should reverence Heracles and not be squeam- 
ish about a marriage of disproportionate ages. We 
know that he married his o'wn wife, Megara," aged 
thirty-three, to lolaiis, who was then only sixteen." 

10. It was at this point in the conversation, said 
my father, that a friend rode up from the city with 
his horse at a gallop bringing a report to Pisias of a 
surprisingly audacious occurrence. 

It seems that Ismenodora was con\dnced that, 
though Bacchon had no personal antipathy to the 
marriage, he was embarrassed by its detractors ; 
accordingly, she resolved not to let the young man 
escape. She summoned those male friends who were 
the most vigorous and most sympathetic to her pas- 

339 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(754) yvvaiKcbv ras avvijdeis ixeTaTreixijia^evrj /cat avy- 
Kporr^aaaa^ Trape^vXarTe rrjv wpav, rjv 6 BoLKXiov 
F edos etp^ev dmcbv e/c* TraXaiarpas Trapa rrjv ot/ctav 
avTTJs TTape^ievai KoajJiLcos. co? ovv rore Trpoarjei 
fj-era hvoTv rj rpioJv iraipcov dXrjXifXfjievos, avrrj fxev 
€7Ti ras dvpas diTrjVT'qaev rj 'lap,7]vo8a}pa /cat rijs 
xXafivSos ediye jjlovov, ol Se ^t'Aot KaXov /caAcD? iv 
TTJ ;^Aa)u,u8i /cat rfj 8t/8oAia avvapirdaavres els rrjv 
ot/ctav TraprjveyKav ddpoot /cat rag dvpas evdvs 
dTT€KXetaav . 
755 "A/xa 8' at /Ltev yuvat/ce? eVSov avrov to ;^Aa/>ti;- 
8tov d^apTTaaaaai Trepie^aXov Ifidriov vviJi(f)tK6v 
OLKerai, 8e nepl kvkXo) hpapLOvres dv€aT€^ov iXata 
/cat 8dcf>vr] rds dvpas ov piovov rds rrjs 'IcrjUT^voSco- 
pas dXXd /cat rds tov JiaK^iovos' rj 8' avXrjrpls 
avXovaa Ste^fjXde tov crTevcoTTov . 

TcDv 8e SeaTTteojv /cat twv ^evcov ol jxev iye- 
Xcov, ol 8' rjyavaKTOvv /cat tovs yvpivaoLapxovs 
TTapco^vvov dpxovai yap laxvpcos twv ic/yij^cuv 
/cat TTpoaexovai tov vovv a^ohpa tols utt' avTOiv 
7TpaTTO[jL€VOis. rjv 8e Xoyos ovdels tcov dycDVt- 
B t,opi€V(jL)Vy aAA' d(f)e.VT€.s to deaTpov eVt twv dvpcov 
TTJs ^lap.rjvoScopas ev XoyoLS rjoav /cat ^lXov€l- 
Kiais TTpos dXXrjXovs. 

11. 'Q.S ovv 6 TOV Iletaiou <f)iXos oiarrep ev tto- 
XepLO) TTpoaeXdaas tov Xttttov avTO tovto TCTapay- 
fievos elvev otl Ba/c;^ajv' rjpTTaKev 'lapiTjvoScopa, 
TOV fjiev 'Lev^LTTTTov 6 TTaTrjp e(f)7] yeXdaai /cat etVetv, 

^ ovyKpaTrjaaaa BE, corrected by Stephanus. 
^ eV Mittelhaus, Kronenberg : etV. 

" Rabinowitz would delete this last clause as a gloss. Why 
340 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 754^755 

sion, together -with the most intimate of her women 
friends, organized them in a discipUned group, and 
waited intently for the hour when Bacchon habitually 
left the palaestra and walked decorously by her 
house. On this occasion, freshly anointed, he ap- 
proached with two or three companions. Ismenodora 
met him at the door and had only to touch his garment 
when her friends handsomely snatched up the hand- 
some youth in his cloak and mantle, carried him in a 
body into the house, and immediately locked the 
doors. 

At the same time the women inside snatched off 
his cloak and put a wedding garment on him. The 
servants scurried about and WTcathed the doors with 
olive and laurel, not only Ismenodora 's doors, but 
Bacchon 's also ; and a flute-girl went out and piped 
her way down the lane. 

Now of the Thespians and their guests, some 
merely laughed, while others were furious and tried 
to stir up the gymnasiarchs, for these maintain a 
strict control over the young men and pay close 
attention to their acti\'ities.'' No one paid any more 
attention to the contests ^ ; everybody deserted the 
theatre and gathered about Ismenodora 's door, 
where they engaged in fierce debate. 

11. So when (continued my father) Pisias' friend 
had come galloping up as fast as though he were 
bringing a military dispatch and, in great excitement, 
had said no more than that Ismenodora had kidnapped 
Bacchon, Zeuxippus " began to laugh and, being a 

should Plutarch explain what a gymnasiarch is ? But he 
may have had personal knowledge that these officials were 
not everj'where so strict as at Thespiae. 

* Of harpists : see 749 c supra. 

' The friend from Sparta : see 749 b supra. 

341 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(755) are Srj /cai tpLXevpnTLBrjv ovra, 

ttXovtu) ;^At8a»cra dv7]ra 8', c5 yvvai, <j)p6vei^' 

rov he HetCTtav avaTTr]hri(yavra ^odv, " c3 deol, tI 
TTepas earai rrjs dvarpeTrovarjg rrjv ttoXlv rjixcov 
iXevdepias ; rjSr) yap et? avop-iav ra Trpdyixara Sid 
rrjs avTovofxlas jSaSt^et." Kalroc yeXolov laojs dy- 
C avaKT^lv Trepl vopLcov koL StKalcov, 77 yap (f)vais 
TTapavofjLelrai yvvacKOKparovfievr]. ri tolovtov rj 
ArjfjLVos; LOifiev rjfieLS, Xcjojxev," elirev, "oTToys Kal 
TO yvixvdaiov ralg yvvai^l jrapaSajfjiev /cat to ^ov- 
Xevr-qpiov, el Travrdrracnv r) ttoXis eKvevevpLarai." 
TTpodyovTos ovv Tov UeLGiov, 6 fjuev Ilpcx)Toyevr]s 
ovK dneXeiTTero rd fiev avvayavaKTcvv rd 8e 
TTpavviov eKeZvov. 

'0 8' 'AvdefXLCOV, " veaviKov fiev," €^17, " to 
ToXpLrjfxa /cat Arnxviov ws dX7]dcos, avTol ydp ea/xev,^ 
a(f)6hp' epayarjs yvvaLKos." 

Kat o HioKXapos VTTOfjieiStcbv, " otet ydp dpna- 

yqv," e(f)rj, " yeyovevat, Kal ^laafiov, ovk aTToXo- 

D yrj[jia /cat aTpaTTjyrjfjia veavta/cou* vovv exovTos, 

OTC Tds TU)v epaGTwv dyKaXas hia^vyojv e^rjvTOjJbo- 

Xr)K€v els x^t/Da? KaXfjs /cat TrXovaias yvvaiKos ; " 

" Ml) Xeye raur'," elrrev, " <h Scu/cAape, /mt^S' 
VTTovoei eVi Ba/c;^ajro?," o *Av6ep,L(ov " /cat ydp 

1 (j>p6vei Nauck : (jjpovels. 
^ ^ahit,ii.v BE, corrected by Xylander. 

' ia^iv Meziriaciis : ta/xev. 
* veavioKov Hartman : tov veavloKov. 

» Frag. 986 Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 678. 
* Where the women, by a concerted and synchronized 
eflfort, slew all the men : ApoUodorus, i. 9. 17. 

342 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 755 

great admirer of Euripides," recited : 

You revel in your wealth, madame : 
Keep thoughts upon a mortal plane. 

But Pisias jumped up and shouted, " Good heavens ! 
What end will there be to the licence that is sub- 
verting our town ? Now already self-government 
is on the way to anarchy ! Yet it niay be absurd to 
be protesting in defence of laws and statutes when 
it is the very Laws of Nature that are transgressed 
when women take over the state. Did even Lemnos 
see the like ? ^ Let's be off I " he cried. " Let's be 
off and hand over the gymnasium and the Council 
Chamber to the women since our city is by now 
completely emasculated ! " So Pisias rushed off and 
Protogenes trailed after him, partly because he shared 
his anger, partly to calm him. 

Anthemion remarked, " Such a bold stroke is 
certainly a strong action, really Lemnian '^ — we can 
admit it since we're by ourselves.** It shows the 
hand of a woman very much in love." 

Soclarus asked vrith a little smile, " Do you really 
think that it's a case of kidnapping and rape ? Isn't 
it rather the plausible counter-stratagem of a sensible 
young man who has slipped from the clutches of his 
lovers and deserted to the arms of a rich and beautiful 
woman ? " 

" Don't say such things, Soclarus," answered An- 
themion. " And don't be putting suspicion on 
Bacchon. Even if his character were not naturally 

* This time the reference has a sly twist and refers to the 
dalliance of the widowed Lemnian ladies with the Argonauts, 
the first gentry to visit their island since their bereavement. 

*' That is, the paederasts having departed, we can be frank 
and admit the worst : women in love may be dangerous. 

343 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(755) et fxrj cf)va€L tov rpoirov dTrAou? 17^ kol a^eXrjs, ifjue 
y ovK av a7T€Kpvi/jaTo, rwv r dXXcov^ /xeraStSous' 
aTTavTCov, ev re rovrois opwv Trpodvixorarov ovra 
rrjs 'la/JirjvoScopag ^oridov. "E/acuri 8e ' p^d^eadai 
XctXeTToVj' ov ' dvjjicp ' Kad' *Hpa/cAetTov * o ti yap 
dv deXiqarj, kol i/jvxyjs (hvelrai ' Kal ;\;pi7/LtaTa»v Kal 
Sd^'T^S'. 67761 Tt KoupLHorepov ^lajjLTjvoScLpag ev rfj 
TToXei ; TTOTe 8' elarjXdev rj Xoyos ataxpos ^ Trpd^ecos 
E VTTOvoia c/yavX-qg ediye rrjs oIk tag; aAA' eotice ^eia 
TL9 ovTws €lXrj(f)evat ttjv dvQpojTTOv eTTLTTVoia Kal 

KpCLTTCOV dvdpOJTTLVOV XoyifffJiOV." 

12. Kat d YieiXTTTLSrjs eTnyeXdaas, " dfxeXei Kal 
GcojJLaTos TLS," ^(f>'f], " voaos eariv, r^v lepdv KaXov- 
artv ovSev ovv droTTOV, et /cat 4'^XV^ "^^ pLaviKoiTarov 
Trddos Kal jxeyLGTOV lepov Kal delov eviot Trpoaayo- 
pevovaiv. 

Et^' wGTTep ev AlyvTTTCp TTOTe yeLTOvas ewpcov 
hvo 8iap,(/)i,a^riTovvTas , o^eios TrpoaepTTvaavros els 
TTjv dSdv, dijL(f)OTepa)v jxev dyadov 8at/xova KaXovv- 
Twv, eKarepov 8' e;!^6tv d^iovvrog to? t8tov qutws 
F opcbv vjJicov dpri rovs p-ev els rrjv dvSpcovlnv cXkov- 
ras TOV "EpojTa, tovs 8' et? ttjv yvvaiKcovLTiv , to?' 
vrrep^ves Kal delov dyadov, ovk eOavfia^ov el ttj- 
XiKavTr)v Svvap,LV eax^ xal tl/jltjv to Trddos, ols rjv 
npoarJKov e^eXavveiv avTO navTaxodev Kal KoXoveiv, 
VTTO TOVTOJV av^av6p,evov Kal aeixvvv6p.evov. a/art 

^ y' OVK av Meziriacus : yovv BE ; yovv ovk av Reiske. 

^ T aXXwv Xylander : reAcDv. 

3 oiy added by Meziriacus. 

S44 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 755 

simple and frank, he certainly wouldn't have con- 
cealed it from me, ynth. whom he shares every confi- 
dence. He sees quite well that in these matters it 
is I who am Ismenodora's warmest ally. It's Love 
that it's ' hard to combat,' not ' anger,' as Heraclitus " 
has it : ' whatever it wants, it buys even at the cost 
of one's life ' — and money and reputation, too. 
Where do you find better behaviour in the city than 
was Ismenodora's ? When did any ugly story ever 
enter her house or any hint of e\"il-doing ever leave a 
stain on it ? Yes, it's only too plain that some di\ine 
impulse, overpowering her common sense, has really 
taken possession of the poor mortal creature." 

12. And Pemptides ^ laughed and said, " There is, 
of course, a physical disease which they call the 
sacred '^ one ; so that there's nothing strange about 
it if some people call the greatest and most frenetic 
mental affliction sacred and divine. 

" Once upon a time in Egypt I saw two neighbours 
disputing about a snake that had sUthered on to the 
road. They both hailed it as a bringer of good luck, 
but each wanted to keep it as his own. Similarly, 
just now, when I observed both parties dragging off 
Love, some to the men's quarters, others to the 
women's, while both claimed him as a tremendous 
and divine blessing, I was not surprised that this 
passion had acquired all the power and respect that 
it has, since the very persons who should have been 
expelUng it from every nook and cranny and restrict- 
ing it were themselves magnifpng and exalting it. 

» Frag. 85 : Diels, Frag, der Vorsok.'' i, p. 170 ; cf. Mor. 
4.57 D ; Life of Coriolanus, xxii (224 c). 

* Since Pemptides has not been introduced before, there 
may well be an undetected lacuna in 749 b supra. 

' Epilepsy ; see Mor. 981 d and the note. 

345 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(755) fM€V ovv rjavxi-av rjyov iv yap ISlols {laXXov r) 

756 Koivols eojpcov rrjv diJicl)LG^'QTrjaiv ovaav vvvl 8' 

(XTrrjXXayixevos HeLciov, T^Seco? av v^icbv aKovaaiyLi 

TTpos ri jSAe^avres" aTre<j)'iqvavro rov "Epcora deov ol 

7Tpd)TOL TOVTO Xe^avTes." 

IS. Ylavcrapievov Se rov licfiTTTLSov /cat tov ttu- 
Tpos dp^afxevov tl Trepl tovtcov Xeyeiv, erepos rJKCv 
€K TToXecos, TOV ^AvdefjLLCova fieraTTefXTToiJievrjs rijs 
^lafXTjvoSwpag' eVeVeive yap rj rapaxT], Kal rcbv 
yvfxvaacdpxcov '^v 8ta(f}opd, rov fxev olofMevov SeZv 
TOV Ba/c;\;cova arraLTetv, tov 8e rroXvTrpaypboveZv ovk 
ioJVTog. 6 [X€V ovv ^Avdefxicov dvaoTus e^aSt^er. 

'0 8e TTaTrjp tov HcfXTTTLSrjv dvoixaoTL npoa- 
ayopevaas, " [xeyaXov p.oc Sokcls diTTeadaL," elnev, 
B " Kal TTapa^oXov vpayfiaTOS, w HepiTTTLSr], pidXXov 
S' oXcjos Ta dKLV7]Ta KLvelv Trjs Trepl decov ho^rjs rjv 
exppLev, TTcpl eKduTov Xoyov drraiTchv Kal dTToSei^iv 
dpK€L yap rj Trdrpios Kal TraXaid "niaris, rjs ovk 
ecrnv elvelv ot)8' dvevpeiv TeKfjbrjpLov evapyiarepov 

ovh^ el 8t' aKpas to ao(f>6v evprjrai (f)p€v6s,^ 

dAA' eSpa TL? avrrj Kal ^aaig v(f)eard)aa kolvt] irpos 
evae^etav , ectv e0' Ivos rapdrrr]raL Kal aaXevrjrai 
TO jSe)3aiov avrrjs Kal vevofjLLafievov, €Tna(f)aXri? yi- 
verai Trdaa^ Kal vrroTrros- 

^Akov€IS 8e Stjttov tov EuptTrtSi^v, ibs edopv^rjdrj 
TTOiriadpLevos dpx^v r-qg MeXavLTnrrjs iKeivrjv,^ 

"Levs, oGTLg 6 Zeus"/ ov yap olSa TrXrjv Xoytp, 

^ 8t' aKptov . . . (f>pevcjv Mss. of Euripides. 

* TTOfftt Volkmann : Trdai. ' iK€lvr}v Sauppe : eKeivrjs. 

* ocrris 6 Zeis added from Lucian (lov. Trag. 41). 

" Euripides, Bacchae, 203. 
346 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 755-756 

So I held my peace a while ago, observing that the 
dispute was more a matter of private than of public 
concern. But now that Pisias has left us, I should 
be delighted to hear from you what criterion those 
who first declared Eros to be a god had in mind when 
they made the statement." 

13. Pemptides had finished and my father had 
begun to answer when another messenger arrived 
from town with a summons from Ismenodora for 
Anthemion. The tumult, in fact, was growing worse 
as the gymnasiarchs disagreed, one holding that they 
should reclaim Bacchon, the other that they should 
not meddle. So Anthemion got up and set out. 

My father addressed Pemptides by name. " Pemp- 
tides," he said, " it is, I believe, a grave and dangerous 
matter that you are broaching ; or rather, you are 
altogether \iolating our inviolable belief in the gods 
when you demand an account and proof of each of 
them. Our ancient traditional faith is good enough. 
It is impossible to assert or discover evidence more 
palpable than this faith, 

Whatever subtle twist's invented by keen wit." 
This faith is a basis, as it were, a common foundation, 
of religion ; if confidence and settled usage are dis- 
turbed or shaken at a single point, the whole edifice 
is enfeebled and discredited. 

" You have no doubt heard what an uproar burst 
upon Euripides * when he began his Melanippe with 
this verse : 

Zeus, whoever he is, for I know him only by report. 

" Frag. 480; Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 510: from 
Melanippe the Wise. A good part of the prologue of this play 
has been recorded on a papyrus, including the amended line 
below. 

347 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(756) 

Q jxeraXa^ajv Se )(op6v^ dXXov (iddppei 8'" ai? eot/ce 

TO) hpdfxaTL yeypafjLijLevcp Trav-qyvpcKcos Kal vepn- 

rcos) rjXXa^e rov (ttl)(ov cos vvv ydypaTTrat 

Zeus", d)S XeXcKrat rrjs dXrjdeias vvo. 

Tt ovv Sta^epei rrjv rrepl rod Aios" So^av r) rijs 

Adrjvdg 7] rov "JLpcoros els dyu.^tj3oAov rco Xoycp 

diadai r) Kal dhr]Xov ; ov yap vvv alrel TrpdJrov 

jSoj/xov o "Epcu? Kal dvaiav ouS' CTrrjXvg €k rivos 

^ap^apiKrjs SeLatSaifxovLas , (Larrep "Arrai nves Kal 

AScovioi^ AeydjLtevot, 8t' dvSpoyvvcov Kal yvvai- 

Kcov TTapaBverai, Kpv(j>a* np-ds ov TTpoarjKovcras Kap- 

7Tovp.€Vos, ioore 7Tap€LGypa(f)7Js hiK'qv cfyevyeiv Kal 

D vodetas rrjs iv deols. aAA' orav 'E/^TreSo/cAeous' 

aKovcrrjs Xeyovros, cb iralpe, 

Kal (f>LX6r7]s ev rolat,v larj /ztjko? re TrAaTos" re, 
rr^v av^ voo) SepKev/ fJ'f]^* dp.p.acnv rjao red'qTTCos' 

ravr* oteadaL ^(pr) Xeyeadai nepl "EpojTos" ov ydp 
iarriv oparos dXXd So^aarog rjp.LV 6 deos ovros ev 
rots Trdvv rraXaiols' a)v dv irepl eKdarov r€Kp,ijpLov 
dTTairfjS, rravros drrropLevos lepov Kal iravrl ^copLO) 
ao^iariKr^v iirdycov TteZpav, ouSeV" d(JVKO(f)dvr'qrov 
oi)8' d^aadvLGrov dTToXeiipeis . 
** Woppco ydp ovK aTTeipLL 

rrjV 8' ^AcfipoSir'qv ovx opas ocrrj Oeos ; — 

^ 8e xopov Sauppe : 8i' ix6p6v. 

* 8' added by Bernardakis. 

' 'ABcovioi Bergk : dSajvaioi. 

* Kpv<j>a Basel edition : koI Kpv(f>a. 

* ail Xylander : aw. 

* hepK€v Clement of Alexandria (p. 653 Pott.) : SepKov, 

' ovSev' Hubert : ovSev. 

348 



THE DIALOGUE ON LO\'E, 756 

Well, he got another chorus (for he had confidence in 
the play, it seems, since it was composed in an ele- 
vated and elaborate style) and changed the verse to 
the present text : 

Zeus, as the voice of truth declares. 

" So what is to be gained by the use of argument 
to make our belief in Zeus or Athena or Eros de- 
batable or uncertain ? Love is not now requesting 
his first altar and sacrifice. He is no alien intruder 
from some barbaric superstition like certain Attises 
and Adonises, as they are called. He does not, as- 
sisted by hermaphrodites and women, smuggle him- 
self in to reap a harvest of honours to which he has no 
right, which would make him liable to indictment for 
illegal registration as a god, and bastardy. On the 
contrary, my friend, when you hear Empedocles " 
declaring, 

Among them Love is equal, far and wide ; 

I'se the mind's eye ; sit not with staring gaze — 

you must suppose that his verses apply also to Eros ; 
for though he is not visibly among the most ancient 
divinities, he is there conceptually. If you are going 
to demand a proof of each one of them, probing every 
temple and attacking each altar with sophistic assault, 
not a god will you exempt from malicious prosecution 
and inquisition. 

" Not to go farther, 

Do you not see how mighty is the goddess 

" Frag. 17. 20 f. " Plutarch is guilty here of gross mis- 
representation (or extreme irony) ; for the pronoun (' among 
them ') refers to the four roots, not the Olympians, while the 
verse itself is a statement of the pervasion of the roots by the 
force of Love and does not attribute to Love equality of rank 
with the Olympians " (Rabinowitz). 

34-9 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(756) ' ■178' ioTLV rj oTTeipovaa /cat SiSoucr' epov, 

oS -TTOLvreg eapiev ol Kara x^ov* eKyovoi.' 

E ' ^eiScopov ' yap avrrjv 'E/XTreSo/cAT^? ' evKapirov ' 
he Ho(f)OKXrjs eufxeXajs ttolvv Kal TrpeTTOvrws (hvo- 
fxaaav. dXX' 6pm>s to jieya rovro /cat davpLaarov 
'A(f}poSiT'r]s pev epyov "Epcoros' he Trdpepyov eariv 
^ A^pohirrj avpLirapovTOS' p/rj crvp,7Tap6vros he Kopn- 
hfj TO yivopievov dt,7)Xov diroXeiTreTai Kal 

d-TLpLov Kd^iXov. 

dvepaoTos yap opuXia Kaddtrep irelva /cat St</ra ttXt]- 
apLOvqv exovaa Trepas elg ovhev i^iKvelrai KaXov 
dXX Tj Beds "EpojTt Tov Kopov d(j)aipovaa rrjs rjhovrjs 
(/)LX6Tr)Ta TToieZ Kal avyKpaaiv. 810 Ilapp.evih'qg 
pL€v dTTo<j>aiveL TOV "E/acora tcDv ^ A^pohiTT]? epycov 
Trpea^vraTov, ev rfj KoapLoyovLO. ypd(f)(x)v 

F TTpcoTKJTOv pLev "KpcDTa Bedjv pLrjTiaaTO iravTOiV. 

'HaioSos 8e <f)vaiKd)T€pov epLol 80/cet TTOielv "Epojra 
rravTCDV TrpoyeveaTaTOV , Iva rrdvTa hi CKetvov /xcra- 
axil yeveaecDS. 

" *Av ovv TOV "Epcora t(Jl)v vevopnapLevcov Ti/xajv 

757 €K^dXXcop,€v, oj5S' at^ ttjs ^ A<jipohLT't]s Kara x^P^^^ 

p,evovaiv. ovhe yap rovr* ecrriv eiTrelv, on rw piev 

"KpcoTi Xoihopovvrai rives aTrexovrai 8'* eKeivqg, 

^ ouS' Ol Cobet : ovSe or ov8e ra. 
" anexovrai 8' Schellens : dAAa aTrexovrai. 

' Euripides, frag. 898. 1 (Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 
648) together with Hippolytus, 449-450. 

» Frag. 151 Diels {Frag, der VorsokJ' i, p. 370). 

350 



THE DIALOGUE ON L0\^, 756-757 

Aphrodite ? She sows and gives that love 
From which all we upon this earth are born." 

Empedocles * has called her ' giver of life ' and 
Sophocles '^ ' fruitful ' ; both epithets being perfectly 
just and apt. And yet this great and wonderful pri- 
mary function of Aphrodite becomes only a secondary 
task of Eros when he accompanies the goddess. If 
he is not present, what occurs is precisely a dreary re- 
sidue and becomes 

Unhonoured and without a friend. "* 

For intercourse without Eros is like hunger and 
thirst, which can be sated, but never achieve a noble 
end. It is by means of Eros that the goddess removes 
the cloying effect of pleasure and creates affection 
and fusion. This is the reason why Parmenides * 
declares that Eros is the most ancient work of Aphro- 
dite ; his words in the Cosmogony are 

And first of all the gods she framed was Love. 

But Hesiod,' in my opinion, was more scientific when 
he depicted Eros as the first-born of them all, in order 
to make him indispensable for the generation of all 
things. 

" If, then, we strip from Love any of his customary 
honours, even those given to Aphrodite will not re- 
main undisturbed. Nor is it in fact possible to affirm 
that there are some who rail at Eros without dis- 

" Frag. 763 (Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 310) ; cf. 
Mor. 144 B. 

^ Aeschylus, Choephoroe, 2^5. 

' Frag. 13 Diels {op. cit. i, p. 243). 

^ Theogony, 120 ; cf. Plato, Symposium, 178 b ; Sextus 
Empiricus, Adv. Phys. ii. 11, 18. 

351 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(757) dAA' arro jjuds crKrjvrjs a/couo/xev 

'Kpctjs yap dpyov kolttI^ rotourot? €<f>v 

Kal ttoXlv 

o) TratSe?, 17 rot KyTrpt?" ov YsAJirpis fxovov, 
dAA' can TToXXcov ovopbdrajv eVajvu/^o?.* 
eoTLV jxev "AiSrjg, eart 8' d^diros ^los* 
eariv Se Auaaa ixavids^- 

woTTep ovhk rCiv dXXcov deiov a^eSov dXoLSoprjTos 
oj38et? eK7T€<j)evye rrjv evXoiSoprjrov^ dp^adiav. gko- 
nei 8e rov "Aprjv Kaddrrep ev irivaKL ^oXkw rrjV 
avriKeijxevqv e/c hiapberpov ro) "E/scdti ^djpav e)(- 
ouTo' 7T7]XiKas elXrj-^e rt/xds" wtt' dvdpcoTrwv Kal 
TrdXiv oaa KaKcos d/couet, 

B TV(f)X6s y^P> ^ yvvaiKes, ouS' opcjv "Aprjs 

avos TTpoawTTCx) Trdvra rvp^dl^et /ca/cd, 

Kal ' pLi,at(f)6vov ' "Opirjpos avrov AcaAet Kal ' dAAo- 
TTpoaaXXov.' 6 8e ^pvaimro? e^rjyovpievos rowo/xa 
Tov deov Karrjyopiav Trotet /cat Sia^oXi^v' 'Avalp-qv^ 
yap etvai tov " Aprjv (f)r]aLV, dp)(ds SlSovs toZ? to 
[xaxi^TiKov ev rjfuv Kal hid<jiopov Kal dvpLoeiSeg 
"Aprjv K€KXrjadaL vop.il,ovaLV . ere pot 8' av (f>r]aovai. 
Tr]v *A(f)poSLTr]v eTTidvpLLav elvat Kal rov 'Kpp.rjv 
Xoyov Kal re^vas rds Moucras' Kal (f)p6vrjcnv r'r]v 

^ KaTTL Xylander : Kal em. 

* -q Tot Kwpis] added by Xylander from Stobaeus, 

* imovvfios Xylander : alruow^ios. 

* j8i'o? Bothe : ^I'a. 

* Havids Porson : iiavias. 

* euAoiSd/MjTov Meziriacus : dXoiSopjjTov. 

352 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 757 

paraging Aphrodite. Rather on the selfsame stage 
we hear 

Love is Idle and born god for idle men " ; 

and again 

My children, Cypris is not Cypris alone. 
But she is called by very many names : 
Hades she is and everlasting life. 
And she can be a raging Fury. '' 

In the same way practically none of the other gods 
has escaped unscathed the stupidity of those ready 
to slander. Look at the case of Ares who occupies 
a position diametrically opposite to that of Eros, as 
it were, on a design etched in bronze. Observe how 
great are the honours men give him and again how 
numerous are the invectives hurled against him : 

Ladies, Ares is blind and cannot see ; 

With swinish snout he churns up every evil. * 

Homer ^ calls him ' bloodstained ' and ' turn-coat.' 
Chrysippus' * explanation of the name is an accusa- 
tion and an indictment of the god. He declares that 
Ares means Anaires (assassin), which gives an opening 
to those who believe that the contentious, argumenta- 
tive, and spirited quahty inside us is called 'Ares.' 
Others ^ in their turn -will state that Aphrodite is 
merely desire and Hermes eloquence and the Muses 

» From the Danai of Euripides, frag. 332. 1 (Nauck, Trag. 
Graec. Frag. p. \o5) ; cf. 760 d infra. 

* Sophocles, frag. 855. 1-4 (Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 
p. 329). 

• Sophocles, frag. 754 (Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 
308) ; cf. Mor. 23 c. ■* Homer, Iliad, v. 31, 831. 

« Von Arnim, S. V.F. ii, p. 1094. 
' Especially the Stoics. 



' exovra Reiske : exovri, 
* 'Avaipriv Wilamowitz : dvat 



'Avot/wjv Wilamowitz : dvaipety. 
VOL. IX N S5S 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(757) *A9rjvdv. opas S'^ttov tov vTroXafx^dvovra ^v96v 
Q r)fj,ds ddeoTrjTos , dv els Trddr] Kal Svvd[ji€LS /cat 
dperds Siaypdcfxjjfiev CKacrrov rdjv decbv ; " 

14. " 'Opco," etTTev 6 He/jiTrTLSrjs, " dAA' ovre- 
Trddr) Tovs deovs TTOtetv oaiov ovr* av ndXtv rd TrdOrj 
Oeovs vofxl^eiv." 

Kat o TTorrip, " tL ovv," e</»7j, " rov "Aprjv, deov 
etvai vop,it,€LS rj irddos rjixerepov; " 

* ATTOKpLvafievov 8e tov YlefiTTTLSov deov rjyeladat 
TOV "Aprjv KoapiovvTa to OvixoeiSes rjp.a)v /cat dv- 
SpcDSe?, dvaKpaycbv 6 Trarryp, " etr'," e(j)r], " to 
fxev jxayriTLKov ^ c5 Ile/xTTTiST^, /cat TToXepuKov /cat 
dvTLTTaXov deov e^ei, to Se cfuXrjTLKov /cat kolvco- 
viKov /cat avveXevGTiKov ddeov cctti; /cat KTeivovTas 
fiev dpa /cat KTeivofxevovs dvdpcoTTovs dirXa t€ /cat 
D jSe'Ar^ Kal Tet;^o/xa;)^ia? /cat XerjXaaias eWt tls €<f)- 
opcbv /cat Ppa^evcov 6e6s 'KvvdXios /cat HTpaTios, 
TTodovGL^ Se ydfjLov /cat (f)(,X6T'qTos elg 6fio(f)poavv7]v 
/cat KOLVCovtav TeXevTc6ar]g ovSels decov pidpTVS oyS' 
ivtaKOTros ovS* rjyefKjbv r) avvepyos rjfuv yeyovev; 

'AAAa SopKdSas p-ev drjpevovai /cat Aayoioys" 
/cat eXd(f)ovs 'Ayporepa' tis avvemdcovacrei /cat 
avve^oppiS, deos, ev)(ovTaL S' ^ ApiaTaico hoXovvTes 
6pvyp,aaL /cat ^p6)(0LS Xvkovs /cat dpKTOvs, 

OS TTpcoTog d-qpecjaLV errrj^e rroSdypas ; 

6 8' * Hpa/cA':^? eTepov deov irapaKaXel p,eXXo}v em 

^ Hax^TiKov Reiske : TradrjTiKov. 

* TToOoCai W. C. H. : TrdOovs. 

* 'Ayporepa Winckelmann : dypoTepos. 

354 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 757 

the arts and Athena wisdom. You surely perceive 
the abyss of atheism that engulfs us if we hst each 
several god on a roster of emotions, functions, and 
virtues." ° 

14. " Yes, I do perceive it," said Pemp tides. " But 
if it is impious to identify the gods Math our passions, 
it is equally so, on the other hand, to consider our 
passions as gods." 

" Well now," my father asked, " do you believe 
Ares to be a god or an emotion of ours ? " 

Pemptides replied that he believed Ares to be a 
god who ordered the spirited and courageous element 
within us. " What is this, Pemptides ? " cried my 
father. " So the warUke, inimical, and antagonistic 
element has a di\inity, while the affectionate, sociable, 
coupUng impulse is to be left without a god ? When 
men slay and are slain, is there a god, Enyahos or 
Stratios, overseeing and presiding over their arms 
and arrows, their storming of towns and their dri\ing 
off of booty, but when they desire marriage and an 
affection that mil lead to concord and co-operation, 
is there no god to witness and direct, to lead and 
help us .'' 

" When men hunt roebucks and hare and deer, 
have they a goddess, Artemis Agrotera, to urge and 
haUoo them on ? Do those who trap wolves and bears 
with pits and nets pray to Aristaeus, 

Who first set snares for beasts ? * 

When Heracles makes ready his bow to shoot at the 

« Cf. M<yr. 360 a, 377 d. 

" A verse of unknown origin. It used to be referred to 
Callimachus by Schneider (frag. anon. 379) and others, but 
has not been aixiepted by PfeifFer. 

355 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(757) Tov opvLV atpeaOai ro ro^ov, cos AlcrxvXos (f)rjaiv, 

aypevs S' 'AttoAAcov 6p66v Wvvol^ jSeAo?; 

E dvhpl Se TO KaXXtOTOV iTTLX^ipovvri, di^pafia ^iXiav 
eXelv ovre deog ovre SatfjLcov aTrevdvvei /cat avv- 
e<f>d7TT€TaL rijs opfjurjs; 

Vjyo) [xev yap ovoe opvos ovoe /xopLas ovo rjv 
"Ojxrjpos ' ripLcpiha ' a€[xvvvcov TTpoaelTrev a-KaXXe- 
arepov epvos ovhk (jiavXorepov rjyovnai <j>vrov dv- 
dpojTTOv, (X) (f)iXe Aa(f)vdl€, ^Xaarrjaeois opp.'qv e^ovra 
hi,a(f)aivovaav a>pav^ /cat /caAAo? ajua acofiaros /cat 

15. Kat o Aa(f)valos, " TtV S' d'AAois","^ elTrev, 
c5 TTpos Tcov Oecov ; " 

UVTOL Vi] llL y ^'pf]y 7TaVT€S, O TTaTTJp, Ot 

vopiit^ovres dporov* /cat arropov /cat ^ureta? evrt- 
jLteAetav deois Trpocr-qKeLV. t) yap ov vvfic/jat, rtve? 
auTOt? SpvdSes elalv 

iCToSeVSpou* reKp^ap atcDvo? Aa;;^otCTat*' 
JT SevSpecov he vop.ov^ Aiovvaos TToXvyad'qs^ av^dvei, 
<f)€yyos dyvov oTTiopas 

Kara Uivhapov ; [xeipaKtcov S' apa /cat TraiScov iv 
a)pa /cat av^et TrXarTopLeviov /cat pvdp^L^ofievcov rpo- 

^ €v6woi Nauck. 2 a>pai> Reiske : d)pa. 

* aXXojs Leonicus : aXXos. 

* dporov Xylander : aporpov. 

* iVoSeVSpou Reiske : taov SevSpov. 

^ Xaxoiaai Heyne : Xaxovaai. 

' vofiov Boeckh : rpoTrov. 

* iToXvyaOrjs Wyttenbach : voXv re if>eyyos. 

356 



THE DIALOGUE OX LOVE, 757 

bird, does he invoke another god to help him, as 
Aeschylus " says. 

May Hunter Apollo guide my shaft aright ? 

But when a man sets out to catch the fairest prey,'' 
namely affection, does no god or spirit lead him 
straight and second his efforts ? 

" As for me, no oak nor sacred olive nor that vine 
which Homer " exalts ^\"ith the epithet ' cultivated ' 
seems to me a gro^v'th superior in beauty and value 
to the himaan plant,** dear Daphnaeus, since its vital 
force of groA\i:h reveals a youthful beauty that be- 
longs to soul and body alike." 

15. "In heaven's name," said Daphnaeus, " who 
could think other^^ise ? " 

" Why, in heaven's name," said my father, " just 
these very men, all of them believe that agriculture 
— ploughing, sowing, planting — merits the gods' at- 
tention. Don't they have certain tree nymphs, to 
whom is 

Allotted a term of life as long as the years of a tree — 
Dionysus exultant gives increase to the orchard. 
Holy light of the fruit-time, 

as Pindar * says ? But the case is otherwise, of 
course, with boys and striplings : when they are at 
the ripening and flowering season and are being 
shaped and educated, it is the office of not a single 

" From the Prometheus Lyomenos, frag. 200 (Nauck, Trag. 
Graec. Fraq. p. 67) ; so " the bird " is Prometheus' vulture. 

" Cf. Plato, Ixiics, 823 b. 

" Homer, Odyssey^ v. 69. 

"* Cf. Mor. 400 B, which quotes Plato, Timaeus, 90 a. 

« Frags. 184, 171 ed. Turyn (168, 140 Bowra ; 165, 153 
Schroeder ; frag. 153 Sandys, L.C.L., who prints only the 
second and third lines) ; cf. Mor. 365 a, 415 d, 745 a supra. 

357 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(757) (fxu /cat av^-qaeis ovSevl dewv t] Satfxovojv tt/joct- 

rjKOVGLV, OuS' €GT(,V cb /LAcAet^ (jiVO^eVOV dvdpCOTTOV 

758 etV dpeTrjv opdov iXdelv Kal fjurj TTaparpaTTrjvat /xTySe 
KXaadrjvai to yevvatov eprjixta KTjhepLovos rj KaKia 
rwv TTpoarvyy^avovTcov; 

H Kal TO Xeyeiv ravra SeLvov iari /cat a;^apt- 
OTOV, OLTToXauovrds ye^ rou deiov rov ^tXavd paiTTOv 
TTavra^ooe vevejxr^piivov /cat p,rjhapLov TrpoXetTTOvros 
ev ■)(peiais, cSv avayKaiorepov eVtat to reAos" "^ /caA- 
Atov exovaiv; wanep evdvs rj nepl ttjv yeveaiv rjjxcbv, 
OVK €V7Tp€7Trjs ovaa St' at/xuTO? /cat a>8tVa>v, o/xcog 
€)(^t delov eTTLGKOTTov EtAet^utav /cat Ao;)^etav iyv he 
7TOV 117] yeveudai,^ KpelTTOv rj yeveaOac KaKov, afxap- 
TavovTa KTjSepLovos dyadov /cat cf)vXaKos. ov fjirjv 
B oj)8e voaovvTos dvdpcoTTov deos aTroararet ttjv rrepl 
TOVTO xpeiav /cat Svva[XLV elXr)X(os, aAA' ouS' (xtto- 
davovTos' koTi he rt? eK€LVov* KOfiiaT'qp evdevhe /cat 
ayo^yos"^ tcDv* ev re'Aet yevofievcov KaTevvaaTrjg /cat 

IpVXOTTOpiTTOS etS" nAoUTOIVOS",' 

ou yap jLte Ni)^ ert/cre heaTTOTrjv Xvpas, 
OV jxdvTLV ovh^ laTpov, aAA' rjyrjTopa^ 
ifivxa-Z?. 

/cat ra rotaura TroAAa? e;Yet hvax^p^^as. 

'E/cetVou 8' oi)/c ecTTiv elTrelv epyov lepcoTepov 



t < > I 



^ /xe'Aei Xylander : /xe'AAei. ^ ye Reiske : re. 

^ yeveadai, Berjiardakis : yiveaOai. 

* eKeivov Post : e/cei. ^ dycuyos Xylander : apoiyos. 

* ru)v added by Post. 

' els TlXovTMvos Post : utanep ovtos. 

* dAA' riyi^Topa Valckenaer : dAAa dvrjTov dfia. 

" Cf. Life of Ntttna, iv (63 a-b). 
» Cf. Mor. 496 b. 



358 



THE DIALOGUE ON LO\TE, 757-758 

god or di\inity to sustain and promote their progress " ; 
nor is there a god whose care it is that a man grows 
straight in the direction of \irtue with no deviation 
or crushing of the main stem of excellence through 
lack of a protector or by the \iciousness of those he 
encounters. 

" Is it not, moreover, shocking and ungrateful of 
them to say such things, especially as they continue 
to profit by divinity's love for man, which is every- 
where dispensed and at no point fails him in his 
needs, even though some services are necessary 
rather than decorous ? For example, there is the 
ser\-ice connected with parturition which, -with its 
accompaniment of blood ^ and travail is no lovely 
thing, yet enjoys the di\ine supervision of Eileithyia 
and Locheia. It might, in fact, be better not to be 
born at all than to be born defective for lack of a 
good guardian and protector. Deity does not aban- 
don man even when he is sick : there is a special 
god '^ whose mission it is to bring help and strength 
at such a time. Not even when a man dies is he for- 
saken : there is a god who cares for him and leads 
him to the other Avorld, who is for the dead a lord of 
repose, an escort of souls to Pluto's realm '^ : 

Night did not bear me lord of the lyre 
Nor yet seer or physician, but to be a guide 
Of souls. 

These matters, too, involve many disagreeable fea- 
tures." 

" Love, on the other hand, has a function as holy 

' Asclepius. 

" Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 916, Adespoton 405. The 
god is Hermes. 

• The crude ugliness of birth and death. 

359 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(758) ou8' ajLitAAav erepav ovS^ dycova deep TrpcTretv fiaXXov 
i(j)opdv Kal ^pa^€V€iv rj rrjv Trepl rovs KaXovs Kat 
(LpaLovs empieXeiav rcbv ipcovrcov /cat Stco^iv ovSev 
yap iariv alaxpov ov^^ dvayKaXov, dXXd TreLdd) Kal 
X^pi-S ivStSovaa ' ttovov rjSvv ' (hs dXrjdcos ' Ka^ia- 
C Tov t' evKafJuarov '^ v^r]yeZraL Trpos dperrjv Kal 
0tAtav, ovV ' dvev deov ' to TrpoarJKov re'Ao? Aa/x^a- 
vovaav, ovr' dXXov e^pvaav rjyepLova Kal SeaTTorrjv 
deov dXXd TOV M.ovacbv Kal Xaptrcov /cat A^poStrrj? 
eTalpov "Epoira. 

yXvKv yap depos dvhpos VTroGTreupcov TrpaTrihoiv 

TTodtp 

/cara tov yieXavLTTTrtSrjv , ra T^Stcrra piiyvvaL tols 
KaXXiGTOLS' ^ TTCus," '^(^f] , " Xlyoj^iev,^ (L Zeu^- 

tTTTTC; " 

16. Kd/cetvos", " ovtcjos," ^<f>f], " vrj Ata TravTo? 
jxaXXov OLTOTTOV yap d/xe'Aet TovvavTiov." 

" 'E/cetvo §'," o TTaTiqp, " ovk aTOTTOv," elrrev, 
" el Teaaapa yevq ttjs ^tAia? e)(ovar]s, ayorrep ol 
D 77aAatot hiiLpLoav, to (jivaiKov TrpoJTOv eiTa to ^evL- 
kov^ enl TOVTCx) Kal TpiTov to eTatpiKov /cat TeXev- 
TaZov TO epcoTLKov, e)(^L tovtcov e/cacTTOV eTVLaTaTrjv 
deov rj ^iXiov rj ^eviov •^ opboyviov /cat TraTpcpov 
jxovov Se TO epcoTLKov cjoTTep hvaiepovv dvocnov* 

^ J evKOLfiaTov added by Person (c/. 467 d ; 794 b). 

^ Xeyoifiev Hatzidakis : Xeyofj-ev. 

' ^eviKov Madvig : avyyeviKov. 

* dvoaiov Reiske : avoaov. 

" Euripides, Bacchae, 66 ; cf. Mor. 794 b ; Commentarii 
in Hesiodum, 48 (Bernardakis, vol. vii, p. 75). 

360 



1 



THE DIALOGUE ON L0\^, 758 

as any you could mention, nor is there any contest 
or competition more fitting for a god to preside over 
and imipire than the pursuit and tendance by lovers 
of handsome young men. Here there is no ignoble 
compulsion ; instead persuasion and favour, prompt- 
ing truly 

A labour sweet, a toil that is no toil," 

leads the way to \irtuous friendship. Not 

Without a god * 

does such friendship attain its proper goal, nor is the 
guide to it, to whose dominion it belongs, any other 
god than Eros, companion of the Muses, the Graces 
and Aphrodite. For it is he who, in the words of 
Melanippides," 

Sows secretly a delightful harvest 
In the desire of man's heart, 

mingling what is most pleasant \\'ith what is best. 
Well, Zeuxippus," he said, " is this what we mean ? " 

16. " Heavens, yes," said the other. " Exactly 
right. The contrarv' would be quite absurd." 

" And would not this also be absurd," asked my 
father, " if in the four classes of friendship that the 
ancients distinguished : blood kinship, hospitality, 
comradeship, and love, the first three of these should 
have as their patron a god, of comrades or guests or 
clan or family, and that only love should be ignored 
as though it were profane ** and unsuitable for a god's 

' Homer, Odyssey, ii. 372. 

' Frag. 7 (ii, p. 154 Diehl ; Edmonds, Lyra Graeca, iii, 
p. 238). 

** On the corruption of this passage see Bolkestein, Mnemo- 
synS, iv (1953), p. 304. 

361 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(758) Kol aSeavoTov d^etrat, /cat ravra TrAeiCTTi^s €7rt- 
/xeAeta? /cai KV^epvqaecos Seofxevov ; " 

" ''E;^et Kal ravra," 6 7j€V^L7T7tos €17T€v, " ov fxi- 
Kpav aXoyiav."^ 

AAAa p^riv, o rrar'qp ecprj, ra ye rov 
nActTCOvo? irrLXd^oLr* av rov Xoyov Kal Trape^Lov- 
ros' pLavia yap rj p,ev drro ao) pharos enl ijjv)(rjv 
dvearaXp,ev7j hvoKpaaiaiS naiv r) avp^pui^eaiv rrvev- 
p,aros* pXa^epov 7T€pi(j)epopLevov rpa^ela Kal yaXerrrj 
E Kal voadihrjs' erepa 8' earlv ovk ddeiaaros oyS' 
ot/coyevT]?, aAA' enrjXvs eTTLTrvoia Kal Traparpovr] 
rov Xoyit,opiivov Kal (jtpovovvros e/c' Kpeirrovos 8v- 
vdp,ecx}s dpx'f]v e^ovaa Kal Kivrjcnv, rjs ro ju-ev kolvov 
ivdovaiaariKov KaXelrai rrddos' cos yap ep^TTVovv 
ro TTvevptaros TrXrjpcodev €p,(f)pov Se ro (fipovrjoecDS , 
ovrojs 6 roiovros adXos^ i'^XV^ evdovaiaupios d>v6- 
pLaarai picroxfj Kal Koivcovca deiorepag SwdpLCcos. 
^Eivdovaiacrpiov 8e ro pbavriKov i^ ^AttoXXcovos 
eTTiTTVoias Kal KaroxTJs, ro Se ^aKx^lov €k Alovvgov, 

Kdnl KupjSavTfCTt ;\;op6UcraT€, 

(f)r]al So^o/cAtJs" ra yap p,r]rpa>a Kal Travt/co, Koivco- 
F vet rots ^aK^LKols 6pyi.aap.ols. 

' Tpirrj 8' aTTO Moycroji/ Xa^ova* aTraXrjV Kal 

^ ov fiiKpav dXoyiav G. Hermann : ov firiv aXXorpLav. 

" ye Wji;tenbach : re. 

' TTapeiiovros Winckelmann : Trape^iovra. 

* TTvevfiaros Reiske : rj irvevfiaTos. 

* eV Sandbach : dpxrjv. 
' CToAos Basel edition : XdXos. 

« Phaedrus, 244 a ff. ; 265 a. 

* Quoting Plato, Republic, 503 a. 

' This passage is a synopsis of Plato, Timaeus, 86 e — 87 a. 

362 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 758 

protection — and this when above all others it needs 
surveillance and guidance ? " 

" Yes," said Zeuxippus, " that would be very il- 
logical." 

" But," my father said, " Plato's " doctrine might 
help in the discussion at this point, though it is a 
digression.* There is one form of madness that rises 
from the body to the soul : when a noxious exhalation 
is put into circulation as a result of distempers or 
commixtures of a certain sort, a madness ensues 
that is savage, harsh, and diseased.*' There is a 
second kind, however, which does not exist \vithout 
divine inspiration. It is not intrinsically generated 
but is, rather, an extrinsic afflatus that displaces the 
faculty of rational inference ; it is created and set 
in motion by a higher power. This sort of madness 
bears the general name of ' enthusiasm.' For just 
as what possesses breath mthin it is called ' breath- 
ing ' and what has sense is called ' sensible,' just so 
this kind of agitation in the soul has been named 
' enthusiasm ' because it shares in and participates 
in a power that is divine."* 

" There are several kinds of enthusiasm : the 
prophetic comes from the inspiration and possession 
of Apollo ; the Bacchic from Dionysus — 

Dance after the Corybantes, 

says Sophocles,* for the festivals of Cybele and Pan 
have much in common -with the Bacchic revels.^ 

The third kind comes from the Muses. It takes 

** En-thusiasm is derived from erUheos, " having a god 
within." 

« Frag. 778 (Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 313). 

f See now Dodds, The Greeks and the Irratwnal, pp. 78 
and 96, note 92. 

363 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(758) a^arov ifivx^v ' ro ttoltjtlkov Kai ixovglkov e^utp- 
{jbTjae Kal aveppiTnaev . rj S' dpeifidvLos^ avrr] Xeyo- 
fievrj Kal TToXepbiKT] Tvavrl StjAov otoj* deCov^ dvUrai 
Kal paKxeverai 

dxopov* oiKidapiv SaKpvoyovov "Aprj 
^odv t' evSrjfxov e^oTxAt^oucra.* 

759 " Aei-neraL 8e t^s" i^aXXayrjs iv dvdpwTTCp Kal 
TTaparpoTTrjs ovk dfjuavpov ouS' -^avx^uov, c3 Aa^vate, 
pLopiov, vTTep ov ^ovXop,ai rovrovl YlefjLTrrlS'qv epe- 
adai . . . 

rig KaXXUapvov^ dvpaov dvaaeUi decbv, 

Tov <j}i,XrjTiK6v TOVTOV TTcpl TTatSa? dyadovs /cat aco- 
(f)povag yvvatKas ivdovataafxov ttoXv SpL/jLvrarov 
ovra Kal depfxoraTOv; 

" *H yap ovx opas, d)s 6 [xev aTpaTKorrjs rd 
OTvXa dels TTeTTavrai ttjs TToXe^iLKris jxavLas, 

TOV [lev eTreira 
yrjdoavvoL depdirovres (xtt' ojfJLwv rev^^^ kXovro, 

Kal Kddrjrai rcov dXXojv arroAejU-o? dear'qs, ravrl he 
rd ^aKXLKa Kal Kopv^avriKa aKiprripiara tov pvd- 
B [jLov fieTa^dXXovTes eV Tpoxo.iov Kal to [xeXos €K \ 
^pvyiov Trpavvovai Kal KaTaTravovaiv , dis S' auroj?/! 
7] Ilu^ta TOV TpLTToSos eK^doa Kal tov TTvevpbaTOS 

■^ apeifiavios Xylander : dpifidvios. 

* oTw Wyttenbach : ort tco. 
^ deiov Bernardakis : dew. 

* dxopov Winckelmann from Aesch. Suppl. 681 : dxapiv. 
^ aKidapiv . . . i^onXilovaa Porson : aKidapiv aK 3—4 BE 

yovov ap 4 E 6 B rare (rare B) S^/xov i^oirXi^ovcrav. 

* tCs KoXXiKapTTov Winckelmann : ti . . . Kapnov. 

364 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 758-759 

a pure and virgin soul,' " strikes a spark in it and 
fans it into a blaze of poetic and musical creation. 
As for that kind which is called ' mad with Ares ' '' 
and is concerned with war, everyone knows which of 
the gods it honours in its frenzied inspiration : 

It calls Ares to arms, the stranger to dance and lyre, 
The sower of tears ; it rouses cries of civil war. * 

" There remains within the class of mutations and 
aberrations that man is subject to yet another kind, 
Daphnaeus, that is neither inconspicuous nor qui- 
escent. I have a question about it to put to Pemptides 
here . . , <* 

Which god shakes the thyrsus of fair fruits « — 

this enthusiasm which arouses affection for virtuous 
boys and chaste women, which is much the fiercest 
and warmest of all our enthusiasms ? 

" You have observed, have you not, that as soon 
as the soldier lays down his arms he is relieved from 
the madness of war — 

And then his joj'ful servants 
Stripped the armour from his shoulders ' 

he sits still, an unwarlike spectator of everything 
else. Likewise in Bacchic orgies and Corybantic 
revels the dance grows milder and comes to rest 
when the musicians switch from the trochaic rhythm 
and the Phrygian mode. In the same way the Pythia 
regains calm and tranquillity once she has left her 

" Plato, Phaedrus, 245 a. 

• Perhaps there is also a reference to Ahriman, the spirit 
of evil in Zoroastrianism ; cf. Mor. 369 e, 1026 b. 

• Aeschylus, Supplices, 681 f. 

"* There is a short lacuna in the mss. at this point. 

• Xauck, op. cit. p. 917, Adespoton 406. 
' Homer, Iliad, vii. 121 f. 

365 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(759) €v yaXT^vT) Kal -qavxia StareAet; T17V S' ipcoriKTjv 
^ai/iav Tov dvdpcoTTov KadaifjafJievTjv dXrjdcog Kal 
oiaKavaaaav ov fxovad rig ovk iTTcvSrj deXKrijpios 
ov TOTTov fiera^oXr) KaOiaTrjaiv dXXd Kal Trapovres 
epaJCTL Kai arrovres TTodovat Kal fMeO^ r]fj,epav Stcu- 
Kovat /cat vvKTcop dvpavXovoL, Kal vri<f>ovTeg KaXovat 
Tovg KaXovs Kal 7tlvovt€s aSoucrt. 
C " Kat ov)( CO? TLS etrrev at TTOirjriKal ^avraaiai 
hid Trjv evdpyeiav^ iyprjyoporcov ivvTTVid elaiv, oAAd 
jxaXXov at Tcbv ipcovrojv, SiaXeyopievcov cos rrpos 
TTapovras, daTTat,opievo}v, iyKaXovvrcov . tj yap 
oipLS eoiKC rag /Ltev aAAa? (f)avraaia'5 e^' vypols 
^coypacf>eLV, ra^v p.apaLVop.evas Kal dTToXenrovaas 
TT]V SidvoLav at Se tcov ipcofxevcov eiKoves vtt' 
avrrjs olov iv iyKavfjiaai ypa(f)6fjievai 8ia TTvpos 
etScoAa rat? ixvq/jiaLS ivairoXetTTovaL Kivovfieva Kal 
t,6i>vra Kal (fideyyofieva Kal Trapafievovra tov dXXov 
Xpovov. 

*0 jLtev yap 'Poi/xatos' K-drcov eXeye ttjv ijjvx^v 
TOV epoJVTOs ev^LaLTaadaL tjj tov epcopievov' . . . 



^ evapyeiav Victorius : ivepyeiav. 



" Euripides, Hippolytus, 478. 

' Something of the sort (though " hopes," not " poetic 
fancies ") is attributed to Pindar by Stobaeus, iv. 47. 12 ; to 
Plato by Aelian, Varia Hist. xiii. 29 ; and to Aristotle by 
Diogenes Laertius, v, 18. See also Plato, Epistle viii (357 d). 

" Plutarch is presumably thinking of fresco painting 
which, if not reinforced, seems to have faded quickly ; doubt- 
less he had seen many ruined frescoes in his day. Others 
translate " on water," recalling such passages as Sophocles, 
frag. 741 ; Plato, Phaedrus, 276 c ; Catullus, Ixx. 4. 

<* C/. Life of Cato Maior, ix (341 c). 

366 



THE DIALOGUE ON L0\^, 759 

tripod and its exhalations. In erotic madness, how- 
ever, when once it has really seized upon a man and 
set him on fire, there is no reading of literature, no 
' magic incantation,' " no change of environment, 
that restores him to calm. He loves when present 
and longs when absent, pursues by day and haunts 
the door by night, summons his lad when sober and 
sings his praises while he drinks. 

" Someone ^ has said that the images entertained 
by the poetic imagination, because they impose 
themselves so vi\-idly, are dreams of those wide 
awake ; but this is much more true of the images 
entertained by the imagination of lovers who speak 
to the beloved and embrace him or chide him as 
though he were present. For our sight seems to 
paint its other pictures on wet plaster <= : they fade 
away quickly and slip from mind ; the images of the 
beloved, however, burned into the mind by sight, as 
if using encaustic technique, leave behind in the 
memorj' shapes that move and live and speak and 
remain forever and ever. 

" Roman Cato <* declared that the soul of the lover 
is ever present in that of the beloved . . .« form, 

« There is a lacuna at this point, though it is not indicated 
in the mss. 

Rabinowitz thinks that this corrupt passage has conceptual 
affinities with Plato, Phaedrus, 252 e — 253 b, and has some- 
what the following meaning : 

" That is to say, the form {to ethos) or character of the 
beloved — his way of life, his actions — affect (note roS Trddovs 
below) the soul of the lover and lead him to achieve a lengthy 
journey in swift compass. As the Cynics say, he comes to 
discover that the passage to virtue is ' strenuous and short at 
the same time.' For the soul of the lover proceeds first to 
friendship and then to virtue, moving swiftly, as it were, on 
the wave of affection with the god's help." 

367 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(759) 

T) /cat TO etSos /cat to -^dos /cat o jSto? /cat at Trpd^eig, 

v<f)^ <x)v dyofxevos ra^v avvaipel TToXXrjv 686v, wanep 

ol K.VVIK0I Xeyovat ' avvrovov ofiov /cat avvrofiov 

evprjKe rr]v^ iropeiav eir* dperijv '• /cat yap Inl ttjv 

<f)LXiav . . . KadoLTTep €77t KV[xaros rov ttolOovs dfia 

deo) (f}€pop,4v7]. 

" AeycD Srj K€(f)dXaLov, oi? ovr* ddeiaarov 6 rci)v 

epcovTcov ivdovataafios iartv ovt* dWov e;\;et Oeov 

eTTiaTdrr^v /cat r]VLO)(ov rj tovtov, (L vvv ioprd^op-ev 

/cat dvofjiev. 

" "O/Ltaj? S' iirel^ Sum/xet /cat uxjieXela pudXiara 

deovs SLaKpLVOjxev^ Kadori /cat rwv dvdpcoTrivoiv 

dyada)v 8vo ravra, ^aaiXeiav /cat aperi^v, deioTara 

E /cat vofiL^ofxev /cat ovofid^ojxev, cjpa aKOTreiv Trpo- 

repov, €1 TLVL deojv 6 "EipcDS u^terai SvvdfiecDS. 

/catTot 

fxeya p.ev adevos a KuTrpt? e/c^eperat viKas, 

t5? ^T^CTt /cat llo(f)OKXrjg, fJLeydXrj 8' -j^ tou "Apeos 
laxvs' /cat rpoTTov rtva tcDv aAAcov ^ecor vevejjLTjfie- 
VTjv* Slxo. ttjv SvvafiLv iv tovtois opaJpLev rj puev 
yap oiK€i,coTiK7] irpos to koXov t] S' dvTLraKriKT] 
TTpos TO alaxpov apx^jd^v iyyeyove Tat? ipvxcu?, cjs 
TTOV /cat riAaTotr* . . . TCt etSi^. aKOTTcopbev ovv 
€v6vs, OTt Trj? 'A^poStTT^s- Tovpyov epcoTos nrj Trap- 
ovTos^ a)Vi6v iaTL Bpaxp^yj^, /cat ouTe ttovov ovhels 

^ evprjKe rr/v Rabinowitz : evprjKevcu. 

* irrel Meziriacus : eVi. 

^ fleovj SiaKpivo/jLev supplied by Bernardakis to fill a lacuna : 
deov. 

* vevefi-qfjLevrjv Meziriacus : vevefirjixevcDv, 

* A lacuna in which Wyttenbach would supply SictAe rijs 
i/ivxijs. * fiTj irapovros added by Bernardakis. 
368 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 759 

character, way of life, and every act. By these he is 
led to make a long journey \vith great swiftness ; he 
has found, as the Cynics " say, the passage to virtue 
' strenuous and short at the same time.' And in fact 
to friendship * ... as it were borne along on the 
wave of affection with the help of a god. 

" To sima up : it is clear that neither is the lover's 
enthusiasm without divine assistance, nor does it 
have as director and charioteer any god other than 
him whose festival and sacrifice we are now engaged 
in celebrating. 

" It is, however, principally in respect to power and 
benefits that we distinguish between the gods, just as 
there are two human goods, kingship and \~irtue, that 
are held and said to be the most divine. Let us first, 
then, see whether Love yields to any other god in 
power. Though 

Mighty the victory which the CjT>rian bears away, 

as Sophocles " says ; yet the strength of Ares is also 
mighty. Indeed we see the two-way distribution of 
the power of all the other gods illustrated in the case 
of these two. For the one power, which makes us 
receptive to beauty, and the other, which leads us 
to combat evil and ugliness, are fundamentally and 
from the beginning present in our souls as, I dare say, 
Plato '^ also . . . the kinds. For example, then, let us 
recognize that the work of Aphrodite, if Love is not 
present, can be bought for a drachma and that no 

" Cf. Diogenes Laertius, vii. 121 ; Julian, Oration, vii. 
223 c. * Here the mss. indicate the lacuna. 

' Trachiniae, 497. 

^ A lacuna in the text does not permit us to know from 
what passage(s) of Plato Plutarch wishes to make an infer- 
ence ; perhaps Republic, 440 a or Symposium, 190 d. 

369 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(759) ovre klvBvvov dcftpo^Laicov evcKa fxr) ipwv vTrefieive. 
Kal oTTCos ivravda fjirj ^pvvrjv ovofxd^wfxev, to 
iralpe, Aat?^ ns t] Tvadatviov 

F i(f>€a7T€pov Salovaa^ XafXTTTTJpos aeXas 

eKSexofievT] Kal KaXovaa TrapoSeuerai ttoXXolkis' 

iXdojv 8' i^aTTLvqs dVe/xos' 

avv epcoTL ttoXXo) /cat ttoOco ravro rovro raiv Tav- 
tolXov XeyofJLevojv raXdvrwv /cat rrjs Tvyov^ ^PXV^ 
dvrd^Lov eTTOLTjaev. ovtcos dadevrjs /cat dijjiKopos 
eariv rj rrjs *A<f>pohiTr]s ;)^a/3is", "Kpcoros pirj CTTLTTvev- 

CTaVTO?.* 

" "Ert Se ixdXXov KdKeWev dv avvlSoiS' ttoXXoI 
yap di^pohiaicov erepois eKOLVcovrjcrav, ov fiovov 
eratpas dXXd /cat ya/xerds Trpoaycoyevovres' oiOTrep 
Kal 6 'Pco/xaXos e/cetro?, c5 eraipe, FajSjSas'* etcrria 
760 Mat/CTjvav co? eot/cev, et^' opdJv StaTrAi^/CTt^djU.evoi' 
(XTro vevfidrcov Trpds to yvvaiov, aTre/cAtrev rjavxi] 
TTjv K€(f)aXrjv d)s Srj KadevSwv iv tovtco 8?) tcov 
oIk€t6l)v Tivos rrpoapvevros e^codev rfj TpaTTe^rj /cat 
Tov otvov v^aipovfjievov, 8taj8Aej/'a?, '/ca/cd8atju,ov/ 
elTTCv, ' ovK olad* on p-ova) Mat/c?^ra KadevSco; ' 
TOVTO [jL€V ovv lgcos ou* Sclvov eoTLV 7^v ydp 6 
FajSjSas' yeXoyTOTTOLOs . iv 8' "Apyet Nt/cdcrTparos' 

^ Aats Madvig : Xdie. ^ Saiovaa Stephanus : Seovaa. 

* Fvyov Wilamowitz : avrov (tijs avrapxias Post). 

* imrrvevaavTos Aldine edition : eTrivevaavTog BE. 

^ Td^^as Buecheler : Ka^^as. 

* ov added by Stephanus. 
' Tdp^as Buecheler : Ka^jSay. 

" See the note on 753 f supra : it would be untactful to 
dwell on Phrynfe's exploits in Thespiae, of all places. 

370 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 759-760 

one not in love ever endured pain or danger merely 
for the sake of Aphrodite's pleasures. This is not 
the place to mention Phryne," my friend, while some 
girl Uke Lais or Gnathaenion 

Kindles at evening the gleam of her lamp * ; 

though they welcome and solicit, their doors are 
often passed by. 

But suddenly the wind will rise * 

and bring with it love and desire in all its force : at 
once to this same activity it gives a worth equal to 
the fabulous wealth of Tantalus and the kingdom of 
Gyges. So weak and quickly sated are the favours 
of Aphrodite if Love has not inspired them. 

" You will find this even more clearly indicated by 
the fact that many have shared their pleasure with 
others, playing the pander not merely to their mis- 
tresses, but even to their wives. An example, my 
friend, is that notorious Roman, Gabba. He was, 
they say, gi%'ing a dinner to Maecenas and observed 
the latter toying amorously with his ^vife when 
given the signal to do so ; so he let his head nod 
gently as if he were sound asleep. But meanwhile 
one of his slaves glided into the dining room and 
started to steal wine. * Damn you ! ' cried Gabba, 
glaring. ' Don't you know that it's only for Mae- 
cenas that I'm asleep .'' ' This, perhaps, is not so 
shocking, for Gabba was a buffoon.'* But at Argos 

* Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 917, Adespoton 407. 

' Homer, Iliad, xvii. 57. 

■* That is, a court jester of Augustus, But Gabba is really 
quoting a famous Uteraryjokeof Lucilius(frag. 251 Warming- 
ton) : " non omnibus dormio," echoed in Juvenal, i. 57 : 
" vigilanti stertere naso." 

S71 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(760) avT€TTo\iT€vaaro Tvpog OavAAov^- eTnBrjfx'qcravros 
ovv OiAtTTTTou Tov jSacnAeo*?, eTriSo^o? rjv 8ia rijs 
yvvaiKos 6 ^dvXXos eKirpeTrovg ovarjs, et avy- 
B yevoiro rw OiAtTTTroj, SiaTrpd^eadai.^ riva SvvaarcLav 
avTO) /cai ap-)(r]v. aladojxevcov he rojv Trepl Ni/co- 
arparov tovto Kal Tra/Do, TctS" dvpas ttjs ot/cta? 
TTepLTrarovvrwv , 6 OauAAos^ V7roST]Gas rT]v yvvaiKa 
Kprjvlat Kal ;^Aa/i,ySa Trepidels /cat Kavaiav Ma/ce- 
SovtKT^P', to? eVa TcDv ^aatXiKcov veavicrKcov irapetae- 
TTepupe Xadovaav. 

Ap' ow, cpaarcov roaovrcov yeyovoTOJV Kal 
ovTcov, olad' €7tI rals tov Aio? ripLals rrpoaycoyov 
ipcofievov yevofievov ; iych fxev ovk olfxai' irodev 
yap, OTTov Kal Tols TvpdvvoLS dvTiXeycov puev ovhels 
ovT dvTLTToXiTevopievog ianv, dvrepcjvres Se ttoXXoI 
Kal (f^iXoTLixovfievot Trepl roJv KaXcov Kal ojpaioyv; 
C a/coyere^ yap on Kal ' AptaroyetTcov 6 ' AOrjvaXos 
Kal 'AvTtAeCOV 6* MeTaTTOVTLVOS Kal MeXdvLTTTTos 6 

'A/cpayavTtvos" ov hie^epovro rots rvpdwoLS, iravra 
TO. TTpdyfiara Xvfxaivofjievovs Kal Trapotvovvras 
opcovres' irrel 8e rovs ipcofxevovs avrwv CTTeipaiV, 
woTTep Upols dcrvXots Kal ddiKTOis dfjuvvovres r}<^€i- 
Sr]aav iavrcov. 

Aeyerat /cat ^AXe^avhpos eTTiaTeZXai QeoScopo) 
Ylpcoreov d8eX(f>cv, ' Trejjiijjov jjLol rrjv fxovoovpyov 
Se'/ca raAavra Xa^ojv, el fjur] epag avrrjs '• erepov 
he TU)V eraipcov 'AvrtTrarpiSou fjLerd ipaXrpias eiri- 

^ OauAAoj' Reiske here and below : (jyaiiXov (-oj). 
^ SiaTrpd^eoOai Xylander : hiatrpa^aaOai. 

' aKovcTe Reiske : (XKoverat. 
* 'AvTiXicov 6 Bernardakis : 6 dm-iXecov. 

" Philip V of Macedonia. 
372 



THE DIALOGUE ON L0\^, 760 

Nicostratus was the political opponent of Phayllus. 
When King Phihp " came to to'v\'n, everyone thought 
that Phayllus, who had a "vvife of great beauty, would 
obtain a dominant position for himself if his wife 
should become intimate with Phihp. Nicostratus' 
party got wind of this and patrolled the street 
before Phayllus' door. The latter, however, put 
soldiers' boots on his wife and a cape and a Mace- 
donian hat and got her undetected to Philip, since 
she passed for one of the royal pages. 

" On the other hand, of all the throngs of lovers 
past and present, do you know of a single one who 
sold the favours of his beloved even to gain the 
honours of Zeus himself ? I think not. How could 
this happen, when even tyrants, whom no one dares 
to contradict, whose policies no one dares to oppose, 
have had many rivals in love, many competitors for 
the friendship of handsome young lads ? You know 
the tales of Aristogeiton of Athens * and Antileon of 
Metapontum and Melanippus of Agrigentum : they 
had at first no quarrel with their tyrants, though 
they saw that these were acting like drunkards and 
disfiguring the state ; but when the tjTants tried to 
seduce their beloveds, they spared not even their 
owTi lives in defending their loves, holy, as it were, 
and inviolable shrines. 

" The tale is told that Alexander wrote to Theo- 
dorus, the brother of Proteas, ' If you're not in love 
vvith your music-girl, please send her to me for ten 
talents.' Another of Alexander's Companions, Anti- 
patrides, came to a drinking party vvith his lyre- 

* Cf. 770 B infra ; Thucjdides, vi. 54 ff. ; Plato, Sympo- 
sium, 182 c. 

373 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(760) KcofidaavTOS, rjBeojs Siaredels irpos rrjv avdpcoTTov 

epeadai rov * AvrLTTaTptSrjv , ' ov St^ttou av rvyyav^is 

D IpGiV Tavrrjg ; ' rov 8e, ' /cat ttolvv,' (f>'r]cravTos , 

eiTTwv, ' dnoXoLO roivvv KaKog KaKcos,' aTroax^adat, 

Kal p/T] diyeZv Trjs yvvaiKos. 

17. " Hkottcl Toivvv avdis," €(f)rj, " rots dprjiois 
epyois oaov "Epco? Trepieariv, ovk dpyos cov, <hs 
V EuptTTiSr^? e'Aeyev, ov6^ darpdrevros ovS' 

€V p^aXaKoiaiv ivvvx^Viov^ TrapeiaZs veaviScov. 

dvrjp yap vTTOTrXrjadels "Epcorog ovSev "Apeo? Setrai 
fjbaxdfJievos TToXepiiois, dAAct rov avrov deov €X(ov 
avvovra 

TTvp Kal ddXaaaav Kal TTVods rds atdepos 
TTcpdv eroLfjios 

VTTep rov (f>LXov ovTrep^ dv KeXevrj. rwv juev yap 
rov Ho(f)OKXeovs NiojStSoiv ^aXXop-evwv Kal Ovrj- 
E a/covTCOv dvaKaXelrai rt? ovdeva ^orjdov aAAov ovSe 
aiififiaxov •^ rov epaariqv, 

to . . . dp.(f)' epLOV aretXai,. 

" YtX^opiaxov 8e rov ^apadXtov tare S-qnovdev i^ 
"^S air Las ereXevrrjaev dyci)VLt,6p.€Vos." 

Ovx 'TjfJieis yovv," ot Tvepl YlefnrriSrjv e<f>aaav, 
dXX rjSeojs dv Trvdoipieda." 
" Kat yap d^iov," ecfii) 6 rranqp- " rJKev eni- 

^ ivvvxevMv added by Canter from Soph. : wv, following a 
lacuna. 

* olnep Hubert ; but see MnemosynS, vi (1953), p. 304. 

" Cf. Mor. 180 F. » Cf. Aelian, Varia Hist. iii. 9. 

374 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 760 

player. The wench pleased Alexander and he asked 
Antipatrides, ' Of course, you aren't in love with her, 
are you ? ' ' Very much so,' said the other. ' Well, 
damn you to hell the worst way ! ' cried Alexander. 
But he restrained himself and did not touch the 
woman." 

17. " And now consider," he said, " the extent of 
Eros' superiority in the sphere of battle, in Ares' 
sphere.* He is not idle, as Euripides " said ; he has 
seen service in the field ; he does not 

Spend his nights on the soft cheeks of girls. ** 

A man filled with Love has no need of Ares to fight 
his enemies ; if he has his own god with him, he is 

Ready to cross fire and sea, the air itself, * 

on behalf of his friend, wherever the friend may bid 
him. When the sons of Niobe in Sophocles' ^ play 
are being shot at and about to die, one of them calls 
for help — and for no other helper or ally than his 
lover : 

O . . . place about me . . . 

" You know, of course, the story of Cleomachus of 
Pharsalia and the reason for his death in battle." 

" No, we don't," said Pemptides and his party. 
" But we should be glad to hear it told." 

" It's worth hearing," said my father. " Cleoma- 

' Quoted in 757 a supra. With this whole chapter cf. 
Plato, Symposium, 179 a if. 

■* Sophocles, AntigonS, 783. 

• Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 917, Adespoton 408. 

f Frag. 410 (Nauck, op. cit. p. 229). The text is too 
mutilated to admit restoration, but Athenaeus, 601 a-b, gives 
us the tone of the tragedy, similar to Aeschylus' Myrmidons 
(cited in 751 c supra). 

S75 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(760) Kovpos XaA/ciSeuCTi rov A7]XavrtKov^ TToAe/xou Trpo? 
E/aeTptet? aKr/xa^ovro?* Kal to jxev vre^ov eSoKei rots' 
XaAKiSeucrtv eppaiadai, rovs 8' tTTTveas" ju-ey' ^pyov 
rjv (joaaadai rcJbv TToXefMLCOv TrapeKoXovv Br) rov 
J^Xeofiaxov dvdpa Aa/XTrpov ovra rrjv i/jv^^v ol avfji- 
fxaxot. TTpcorov ifi^aXXetv els roiis LTnreag. 6 8' 
F rip(x)Tr]G€ rrapovra rov epcvpievov, et /xeAAot dedadai 
rov dyojva' ^r^aavros 8e rov veavioKov /cat (jiiXo- 
(f)p6vcos avrov aoTraaapbivov /cat ro Kpdvos eTTcdev- 
ros, iviyavpajdels 6 KAed/xap^os" /cat rovs dpiarovs 
rcov QeaaaXoJv avvayaycov rrepl avrov i^-qXaae 
Xa/XTTpcbs /cat TTpoaeTTeae rots TToXejjbLOis, coare avv- 
rapd^at /cat rpei/jaadat, ro Ittttikov e/c 8e rovrov 
761 /cat ra)v OTrXiribv <f)vy6vTCOv , evLKrjaav Kara Kpdros 
ol XaA/ct8ets". rov jxevroL ViXeopba^ov dirodaveZv 
avvervx^' rd(f)ov 8' avrov SeiKvvovaiv ev dyopa 
XaA/ct8ets-, 60' ov P'^xpi' vvv 6 fxeyas €(f>ecxr7]Ke 
KioiV Kal TO TTaiSepaarelv rrporepov iv ipoycp ridi- 
ptevoL rore pidXXov irepcov r]yd7Tr]aav Kal irlpirjaav. 
^ApiaroreXrjs 8e rov pbev YiXeop^a^ov dXXcxys drro- 
dav€LV (l)r]aL, Kpariqaavra rchv 'Eperptecov rfj ptdxi)' 
rov 8' V7TO rov epcopuevov (^iXrjdevra rcov diro 
QpdKrjs XaA/ct8eajv yeveadat, 7Tepicf)9€vra rots iv 
JiiV^ota XaAKiSeuCTtv eTTLKOvpov odev aSeadat vapd 
roXs XaA/ct8e£;CTtv 

, J (5 7rat8es", ot^ xaplro)v re Kal Trarepwv Xdx^r^^ 

ecrdXcbv, 
1 B P''^ (f)doveW^ ujpas dyadoZatv opuXiav 

^ ArjXavTiKov Wilamowitz : deaaaXiKov. 
* Ol] oaoi Bergk. ' Aa^eT' Meineke : iXax^Te- 

S76 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 760-761 

chus came to help the Chalcidians when the Le- 
lantine War against the Eretrians was at its height. 
The Chalcidian infantry was thought to have con- 
siderable strength, but they found it difficult to 
resist the enemy cavalry. Accordingly his alUes 
requested Cleomachus, a man of splendid courage, 
to be the first to charge the horse. His beloved was 
there and Cleomachus asked him if he was going to 
witness the battle. The youth said that he was, em- 
braced Cleomachus tenderly, and put on his helmet 
for him. Filled with ardour, Cleomachus assembled 
the bravest of the Thessalians about himself, made 
a fine charge, and fell upon the enemy with such 
vigour that their cavalry was thrown into confusion 
and was thoroughly routed. When subsequently 
their hopUtes also fled, the Chalcidians had a decisive 
victory. It was, however, Cleomachus' bad fortune 
to be killed in the battle. The Chalcidians point out 
his tomb in the market-place with the great pillar 
standing on it to this day. Formerly they had 
frowned on paederasty, but now they accepted it 
and honoured it more than others did. Now Aristotle " 
says that the circumstances of Cleomachus' death in 
victorious battle -svith the Eretrians were different 
and that the lover embraced by his friend was one 
of the Chalcidians from Thrace sent as an ally to 
the Chalcidians of Euboea. And this, he says, is the 
reason for the Chalcidian ** popular song : 

Ye lads of grace and sprung from worthy stock. 
Grudge not to brave men converse with your beauty : 

" Probably not the philosopher (though Rose, frag. 98, 
accepts the reference), but the historian of Chalcis (Miiller, 
Frag. Hist. Graec. ii, p. 141). 

* Diehl, ii, p. 205 ; Edmonds, Lyra Graeca, iii, p. 546. 

377 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(761) <yvv yap avSpelq} Kal 6 XvcrLneXrjs "Epw? 

1 ivl' XaA/ctSecov ddXXei noXeaiv. 

"AvTCOv "^v ovofia TO) ipaarfj rep 8' epoj/xeVo) Oi- 
AicTTos', a>? eV rois Alrtois^ Acovvaios 6 TToirjrrjs 
Loroprjae. 

Flap' vjjlIv 8', cS UepbTTTLhrj, rols Qrj^aloLS ov 
TTavoTrXia 6 ipaarrjs eScopelTo rov ipcofjievov els 
dvSpas* iyypa^oixevov; ■^AAa^e Se /cat pLcred-qKC 
rd^tv rwv oTrXiToyv epcoriKos dvrjp Uaixfjbevrjs , 
"Op.'qpov €7TLfX€fjn/;dfi€vos COS" dvepacTTOV, on Kara 
(f)vXa Kal (j>piqrpas cruveAdp^i^e Toys' 'A;^atous'j ovk 
ipcofxevov erarre Trap epaart^v, tv^ ovtcd yevqrai to 

acTTTis' 8' aa7n'8' epeiSe Kopvs 8e Kopvv, 

cos jjiovov drjTrrjTOV ovra rov "Epcura^ rcov arparr)- 
C yo)v. Kal yap (jivXeras Kal ocKeiovs Kal vrj Ala 
yoveZs Kal TzalSas iyKaraXelTTovaw ipaarov 8' ei'- 
deov^ Kal ipa)[ji€Vov fieaos ovhels iroiTTore hie^rjXde 
TToXefMios ovbe Sie^ijXacrev ottov Kal p/rjhkv heopcevoLS 

€7T€1(JLV' eTTlheLKVUVai TO (f)lXoKtvSvVOV Kd(f)LX6lf}V)(OV^ ' 

<x)S Qtjpojv 6 QeaaaXos Trpoa^aXojv ttjv xetpa rw 
Toixip TTjV €va)vvp,ov Kal anaadfjievos ttjv jxaxai'po.v 
aTTeKoipe tov dvTLX^ipa TTpoKaXovjxevos tov dvT- 
epaaTT^v. erepos 8e rts" ev P'O-XD 'rreacbv em, Trpoaco- 

^ dvSpia BK. 

^ €vi Bernardakis : eVi. 

^ AtTt'otj Xylander : dvriois. 

* els av8pas Winckelmann : dvSeras. 

* tis novov . . . ovra tov epojra Bernardakis : (movov . . . ovra. 

^ S' ivdeov Winckelmann : 8e dco 8e. 

378 



THE DIALOGUE ON LO\"E, 761 

In cities of Chalcis, Love, looser of limbs. 
Thrives side by side with courage. 

Anton was the name of the lover and Philistus was 
his beloved, as the poet Dionysius relates in his 
Origins. 

" In your city, Thebes, Pemptides, isn't it true that 
the lover made his beloved a present of a complete 
suit of armour when the boy was registered as a 
man ? Pammenes," a man versed in love, changed 
the order of battle-line for the hoplites, censuring 
Homer ** as knowing nothing about love, because he 
arranged the companies of Achaeans by tribes and 
clans and did not station lover beside beloved, in 
order to bring it about that 

Shield supported shield and helmet helmet, " 

for he considered that Love is the only invincible 
general. It is a fact that men desert their fellow 
tribesmen and relatives and even (God knows) their 
parents and children ; but lover and beloved, when 
their god is present, no enemy has ever encountered 
and forced his way through. In some cases, even 
when there is no need for it, they are moved to 
exhibit their love of danger, their disregard for mere 
life. This was what prompted Theron of Thessaly 
to place his left hand on the wall, draw his sword, and 
cut off the thumb, challenging his rival to do the 
same. When another man had fallen in battle on his 

" Cf. Mor. 618 d; Life of Pelopidas, xviii (287 c ff.). 
Pammenes was a close political adherent of Epaminondas, 
according to Mor. 805 e. '' Homer, Iliad, ii. 362. 

* Homer, Iliad, xiii. 131 ; xvi. 215. 

' eneiaiv added by Xylander. 
* KotfuXoilivxov Xylander : koI <f>iX6t/ivxov. 

379 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(761) TTOV, d)S efieXXe TraiaeLv avrov 6 TroXefiios, iSerjdr] 
TrepLfJielvai jxiKpov, ottcos [jlt}^ 6 epcu/xevo? tSrj^ Kara 
vcoTOV TeT/aco/xevov. 
D " Ov [jlovov roivvv ra /iap^ijucurara tcov idvcov 
epcoTLKOjTaTa, Boicoroi /cat AaK-eSatjUoviot /cat 
K/j'^re?, dAAa /cat tcDv TraAaicDv d MeAeayjOo? d 
'A;!^tAAei'S' d ^ApLarofjievT]? 6 Kt/xojr d 'E7ra/xetvcov- 
8as" /cat yd/) ovros epojfxevovs ea^^v ' Aau}TTt,)(ov' 
/cat Ka^tcrdSojpov, o? auroi avvane.davev iv Mav- 
Tiveia /cat redaTrrai TrArjaLov top 8' ^Aacornxov*^ 
(f)0^ep(x)TaTov^ yev6p,evov rol? 7ToXep,iois Kal Setvd- 
rarov 6 TrpoJTOs VTrooras /cat Trard^as EiVKvajJios 
^ Ap,(f>tcra€vs 'qpojiKas ecrxe rt/Lids" irapa Oco/ceuatv'. 

'Hpa/cAeous' 8e tou? /xev dAAou? epioras epyov 
iarlv eiTTetv 8td TrXrjdos' 'IdAaov 8e vopiit^ovres 
€pa)[X€Vov avTov yeyovevai P'^xpi^ vvv cre^ovrai /cat 
E TipioJaLV ol €pu)vres^ opKovs re /cat Trtcrrets' CTrt rov 
rdcf>ov Trapd rwv ipcojjievcov Xajx^dvovreg . Xeyerai 
8e /cat TT^v "AA/C7](7Ttv larpiKos cov aTTeyvcocrfievrjv 
acbaai ra> 'A8//.7jTaj ;)(;apt^djU,evos', ipcovrt fxev aura) 
ttJs" yyvat/cds", ipcoixevov 8' aurou yevopAvov /cat 

^ oTTto? /i^ added by Bernardakis. 

* 1S7; Xylander : ^St;. 

* 'Aatomxov Reiske : dacomKov. 

* 8' 'AauiTTixov Bernardakis : 8e jxoi with lacuna mss. 

* <f)o^€p(x)raTov Reiske : <f>o^ep(x>T€pov, 

* ol epcovres Wachendorf : epcoTos. 

380 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 761 

face and an enemy was about to kill him, he begged 
the latter to wait for a moment in order that his 
beloved might not see him wounded from behind.* 

" It is not only the most warlike peoples, Boeotians, 
Spartans, Cretans, who are the most susceptible to 
love, but also the great heroes of old, Meleager, 
Achilles,^ Aristomenes, Cimon,'^ Epaminondas. Epa- 
minondas, in fact, loved two young men, Asopichus 
and Caphisodorus. The latter died with him at 
Mantineia and is buried close to him ; while Aso- 
pichos showed himself a most formidable warrior and 
so redoubtable to his foes that the first man who 
stood up to him and struck back, Eucnamus of 
Amphissa, received heroic honours among the 
Phocians. 

" As for Heracles, it would be difficult to list all 
his loves, they are so numerous. For example, be- 
lieving lolaiis to have been beloved by him, to this 
very day lovers worship and honour lolaiis, exchan- 
ging vows and pledges with their beloved at his tomb,** 
It is also related that Heracles exhibited his talent 
for healing by rescuing Alcestis from a mortal disease 
to please Admetus, who >vas not only in love with 
his wife, but had also been Heracles' beloved. In 

" Life of Pelopidas, xviii (287 d). * See 751 c supra. 

" Life of Cimon, iv (481 b f.). Meleager and Cimon, so 
far as we know, were inspired by the love of women. In 
literature Achilles is sometimes bisexual, Epaminondas is 
not. Nothing is known of Aristomenes' proclivities, though 
Plutarch, since he wrote a life of him, as well as one of Epa- 
minondas, was doubtless well informed. 

^ The shrine was still standing in Pausanias' day (ix. 23. 1), 
shortly after Plutarch's. See also Life of Pelopidas, xviii 
(287 d). For another and more miraculous shrine of lolaiis 
see Diodorus, iv. 24. 4 ; and for the connexions of lolaiis and 
Thespiae Diodorus, iv. 29. 4. 

381 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(761) yap rov AiroXXiova fivdoXoyovacv ipaarrjv yevo- 

fjL€VOV 

'ASfJLiJTa) TTapa d'qrevaai} fxeyav els eviavTov. 

" Eu Se TTfos eVt yivrjixrjv rjXdev 7)[juv "AXKrjaris. 
'Apeos yap ov Trdvv fxereaTL yvvaLKi, rj 8^ i^ 
"E/aajTO? Karo-)(ri Trpodyerai ri roXfxdv Trapd (f>vaiv 
Kal^ OLTTodviqaKeLV. el 8e ttov^ tl Kal p.vdoiv Trpos 
TTLOTLV 6(f)eX6s iari, SrjAot rd Tvepi "AXktjgtiv Kai 
F YlpairealXec^v /cat lEivpv^LKrjv ttjv 'Op^ecos, on 
fjLovci) Oecov 6 "AiS-qs "EpcuTi TTOiet TO TTpoararTo- 
fxevov KairoL irpos ye tows' dXXovs, c5? ^rjoi 
JuO(f>OKXrjs, aTTavras 

ovre TOV7TL€LKes ovT€ rrjv X^P'-^ 

otSev, [x6v7)v 8' ecrrep^e* ttjv ciTrAais' Slktjv 

alSeZrai 8e rovs ipcovras /cat pLovois tovtols ovk 
eariv dSdfxaaros ovS' dfietXixos. odev dyadov ixev, 
oJ iratpe, ttjs iv 'EAeuCTtvt reXeri]? [jieTaax^iV' iycb 
762 8' opu) Tols "EpcoTo? opyiaaraXg /cat ixvarais iv 
"AiSou ^eXriova fiolpav ovaav, ovri tols pjjdois 
TTeidoiievos ov firjv ou8' aTTiaTcov TTavrdiraaLV €v 
ydp St] Xiyovai, /cat deia tlvl rvxfl ipavovai, TaXrj- 
dovs ot* XeyovTCs Kd^ "AiSou* rotj ipcoriKOLS dvo- 
Sov els (f)cos vTrdpx^iv, ottt) 8e /cat ottws dyvoovaiv , 

^ ndpa dTjTevaai, Stephanus : irapaOrp-evaau. 

^ Koi] Kal S17 Koi ? 

' 8e nov Reiske : S^qnov. 

* S' earep^e Ritschl : Se arep^ai. 

^ oXtjOovs 01 added by Reiske. 

* Ka^ 'AtSou W. C. H. after Xylander : e^ oAAov. 

38» 



THE DIALOGUE ON hOVE, 761-762 

fact, Apollo also was Admetus' lover according to the 
tale : 

He served Admetus for a mighty year. " 

"It is fortunate that I mentioned the name of 
Alcestis. Women have no part at all in Ares ; but 
if Love possesses them, it leads them to acts of 
courage beyond the bounds of nature, even to die.'' 
If it is ever any use to cite the e\'idence of mythology, 
•we may learn from the tales about Alcestis and Pro- 
tesilaiis and Orpheus' Eurydice that Love is the only 
one of the gods whose commands are obeyed by 
Hades. As for all the others, as Sophocles "^ says, 

He knows no kindness and no favour. 
But is content with justice unadorned. 

To lovers, however, he shows respect ; for them alone 
he ceases to be ' inflexible, implacable.' ** So though 
it is true, my friend, that it is a good thing to be 
initiated into the mysteries * at Eleusis, I observe 
that celebrants of Love's mysteries have a higher 
place in Hades. It isn't that I'm completely per- 
suaded by old tales, yet I cannot withhold from them 
some credence. They do well to say — and indeed by 
some di\ine chance they touch the truth when they 
say — that lovers are able to return to the light even 
from Hades. It is true that they do not know where 

" Another line of unknown origin, which was formerly 
attributed to Callimachus (Schneider, frag. anon. 380), but 
is now rejected by Pfeiffer. For this Alexandrian version of 
the famous tale of Admetus see K. F. Smith on Tibullus, ii. 
3. 11. See also Ld/e of Numa, iv (62 c) ; Mor. 417 e-f. 

* Cf. 769 B infra. 

" Frag. 703 (Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 298). 
'' Homer, Iliad, ix. 158. 

• Cf. Plato, Phaedo, 69 c. 

383 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(762) coCTTrep drpaTTOv hiafxapTovres '^v TrpcoTO? avOpcoTTOjv 
8ta ^iXoGO(j)tas HXdrojv Karelhe. Kairoi AcTrrai 
Tive? aTToppoal /cat djxvhpal rrjg dArjOeias eveiai 
rats AlyvTTTLCOv evhieoTrapixevai jxvdoXoyiats, aAA 
l-^^yqXoLTOv Setvou heovrai Koi fieydXa puKpols eAelv 
Svvafievov . 
B " Ato ravra fxkv icoixev, fierd he rrjv laxvv rod 
"EpcoTO? ovaav roaavrrjV rjhrj rrjv TTpos dvdpa)7Tovs 
evfjueveLav Kal X^P^^ eTnaKOTTcopiev,^ ovk el ttoAAo, 
Tot? epcopLevoLs' dyadd TrepLTToieZ {SrjXa yap eari 
ravrd ye Trdaiv) dAA' el TrXeiova koL /xet^ova rovs 
epcovras avrovs^ ovivr^aiv eTrei, Kairrep wv epcoTi- 
k6? 6 KvpnrlSrjs, to apuKporarov d-jredavpLaaev 

' ' 4 

eiTtwVy 

TTOLTjTrjv dpa 
"KpoJS SiBdoKei, Kav dpLovaos fj to rrpiv. 

avverov re yap ttolcI, Kav pdQvpios fj to rrpiv • Kai 
dvhpelov, fj XeXeKTaL, tov droXpLov, dyarrep ol ra 
^vXa TTvpaKTOvvTes eK pbaXaKcov taxvpa ttolovgl. 
SojpiqTLKOS Se Kal dirXovs Kal pieyaX6cf)pojv yiverai 
C TTtt? epaariqs, Kav yXioxpos fj rrpoTepov, ttj? puKpo- 
Xoyias Kal (fitXapyvplas Slktjv aihripov hid TTvpos 
dviepievrj?' ware xo-ipeiv roZs epcopLevoLS StSovras, 
d)S Trap' erepojv ov x^-l-povaLV avTol Xapi^dvovreg . 

" "lore ydp B-qnov, (Ls 'Avvrcp toj* ^Avdepilcovos, 
epdJvTL p,€V 'AA/ctjSiaSoy ^evovs 8' eancLvri ^lXo- 

^ iviaKOTTcjfj.€v Xylander : iTnaKona). 

^ ipcofievois Meziriacus : ;^pco/xeVots. 

^ avTovs Amyot : ainov. 

* eiTTcov Valckenaer : eVei. 

* nplv Aldine edition : iTpayfj.a. 

* Tcp added by Wyttenbach. 

384 



THE DIALOGUE ON L0\^, 762 

and how this was accomplished ; they missed the 
path, as it were, that Plato through his philosophy- 
was the first of all human beings to discern. There 
are, however, dim, faint effluvia of the truth scattered 
about in Egyptian mythology, but a man needs a 
keen wit to track them down, one which can draw 
important conclusions from tiny scraps of evidence." 

" Let us, then, leave this subject. Now that we 
have seen how great is the power of Love, let us next 
examine his kindness and his favours to mankind. I 
am not speaking about the many benefits which he 
procures for those who are loved (these are perfectly 
obvious to everybody) ; I mean the even greater 
and more numerous benefits that he bestows on 
lovers themselves. Euripides,'' though experienced 
in love, marvels only at the least of them when he 
says 

Love will be the poet's teacher. 
Though he knew nothing of the Muse before. 

For love makes a man clever, even if he was slow- 
witted before ; and, as we noted, the coward brave, 
just as men make soft wood tough by hardening it 
in the fire. Every lover becomes generous, single- 
hearted, highminded, even though he was miserly 
before. His meanness and avarice are melted away 
like iron in the fire, so that he is made happier 
giving to those he loves than he is made by receiving 
gifts from others himself. 

" Of course, you know the tale of Anthemion's son 
Anytus, a lover of Alcibiades.*^ He was lavishly and 

* We return to this subject in 764 a infra. 

* Frag. 663, from the notorious Sthenehoea (Nauck, Trag. 
Graec. Frag. p. 569) ; c/. Mor. 405 e-f ; 622 c ; Plato, Sym- 
posium, 196 E. 

* See the Life of Alcibiades, iv (193 d-e). 

VOL. tx o 385 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(762) rificog /cat Xa^-npo)?, e7re/cc6/LiaCTev o 'AA/cijSiaSTy? 
Kol Xa^wv OLTTo rrjs Tpa7T€^r]s etV rjiXLav roJv eKvco- 
fjuarcov aTTTJXdev. dxOofievojv Se tcov ^evcov koI 
AeyovTCov, ' v^ptariKcos uol KexpT^rat Kal vrrepr]- 
<j>avo)S TO {xeipoLKtov,' 'cl>LXavdpa)7Ta}S fJiev ovv,' 6 
AvuTO? elne' ' iravra yap ivrjv avrco Xa^elv, 6 8e 
/ca/xot Toaavra KaraXiXoLTTev .' 

D 18. 'Hcr^et? ovv 6 T^ev^nnTO? , " c5 'Hpa/cAeiS'," 
etTrev, " cos oXiyov SieXvaaro irpos " Avvrov rrjv oltto 
YiWKpdrovs Kal <j)LXoao(f)ias TrarpLKrjv ex^pav, el 
TTpdos rjv ovrco trepl epcora /cat y&vvalos." 

Etev," etrrev 6 TTaTrjp- " eK Se SvgkoXojv /cat 
aKvdpojTTOJv rots avvovaiv ov^ iroLet (f)LXav6pcoTTO- 
repovs Kal rjStovg; ' aldofxevov ' yap ' TTvpos yepa- 
piorepov oLKov ISeaBai ' Kal dvOpcoTTOv cu? eot/ce 
(f>aihp6T€pov VTTO TTJs ipcoTiKrjs depfJLOTTjrOS. dXX 
ol TToXXol irapaXoyov n TreTTOvdaaiv dv fxkv iv oi/ct'a 
vvKTcop aeXas tScoCTi, delov rjyovvrai Kal davfxd- 

E IC^ovaf tpv)(riv Se puKpdv Kal raTTeivrjv Kal dyevvij 
6pd)VT€s €^ai(f)vr]g VTTOTTipLTrXapLevriv (f>povrjpLaTO'S , 
eXevdepias , <^tAoTt/xtas", ;^apiTOS', ai^etSta?, ovk dv- 
ay/ca^ovrat Xeyeiv d)S 6 TrjXefxaxos 

rj jj-dXa Tts deos evSov. 

€Kelvo 8'," etnev, " u) Aa^vate,* Trpo? XaptVcov 
ov Saifioviov; otl rdv dXXcov 6 ipcoriKos dXiyov 

^ ov Winckelmann : ev. 
* t5 A.a<f>vaL€ Wyttenbach : d Aa(f>vdios. 

" Anytus was the chief prosecutor of Socrates. 
* See Mor. 100 d. The verse is attributed to Homer in the 
Contest of Homer and Hesiod, 274. 

386 



THE DIALOGUE ON LO\TL, 762 

sumptuously entertaining strangers at a banquet 
when Alcibiades stormed drunkenly in, took about 
half the goblets from the table, and went away. The 
strangers were annoyed and said, ' How insolently, 
how contemptuously, that boy treats you ! ' ' Not 
at all,' said Anj-tus. ' It was ver}- kind of him when 
he might have taken all the cups to leave me as 
many as he did.' " 

18. Zeuxippus was delighted and remarked, " Good 
heavens, how near it comes to making me renounce 
my ancestral feud with Anytus, derinng as it does 
from his treatment of Socrates " and philosophy, if in 
a love affair Anytus could behave so like a well-bred 
gentleman ! " 

" Ver^- well then," said my father. " Doesn't Love 
change the ill-tempered and sullen and make them 
more sociable and agreeable ? 

When hearth's ablaze, a house appears more cheerful ' ; 

likewise a man seems to become more radiant 
through the heat of love. But people react irration- 
ally : if they see a light blazing in the house at 
night, they consider it supernatural and marvel at 
it ; but when they observe a mean, base, ignoble 
soul suddenly invaded by high thoughts, liberality, 
aspiration, kindness, generosity, they are not com- 
pelled to cry out with Telemachus, 

Surely some god is within ! * 

By all the Graces, Daphnaeus," he asked, " is not 
this wonderful ? I mean the fact that a man in love 

' Homer, Odyssey, xix. 40 : Telemachus perceives the 
light, a sign of Athena's presence. Cf. a fragment of Plu- 
tarch, 34. 1 (Bemardakis, vol. vii, p. 150). 

387 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(762) Setv aTTOLvriov irepi^povcov , ov jxovov iraipoiv /cat 
ot/ceicor/ aAAa /cat vofxcov /cat dpxovrojv /cat ^a- 
crtAecov, (f)o^ovp,evos Se fx-qSev [irjSe davfidl^ajv pi-qSe 
depanevajv, aAAa /cat rov' ' al^piardv Kepavvov ' 
olos u)v VTTOjxeveLv , a/u,a ra> rov KaXov iSetv 

eTTTT)^' aXcKTiop BovXov ctj? /cAtVa? TTTepov, 

/cat TO dpdcros e/c/ce/cAaarat* /cat /cara/ce/coTTTat ot 
F TO T'^s' ifjvxT]? yavpov. 

" "A^tov 8e SaTT^ous"* Trapa Tat? Mouo-at? fxvqfxo- 
vevaai' tov fiev yap 'H^ataTou 77at8a 'Poi/xaiot 
Ka/coi^* LOTopovai irvp /cat ^Adya? a^teVat 8ta tou 
CTTo/LtaTo? e^a» peovaag- avrrj 8' dXrjdojs ixepny pieva 
TTvpl (f)deyyeTat /cat 8ta tcuv fieXcov dvacjiepei rrjv 
dno rrjs /ca/aSia? deppiorrjra 

Mouoat? €V(f)U)voLs Icopcevr} rov epcora 

763 /caTO, OtAd^evov. dAA' et ti ^t) 8ta Auo-avSpav/ c5 
Aa^vate, tcDv TraAatciit' iKXeXrjaai 7rat8t/ca)v,* dvct- 
p,vrjaov rjixas, iv ot? 'jj /caAi^ Sarr^co Aeyet t'^? 
ipiop^evqs eVt^aveto-)^? Ti^r Te (fxovrjv tax^adat /cat 
^Xiyeadai' to aiop,a /cat KaraXapL^dveiv (hxpoTfjra 
/cat TrAdvov avTr)v^ /cat tAtyyor." 

^ oiKeUov Bernardakis : olKeraiv. * KaraKeKXaarai Post. 

' SttTT^ous Basel edition : aa(l>u)S. 

* KaKov Goettling : KaKov, 

' 8ta AvadvSpav Xylander : Avaai'Spov. 

• TrotSiKcDi' Xylander : TratSt'wv. 

' <f>Xfy€a9ai Xylander <f)8€yyeadai. 

* auTijv Basel edition : avT';7. 

» Cf. Plato, Phaedrus, 252 a. * Pindar, Py«A. i, 5. 

" Phrynichus, frag. 17 (Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 
724) ; cf. Life of Alcibiades, iv (193 c) ; Life of Pelopidas, 
xxix (293 r). 

388 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 762-763 

thinks little of practically everything else, not merely 
companions and relatives, but even laws and magis- 
trates and kings." He fears nothing, he admires 
nothing, he pays service to nothing. He's capable 
of braving ' even the Thunderbolt, the spear- 
wielder ' * ; but once he catches sight of the hand- 
some boy, 

He flinches like a cock that droops his vanquished wing. ' 

His confidence is broken to bits and the pride of his 
soul is overthrown. 

" Being, as we are, at the Muses' shrine, it is only 
right and proper to mention Sappho. Roman writers ** 
relate that Cacus, the son of Hephaestus, emitted tor- 
rents of fire and flame that poured from his mouth. 
In the same way Sappho speaks words mingled 
truly with fire ; through her song she communicates 
the heat of her heart, 

With sweet-voiced Muses healing her love, 

as Philoxenus " says. Now, Daphnaeus, if through 
the influence of Lysandra you have not completely 
forgotten your old loves,^ recite for us the ode in 
which the fair Sappho ' describes how her voice is 
lost and her body burns ; how she turns pale, reels, 
and grows giddy when her beloved appears." 

* e.g. Virgil, Aeneid, viii. 199. 

• Frag. 7 Diehl ; 6 Edmonds {Lyra Graeca, ill, p. 388). 
Curiously enough in Philoxenus it is the Cyclops who is 
healing his love : Mor. 622 c ; Scholia ad Theocr. xi. 1. 

' See 752 d »upra. It appears also from 765 e infra that 
Daphnaeus has given considerable attention to the interpre- 
tation of Lesbian love poetry. 

' Sappho 2, the most famous of her extant works, though 
we have only three stanzas, as had apparently Catullus (51) 
also. Cf. Mor. 81 d ; Life of Demetrius, xxxviii, 907 b. 

389 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(763) AexOevTOJV ovv vtto tov Aa^vatou tu)v fxeXiov 
€K€ivcov, oj? ..." VTToXa^wv 6 TTaTrjp, " ravr,' 
etnev, to npos tov Ato?, ov^ deoX-qi/jia Karacfyavqg ; 
ovTos ov 8at/i,drtos" adXos rrjg i^vx^js ; tL touovtov 
7] Ilu^ta TTeTTovdev atpaixevq tov TpiiroSos; rtVa 
Tcjv ivOea^ofieviov ovtcos 6 avXos Kal to. fji'r}Tpa)a 
B Kal TO Tvp.Ttavov e^LGTrjcnv; 

Kat jU.T^v" TavTO aa)p,a ttoXXol /cat TavTO koXXos 
opcoaLV, etXrjTTTai 8' els 6 ipoiTiKos' 8ta rtV' 
aiTLav; ov yap p,avddvofjL€V ye ttov tov MevavSpou 
XeyovTos ovhe uvvlepLev* 

Katpos ecrnv fj* voaos 
^^XV^> ° TrXrjyels S' ovv eVcov* TiTpaiOKeTai' 

dXX 6 deos acTLos tov fiev KadarpapLevos tov 8' 
edaas. 

" "0 Totvvv ev dpxfj Kaipov et^^e prjOijvat. pidXXov, 
ou8e vvv ' otl' vvv^ '^Xdev enl OTopa ' /car' Aicr;^uAoi', 
apprjTov edaeiv pioi SoKciJ' Kal ydp icTTi, Tra/x/xeye- 
OeS' tacos p^ev ydp, a> eTaZpe, Kal tcov aXXcov 
C aTrdvTOJV, oaa p,rj 8t' aladiqaeojs rjpXv els evvoiav 
'fJKei,^'* TO. p,ev pLvdo) to. 8e vopbcp to. 8e Xoycp ttlgtiv 
i^ dpx'fjs eaxt)Ke' ttjs 8' ovv rrepl decov 80^7^?" 
TravTctTraaiv 'qyep.oves Kal 8t8aCT/<:aAot yeyovaaiv 
rjpuv ot re TToirjTal Kal ol vopiodeTai Kal TpLTov ol 

^ ov added by Meziriacus. 
" Kal fxriv Wyttenbach : ij/ntv. 

* TiVa Wyttenbach : Trjv. 

* awUixev Wyttenbach : awifiev. 
« ij Post : 17. 

* ovv eK(hv added by Post (Amer. Jour. Phil. Ixxvii, 1956, 
p. 217) to fill a lacuna : etacj 817 Stobaeus. 

' on Nauck : eVi. * vvv Winckelmann : vow. 



I 



THE DIALOGUE ON L0\^, 763 

When Daphnaeus had recited these verses," my 
father resumed. " In heaven's name," he asked, " is 
not this a plain case of di\'ine possession .' Is it not 
a supernatural agitation of the soul ? Is the distur- 
bance of the Pythia grasping her tripod so great ? 
Do the flute, the tambourine, the hymns to Cybele, 
cause so much ecstasy in any of the devotees ? 

" Moreover, while many behold the same body and 
the identical beauty, only one, the lover, is seized 
by it. WTiy ? For surely we are not instructed by Me- 
nander ^ nor do we understand when he says. 

It's malady of mind that turns the scale ; 
Right gladly is the wounded pricked by love ; 

rather, it is the god that makes the difference by 
pouncing on one and letting another go free. 

" There is something that might better have been 
stated at the beginning, but even now — 

Since only now has it come to my lips, 

as Aeschylus <^ says — since it is very important, I do 
not believe that I shall leave it unspoken. Perhaps, 
my friend, our belief in all our notions, except those 
derived from the senses, comes from three sources : 
m\i;h, law, and rational explanation ; so it is un- 
doubtedly the poets, the legislators, and thirdly the 
philosophers who have been our guides and teachers 

" There is a long lacuna in the mss., as though for the 
verses to be inserted. 

» Frag. 541. 7-8 (Kock, Com. Att. Frag, iii, p, 163; frag. 
568 Korte) ; cf. Plutarch, frag. 25 (Bernardakis, vol. vii, 
pp. 130 f.). 

* Frag. 351 (Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 105). 

• apfnjrov Meziriacus : apiarov. 
^' ijKct Xylander : onjKct. ^^ Sd^s Reiske ho^s koI. 

391 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(763) (f>iX6ao(f>oi,, TO fMev^ ctvai Oeovs o/aoioj? Tidefxevoi, 
ttXtjOovs 8e TTepi Koi rd^ecos avrcvv ovaias re /cai 
SvvdfjLeoJS fxeydXa Sta^epo/zevot Trpos aAAT^Aof?. 
CKeivoi fjL€V yap ol rtov <j>iXoa6(f)OJV 

avoaoL Koi dyrjpaoi 
TTovixiv t' dtreipoL, ^apv^oav 

TTOpdjjLOV 7T€(f)€Vy6T€S ^Ax^pOVTOS' 

odev ov^ TTpoaUvrai TTOfqriKas "EptSa? ov Atrds, 
ov Aelpbov ovBe OojSov ideXovcri deovs elvat, /cat' 
rratBas "Apeos" opboXoyeiv p.a)(ovTai Se Trepl ttoXXojv 
Kal TOLS vofjLoderats , coarrep 'Eevo(f)dvrjs Aiyvnriovs 

D CKeXevac rov "OaipLv, el dvrjrov vop.it,ov(n, p,7j niidv 
cos deov, el 8e deov rjyovvrai, {mt) dprjvetv. avdis 
§€ TTOfqTal /cat vo/xo^eVat, (f)i,Xoa6(f)a>v ISeas rtva? 
/cat dpidfjiovs fJiovdSas re /cat TTvevp-ara deovs ttol- 
ovfxevcov, ovr* aKoveLV vTTOfievovaiv ovre avvUvai 
hvvavraL. 

noAA'i7v 8' oAa>s' dvcofjiaXLav e-)(ovaiv at Sd^ai 
/cat 8ia(f)opdv . cocnrep ovv -^aav TTore rpeZs araaeis 
^Adi]V7]aL, UapdXcxJV 'ETra/cptCDV* HeSiewv, x^-XeTTcos 
exovaai /cat SLa<f)ep6p,evai npos dAAi^Aas" CTretra* 
8e irdvres ev ravro) yev6p,evoi /cat ras iljrj(l>ovs 
Xa^ovres rjveyKav ndaas SoAcoi't, /cat rovrov et- 

E XovTo KOLvfj StaAAa/CTT^v /cat dpxovra /cat vofioder'qv, 

^ fiev Reiske : nkv oSv. ^ o0ev ov Basel edition : oOev. 

' Kal added by Bernardakis. 

* 'EiraKpicov Xylander : eVa/cpwv. 

* eneira Madvig : enel. 

" Pindar, frag. 147 Turyn ; 143 Schroeder and Sandys ; 
131 Bowra. Of. Mor. 167 e, 1075 a. 

* Hesiod, Works and Days, 11-26 ; Homer, Iliad, ix. 502- 
512. 

392 



I 



THE DIALOGUE OX LO\'E, 763 

in what we think about the gods. They are alike in 
stating that gods exist ; but they hold widely varying 
views about their number and rank, as well as their 
nature and function. Now the philosophers beUeve 
that the gods are 

Untroubled by illness or age. 
Free from toil, spared the hoarse passage of Acheron.* 

For this reason they do not admit the Strifes and the 
Prayers ^ of the poets, nor do they allow Fear and 
Panic to be gods or acknowledged as the children of 
Ares." They are at variance on many points with 
the legislators, as when Xenophanes ^ told the 
Egyptians not to honour Osiris as a god if they 
thought he was mortal, or not to weep for him if they 
believed him a god. On the other hand, when the 
philosophers * put forth as gods certain patterns and 
numbers, monads and spirits, the poets and legislators 
haven't the patience to listen to them, nor are they 
able to understand what is meant. 

" In short, their opinions have considerable variety 
and much divergence. Once upon a time there were 
three factions in Athens,^ of the Coast, the Hills, and 
the Plain. They had much enmity and many differ- 
ences with each other ; but they subsequently com- 
promised to give all their votes to Solon. They 
jointly elected him mediator, chief magistrate, and 

« Homer, Iliad, xiii. 299 ; xv. 1 19. Cf. Plato's diatribe 
{Republic, 377 ff.) against the licence of the poets and the 
evil effects on the young caused by their irresponsible lore : 
see especiallv 379 e, 387 b-c, 388 b. 

" Frag. A 13 (Diels, Frag, der VorsokJ, i, p. 115; ef. 
Heraclitus, frag. B 127, Diels i, p. 180). See also Mor. 
171 i>-e; 228 e; 379 b. 

* Such as Xenocrates, the Pythagoreans and Stoics. 

' Mor. 805 D-z ; Lift of Solon, xiii ff. (85 a ff.). 

393 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(763) OS eSo^e rrjs dpeTrjs ^x^iv ahripirojs to Trpco- 
T€.Zov ovTOJS at T/aeis" ardaeis at nepl decbv Sl)(o- 
(fypovovaat /cat i/j7J(f)ov dXXrjv dXXrj (f>€povaai /cat p,r) 
Sexd/Jievai. paSicos rov e| irepas Trepl evos jSe^Saico? 
6p,oyvoipiovovai /cat kolvjj tov "Kpcora avveyypd- 
(f)ovaLV els deovs ttoltjtcJov ol KpdriaroL Kal vofMode- 
TOJv /cat (fiiXoao^oiv ' ddpoa (jxjjvq} fxey' iTracvevres,'' 
coCTTrep €(1)7), ' rov litrraKov ' 6 'AA/cato? alpeladai, 
Tovs MvTiXrivaLOVs ' rvpavvov.' rjpXv be ^acnXevs 
/cat dp^oiv /cat dpp.oary]s 6 "E/^cd? v<f>' 'HcrtoSou /cat 
nAarct/vos" /cat HoXcdvos (xtto rod 'YiXiKCJVos els rrjv 
F ^AKab-qixeiav iare^avcopievos Kardyerai /cat /ce/co- 
apirjpievos elaeXavvet, TToXXals avvcoplai (fiLXlas /cat 
Koivoivias , ovx otav EtvpLTTtSrjs (jiTjalv 

dxcXKevTOicTiv e^evxdai Tre'Sat?, 

i/ivxpcLV ovros ye /cat jSapeiav ev XP^^9- '"■e/ai^aAcbv 
utt' alcrxvvrjs dvdyKrjv, dXX imoTTrepov (f)epop,evqs 
errl rd KoXXiara rcov ovrcDV /cat deiorara^ Trepi cSv 
erepoLS etprjrat ^eXriov." 
764 19. EtTToi'Tos' 8e raura tou narpos, 6 HcoKXapos, 
" opas," eiTTev, " on Sevrepov '^'Sry rots' avrots 
TTepiTTeauiv, ovk oTS* ottcos j8ia aavrov* (XTrayet? /cat 
dnocrr pe(f)e IS, ^ ov St/catct)? ;\;pect»/co7raiv, et ye Set to 

^ ddpoa <f><x)va Reiske : ddpoai ^coval. 

* iiTaivevTes Ahrens : eTratveovreS' 

' fleioTara Reiske : deiorepa. 

* pia (xaDTov Winckelmann : jSt'ais avrov E ; jSi'at? B. 

^ aTrdyeis xal diToaTp€(f>€i,s Reiske : aTrayei Kal dTToaTpa<f>€is. 

" Frag. 37 a Diehl (i, p. 427) ; 160 Edmonds {Lyra Graeca, 
i, p. 418). 

* As the most eminent of poets, philosophers, legislators. 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 763-764 

legislator, since he seemed indisputably to hold the 
palm of \'irtue. In just the same way the three 
factions who theorize about the gods are at variance : 
they differ in their votes and find it difficult to accept 
each other's candidates. Yet there is one god about 
whom all firmly agree. The most eminent of poets, 
legislators, philosophers, join together in enrolling 
Love among the gods 

With one voice of great approval, 

as Alcaeus " says the people of Mitylene elected 
Pittacus tyrant. So we see Love chosen as king, 
chief magistrate, and harmonizer by Hesiod, Plato, 
Solon. '' He is brought down with a crown on his 
head from Helicon to the Academy. Richly adorned, 
he is given a triumphal procession in which there are 
many two-horse chariots bound in a communion of 
love — not such as Euripides "^ describes, 

Yoked in bonds not forged by metal, 

for he is imposing a cold constraint that is oppressive 
in practice because of shame. No, this is a winged 
communion that soars to the region of the fairest 
and most divine realities. But of these, others ** 
have spoken better than I." 

19. When my father had concluded his remarks, 
Soclarus asked, " Don't you see that this is now the 
second time that, when you encounter the same 
subject, you make a detour and somehow break off 
violently and turn your back on it ? If I may speak 
my mind, it's not giving due justice to the argument, 

' Frag. 595 (Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 549); cf. Mor. 
96 c, 482 A, 533 a. 

* Plato, no doubt, in the Phaedrus and the Symposium. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(764) <f>aLv6n€vov clirelv, lepov ovra tov Xoyov; kol yap 
dprt, TOV nXdrcovos djxa /cat tu)v AlyvTrricov woTrep 
aKiov cnjjdfievos TraprjXdes /cat vvv ravrd Troiet?. 
rd jjiev ovv ' dpL^-qXcos elprjfieva ' HXdrcovt,, fjidXXov 
Se rat? ^eat? raurats" Std IlXdrcovos, ojyade, ' prjh* 
dv KeXevcxifxev eiTrrjs ' ' fj S* VTTrjVL^o) rov AtyvTTTLCov 
jjLvdov els ravrd rols UXarcoviKoZs crv[ji<f)€p€(Tdai 
7T€pl "Kpcoros, ovKer eari} aot p,rj SiaKaXvipai fiTjSe 

B SLa(j)rjvai Trpos rj fids' dyaTTiqaop.ev he, /cav puKpd 
trepl fieydXojv aKovacofiev." 

Aeofievwv 8e /cat rdJv aAAcov €(f>rj 6 TTarrjp (Ls 
KiyvTTrioL hvo fxev "EAAT^at TTapaTrXrjaicjos "Epcora?, 
rov re 7Tdv8r)ixov /cat rov ovpdvLov, laaai, rpirov Se 
vofil^ovatv "Kpcora rov i^Atov, 'A(f>poBcrr)v . . . 
exovcn p.dXa ae^dafiiov. 

'H/Ltet? Se TTo?<Xr)v fxev "Epajro? ofMoiorrjra -npos 
rov rjXtov^ opajfiev ovaav irvp fxev ydp ovSerepos^ 
eariv oiOTiep oXovrai rives, avyrj* Se /cat depfiorrjs 
yXvKeta /cat yovLfxos, /cat* rj p,€v (Ztt' eKeivov (f>€po- 
fjLevT) G(x)p,ari Trapex^i rpo(/)riv /cat delis' /cat av^rjaiv, 
rj 8' drro rovrov i(jv)(als- d>s 8' tJXlos e/c ve(j>cov /cat 

C /Lte^' ojxix^W Q^PP'Orepos, ovrws "Kpcos per* opyds* 
/cat ^TjAoTUTTia? epcopevov StaXXayevros i^Stcov /cat 
hpipvrepos' ere' 8' uiOTrep -qXtov aTrreadai, Kal crjSev- 

1 eoTt added by Winckelmann. 

* TOV rjXiov Xylander and Stephanus : ttjv y^f. 

' ovSerepos Hubert : ovberepov. 

* avyfi Wyttenbach : av. ^ km added by Wyttenbach. 

* opyas Xylander : opyris. '' ert Stephanus : on. 

° 762 A supra. 

* Homer, Odyssey, xii. 453 ; quoted more fully in Mor. 
504. D. ' The Muses. 

■* Cf. Plato, Phaedrus, 235 d. 

396 



THE DIALOGUE ON LO\TE, 764 

which is a holy thing. In fact, just a moment ago* 
you touched, as though unwillingly, upon Plato and 
the Egyptians, then turned aside ; and now you are 
doing the same thing. To be sure, as far as Plato's 
' well-known utterances ' * are concerned — or rather, 
my friend, those utterances of the goddesses " 
through the mouth of Plato — don't rehearse them 
' even if we beg you to do so.' ** But as for your hint 
that the Egyptian tales bear a resemblance to the 
Platonic doctrine of Love, you can no longer avoid 
reveaUng and expounding to us your meaning ; and 
we shall be perfectly content if we hear only ' tiny 
scraps of evidence ' about ' important conclusions.' " * 

The others added their entreaties, whereupon my 
father said that the Egyptians recognize two Loves, 
just as the Greeks do, Uranios and Pandemos,^ but 
they beheve that the sun is a third Love ; Aphrodite^ 
. . . they reverence greatly. 

" We also observe that there is considerable simi- 
larity between Eros and the sun. Neither of them is 
really fire, as some think, but a radiance ^ of sweet 
and fertile warmth. The radiance that proceeds 
from the sun gives nourishment, light, and the power 
of growth to the body, while the gleaming ray from 
Love does the same for the souls. The sun is warmer 
after a fog or upon emerging from clouds ; so after 
rages and jealousies a reconciliation with the beloved 
makes love sweeter and more pungent. Then too, 
just as some believe that the sun is both illumined 

• Quoting Plutarch's remarks in 762 a supra. 

' Heavenly and Vulgar, or Earthly. 

» Here there is probably a lacuna, though none is indicated 
in the mss. Hubert supplies " and they call Aphrodite the 
moon and the earth and her ..." 

» Cf. Plato, Republic, 509 b. 

397 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(764) vvadai SoKovacv evioi, ravra Kal Trepl "EpojTO? (hg 
dvqrov Kal djSejSatou SiavoovvraL. /cat fji'qv ovre 
acofxaros dyvfjuvaaros e^t? tJXlov, ovt' "Epcara 
hvvarai <j)epeiv aXvTtojs rpoTTos aTratSeurou ifjvxrjs' 
e^iCTTarat 8' o/xoicos" iKarepov Kal voaeZ, ttjv rov 
deov Svvapnv ov rrjv avrov /xeju^o/xevov aadeveiav. 

YlXrjv iKeivr) ye So^etev av Sia^e'/aeiv, t) SetV- 
vvoLV 'qXi.os fiev eTriarjs^ ra KaXa Kal ra alaxpo. Tols 
opcoaiv "Epcu? Be fiovoiv tcjv KaXcbv (f>e'yyos ecrri 
D Kal TTpog ravra [xova rovs epcovras dvaTretdei, 
^XIttclv Kal arpej>eadai, rcjv S' dXXa>v TravroiV 
vrrepopdv.^ 

Frjv Se /car' ovBev * A.<f>pohir'i)v KoXovvres drr- 
rovrai rtvo'S opuoiorrjros' Kal yap ■)(dovia^ /cai 
ovpavia Kal fiL^€a>s X^P^ '^^^ dOavdrov TTpos ro 
6vr)r6v, dSpavTjg 8e Kad* iavrrjv Kal aKora)Sr)s 
rjXlov [XT] TTpoaXdfiTTOvros , cooTrep ^ A(f>poBir'r] fxr] 
rrapovros "Epojro?. 

'Eot/ceyai jxev ouv' ^ A(f>poBirrj aeX-qvqv 'qXcov 8e 
"Epotrt rdjv dXXwv decov fxdXXov et/cd? ianv, ov 
jXTjv elvai ye TravraTTaai rovs avrovs' ov yap ipvxf) 
acop,a ravrov dAA' erepov, oyarrep rjXiov [xev oparov 
"EpojTa he vorjrov. el he {jltj ho^ei rriKporepov 
E Xeyeadai, Kal rdvavria (jtair] ris av rjXiov "E/xoti 

^ eTTicrqs Kronenberg : em yijs. 

' vTrepopdv van Herwerden : Trepiopdv, 

' xOovia Keil : oio. 

" A probable lacuna, though none is indicated in the mss. 
398 



THE DIALOGUE ON LO\'E, 764 

and extinguished, so they hold the same \iew about 
love, that it is a mortal and unstable thing. Finally, 
just as a body not conditioned by exercise cannot en- 
dure the sun \\ithout damage, neither can the guiding 
principle of an uncultivated soul sustain love without 
hurt : each degenerates alike and becomes afflicted, 
blaming the power of the god and not its own 
weakness. 

" Yet there is, it seems, a difference to be pointed 
out : the sun \nih equal candour exhibits both the 
beautiful and the ugly to men's eyes, while Love 
illxmaines only what is beautiful. Only this does he 
persuade lovers to contemplate and turn to ; every- 
thing else they must overlook. 

" Now if they call Aphrodite earth, in no respect 
do they attain any verisimilitude "... The moon, 
in fact, is both earthly and heavenly, a place where 
the immortal is blended ^^'ith the mortal, ** ineffective 
by herself and ^\ithout illumination when the sun is 
not shining on her, just as Aphrodite is nothing 
without the presence of Eros. 

" It is, then, likely that the resemblances of the 
moon to Aphrodite and of the sun to Eros are much 
stronger than those which these stars have to the 
other gods '^ ; yet they are by no means identical, 
for body is not the same as soul, but different, just as 
the sun is \-isible while Eros is merely intelligible. 
One might even say, if the statement is not too un- 
palatable, that the sun's actixities are directly opp>osed 

Wilamowitz supplies " Aphrodite has nothing in common 
with the earth, but those who call her the moon have hit 
upon a certain resemblance." 

» Cf. ^for. 416 E ; 935 c ; 766 B infra. 

* This ignores the Artemis- Apollo relationship to sun and 
moon : see Mor. 393 c-d ; 433 d ff. ; 434 f ff. ; 1 130 a, al. 

399 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(764) 7Toi€LV a'noarpe<j>€L yap aTTo rcbv vorjToiiv eTrl to, 
aLadrjTO. rrjv Sidvoiav, )(a,pLri /cat Aa/xTrpoTTyn rrjs 
6ip€<os yorjrevcov /cat avaTreldojv €V iavrw /cat irepl 
avTov Keladai^ rd r dXXa /cat ttjv dXrjdnav, irepcodi 

hvaepoires Srj ^atvo/ze^' ovres^ 
TOv8\ 6 TL Tovro artAjSei* Kara yijv, 

(x)S Eu/3i7riS?^S' ^rjcri, 

84* d/n€ipoavv7)v dXXov jSiorou, 

[mSXXov 8e X'qdrjv d}v 6 "Epcos dvdpLvrjais iariv. 

" "QaTTep yap els ^cDs" ttoXv /cat Xafnrpov dveypo- 
fievcov i^otx^rai Trdvra rrjs ^v^rjs rd Kad* vnvovs 
<j>av4vra /cat SiaTre^eyyev, ovrco rcov yevofxevajv iv- 
ravda /cat ixera^aXovrcov* eKTrXrjrreiv eoiKC rqv 
F fjLvqpirjv /cat ^ap/xarretv rrjv Sidvoiav 6 rjXios, v(f>' 
rjSovrjs /cat davpLaros eKXavOavop^evcov iKeivtov. 
/catTot TO y vnap (Ls dXT]du)s €K€l /cat Trept e/cetva 
rrjs 4'^X'^^ ion, hevpl 8' iXdouaa 8ia^ roiv ivvTTvicov 
davd^eraL /cat rcOrjTre ro KdXXiarov /cat deiorarov. 

dfM(l>L 8e 01 SoAoevra ^iX6<f>pova ;)(ei»ev oveipa, 

TTav ivravOa Tre 1,6 ofxevrj ro KaXov elvai /cat ripnov, 

^ Kciadai Wyttenbach : alTcladaj,. 

* orre? Stephanus : idvre?. 

* TouS' o Tt toCto oTiX^fi. addcd by Stephanus from Euripides 
to fill a lacuna. 

* /jLeTa^aXovrtov Stephanus : /xerajSoAAdi^aiv. 

* eXdovaa 8td added by Post to fill a lacuna in the mss. 

» Cf. Plato, Phaedo, 81 d. 
» Hippolytus, 193-195. 

400 



THE DIALOGUE ON LO\'E, 764 

to those of Love." For it is the sun that turns our 
attention from intelhgibles to sensibles, bewitching 
us by the charm and brilhance of vision, and con- 
vincing us that truth and everj-thing else is to be 
found in the sun, or in the realm of sun, and not in 
any other place. 

It's clear that we un\^isely love 
The dazzling gleam we see on earth, 

as Euripides ' says. 

Because we have not known another life — 

or rather because of our forgetfulness of the reaUties 
of which Love is a recollection.*' 

" If we awaken in the face of a great brilliant 
light, everything that has been seen in our dreams 
leaves our souls and vanishes ; just so, when we pass 
from one life to another and are born on this earth, 
the sun seems to dazzle our memory and drug our 
minds, through the pleasure and wonder it rouses, 
into forgetting what went before. And yet the soul's 
true period of wakefulness ** is there in that other 
life and in that realm ; since its arrival in this world, 
it is by means of dreams that it jo}4"ullv greets and 
gazes upon that which is most beautiful and most 
divine.* 

About it are shed sweet but treacherous dreams, ' 

for the soul is persuaded that beauty and value exist 

' See Plato, Phaedrua^ 249 c-e. 

' Cf. Mor. 393 d. 

• Much of this sentence is conjecturally supplied to fill a 
gap in the mss. ; cf. Plato, Phaedrus, 249 c. 

' A line of unknown origin ; it was formerly attributed to 
Callimachus (frag. anon. 381 Schneider), but is rejected by 
Pfeiffer. 

401 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(764) oiv [XT] rvxj) deiov /cat aa)(f)povos "Kpcoros larpov 
Kal acorrjpos Kal 'qyep.ovos o?^ Sta acofMaroiv dcf>iK6- 
765 fievos dycoyos eVt ttjv dXrjdeLav i^ "AiSov kcIs^ 
' TO dXrjOeias ttcSCov,' ov to ttoXv Kal Kadapov 
Kai dipevSes IhpvTai KaXXos, dairdaaadai koL avy- 
yeveadat, Sid ;)^povoi» TrodovvTas e^ava(j)€pcov /cat 
dvaTrefiTTCov evjjievrjs olov ev TeXeTjj TtapeoTT] ^v- 
(TTaycoyos . 

'Evrau^a Se^ ndXiv TrefiTTOixevcov avTrj fiev ov 
TrXfjaLa^ei ipvxjj* Kad' iavTrjv, dXXd Std acofJuaTOS. 
COS Se yecDfxeTpai, Traialv ovttu) BvvafxevoLS i(f>* iav- 
TU)v TCI vo'qTa fivrjdrjvaL ttjs daiofiaTOV Kal dnaOovs 
ovaias ei'Si^ 7rXdTTOVT€s drrTa Kal opaTa /xt/LtT^jLtara 
a(f)aipa)V Kal kv^cov Kal ScoSeKaeSpwv TTpoTeivovaiv 
B ovTCxi? Tjfjuv 6 ovpdvLos "Epcu? cGOTTTpa KaXcov KaXd, 
dvrjTa jjLevTOL deicov^ /cat dTraOcjv^ TraOrjTd Kal vorj- 
Tcijv aladr^Ta iMr)xo.vu)fj,€vos ev re ax'^jpio.ai Kal XP^~ 
fiaaL Kal etSeat vecov ojpa OTiX^ovTa Set/cvucrt /cat 
KLvel TTjv ixvT^jji'qv dTpcfxa Sid TOVTCov dva(f)Xeyo- 
pLevTjv TO TTpcjTov. odiv Std aKaioTTjTos evtot (jyLXajv 
Kal OLKeLCov, a^evvvvai TTeipcopLevwv jSta /cat dXoyoi? 
TO TTados, ovhkv drTeXavcrav avTOV ;^/)7jCTTdv dXX t^ 

^ Kal riyefiovos os added by Amyot. 

* Kels W. C. H. after Hubert : Kal. 

* 8e added by Winckelmann. 

* auT^ . . . i/ivxfj Meziriacus : avrij . . . fpvxi}- 

^ OeicDv Wyttenbach : 6ea>v. 

• Kal diradwv added by Bernardakis. 

<• Cf. Osiris in Mor. 382 f— 383 a. 
" Cf. Plato, Phaedrus, 248 b, 254 b. 

402 



THE DIALOGUE ON L0\^, 764-765 

nowhere but here, unless it secures divine, chaste 
Love " to be its physician, its saviour, its guide. 
Love, who has come to it through the medium of 
bodily forms, is its divine conductor to the truth from 
the realm of Hades here ; Love conducts it to the 
Plain of Truth ^ where Beauty, concentrated and 
pure and genuine, has her home. When we long to 
embrace and have intercourse with her after our 
separation, it is Love who graciously appears to lift 
us out of the depths and escort us upward, like a 
mystic guide beside us at our initiation. '^ 

" But while we are being brought safely to that 
higher ground, Love does not approach our souls 
in isolation by themselves, but through the body. 
Teachers of geometry, when their pupils are not yet 
capable of initiation into purely intellectual concep- 
tions of incorporeal and unchanging substance, offer 
them tangible and \-isible copies of spheres and cubes 
and dodecahedrons ; in the same way heavenly Love 
contrives for us, as in a glass, beautiful reflections 
of beautiful realities. These are, however, merely 
mortal reflections of the divine, corruptible of the 
incorruptible, sensible of the intelligible. By show- 
ing us these in the form and hue and aspect of young 
men radiant in the prime of their beauty. Love 
gently excites our memorj', which is first kindled 
by this means. ** Hence some, because of maladroit 
friends or relatives who tried by violence and un- 
reasonably to extinguish the flame of love, have 
derived no benefit from it ; instead they either fill 

* As in the Eleusinian Mysteries. 

'' Cf. Plato, Phaedrus, -250 c fF. This whole passage re- 
shapes in a condensed and continuous form a number of 
separate motifs of the Phaedrut : see 241 a, 233 e — 254 a, 
and, in general, 250 a — 256 e. 

403 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(765) Kanvov Kal rapax^js iveTrXrjaav iavrov? "^ vpos 
rjSovas GKOTiovs^ Kal Trapavoiwvs pvevres d/cAeo)?* 
ipLapavdrjaav . oaoi he aco(f)povt Xoyiafxa) p.er' al- 
Sovs olov drexvws nvpos a^etXov to fiaviKov, avyrjv 

C Se Kal <f)a>s (XTreAtTrov rfj tpvxfj /xera depfjLorrjros, 
ov aeiapLov /iev/ co? ris elne, Kivovarjs cttI anepfia 
Kar'* oXiadov aTopnov vtto XeiorrjTos Kal yapyaXi- 
afiov OXi^ofxeviov, Siaxvatv^ Be davfjLaoTTjv Kal yovi- 
fiov waTTep ev (f)VTCp ^Xaaravovri Kal rpe(f>opievci> 
Kal TTopovs avoiyovaav evTreideias Kal (f)LXo(f)poavv7js , 
OVK dv etyf ttoXvs ;^povos', ev <L to t€ atofia to 
Tojv epcofMevcov napeXdovTes eau) (fjepovTai Kal oltttov- 
Tttt Tov rjdovs, eKKeKaXvpLfievoi^ tcls oipeis KaO- 
opwai Kal avyyivovTai 8ta Xoyoiv to.* ttoXXo. Kal 
TTpd^eu>v dXXriXois, dv TrepiKopLfxa tov KaXov Kal 

D eiScoAov ev rat? Siavoiais exoioiv el he fi'q, X^^' 
pcLV ecoai Kal TpenovTai, irpos eTepovs o)aTTep al jxe- 
AtTTttt TToXXd Tcbv xXcopcov Kal dvdrjpcx)v fxeXi 8' ovk 
exdvTcxiv 0.770 AtTTovres" ottov S' dv extoaiv txyos 
TL TOV Beiov Kal diropporjv Kal 6fiot6Tr)Ta aaivovaav , 
v(f)* rjhovrjs Kal OavfiaTos evdovaichvTes Kal Trepi- 
CTTOVTe?,* evTTaOovaL ttj fjLvqfjir) Kal dvaXafiTTOvai 
TTpos eKeZvo to epdafxtov dXn^dcos Kal fiaKdpiov Kai 
<f>iXiov OLTTaai kqX dyaTrrjTOV. 

^ oKOTiovs Basel edition : okotovs. 

* d/cAecDj Meziriacus : a»cAivcos. 

" ix4v added by W. C. H. 
* K-OT* Madvig : koI. 

* Sidxvcriv Xylander : SidXvmv. 

* €17) Bernardakis : o. 

' iKKeKoXvfifievot Wyttenbach : eKKoXoviievos- 

* TO added by Bernardakis. 

404 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 765 

themselves -with, the smoke of humbug and passion 
or slip away to dark and illicit pleasures and fall into 
a shameful decay. But all those who by sober reason 
and modesty have excluded the raging element, as 
if it were literally fire, have kept in their souls only 
its light and radiance and warmth. This warmth 
does not, as someone " has affirmed, set up a churning 
that leads to the formation of seed through the 
gliding of atoms that are rubbed off in the smooth, 
tickling contact ; rather, it produces a marvellous 
and fruitful circulation of sap, as in a plant that 
sprouts and grows, a circulation that opens the way 
to acquiescence and affection. Nor is it long before 
lovers learn to disregard the body of the beloved ; 
they move inward instead and attach themselves to 
his character. The veil is stripped from their eyes 
and they see clearly and have intercourse — now 
through reasoned discourse, for the most part, but 
through moral behaviour as well — to discover whether 
the beloved may have in his thoughts an image that 
is cut to the pattern of ideal beauty. If he does not, 
they have no more to do with him and turn to others, 
like bees that abandon many fresh and charming 
flowers because these have no honey. But wherever 
they catch a trace of the divine, some emanation or 
beguiling resemblance, they are intoxicated with joy 
and wonder and pay court to it, basking in the 
memory of ideal beauty and renewing their radiance 
in the presence of that genuine object of love, 
blessed as it is and beloved of all and worthy of all 
affection. 

• Epicurus, frag. 311 (Usener) ; cf. 766 z infra ; Lucre- 
tius, iv. 1041. 

* irepUnoirres Relske : TrepioTrcDiTes. 

405 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(765) 20. " Ta ju,ev ovv ttoAAo. TroLTjTal Trpoa7Tait,ovTes 

eoLKacTL Tco dew ypa.(j>eiv Trepl avrov /cat aSetv cTn- 

KCDixa^ovres , oXiya 8e etprjraL fjLera aTTovSfjs avroXs, 

etre Kara vovv Kal Xoytapiov etre avv 6ea> rrjs dXyj- 

E deias di/jafxevois- c5v eV ecrrt /cat to Trepl rrjs yeve- 

Setvorarov decov^ 

rov yevvaT^ eyTreSiAAos"' *I/>iS" 

XpvGOKOfjia Ze^vpoj /xiyetcra** 

€t )Lt7^ Tt /cat u/Ltas' dva7T€7T€LKaaLV ot ypafifiaTLKOi, 
Xeyovres Trpog to ttoikLXov rod tto-Oovs /cat to dv- 
dr]pov yeyovevai rrjv elKaaiav." 

at o Aa^vatos", tt/jos' Tt yap, ^<pf], erepov ; 
Akovct'," elrrev 6 nari^p' " ovtoj yap jSta^CTat 
TO ^aivopbevov Xeyeiv. dvct/cAacrts' hrj ttov to Trepl 
TTjv Ipiv ioTL TTJs oifjeois Trddos, OTav 'qavx'rj voTcpcp 
Xeicp 8e /cat fxeTpiov nd^os^ exovTC TrpoaTreaovaa 
ve(f>€i Tov rjXCov ipavor) /caT* am/cAacrtv, /cat ttjv 
F TTcpl eKelvov avyrjv opcoaa /cat to (f>cbs So^av rjfxlv 
ivepydarjTaL tov (jiavTaofxaTOS w? ev to) V€(f>ei 
ovTos. TauTO* St/ to ipcoTiKov fjLrjxdvrjjjLa /cat ao- 
<f)i,a[j,a irepl Tas eu^uets" /cat (^lXokoXovs i/zv^ds' 
dm/cAacrtv TTOtet t'^? fJLvrjpL'r]s diro tcov evTavda <f>aL- 
vofidviov /cat TTpoaayopevofJiivcxiv /caAcDv et? to ^eiov 

^ ^e'oii' Bergk : 6eid>v. 

* TOV yeWar' Bergk : yeivaro. 

* eOTreStAAo? Ahrens : evneSiXos. 

* fiiyeiaa Person : fxix^eiaa. 

* naxos Stephanus : Trddos. * touto Pohlenz : tovto. 

« Alcaeus, frag. 13 b Diehl (i, p. 393) ; 13 Edmonds (Lyra 
Graeca, i, p. 328). Edmonds cites the Etymologicum Gudi- 

406 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 765 

20. " Now generally poets who write or sing of the 
god seem to be making fun of him or carousing in a 
drunken revel ; but they have some serious produc- 
tions to their credit, either because they have taken 
careful thought, or else by the god's help they have 
really grasped the truth. One such concerns his 
birth « : 

Most fearful of the gods 
Whom fair-sandalled Iris bore 
To Zephyr of the golden hair — 

unless you have let yourselves be persuaded by lite- 
rary critics who affirm that the imagery symbolizes 
the variegated brilliance '' of the emotion." 

Daphnaeus asked, " Why, what other interpreta- 
tion can one give to the words ? " 

" Listen," said my father, " for this account is 
forced upon us by the phenomenon. What happens 
to our vision when we see a rainbow '^ is, of course, 
refraction, which occurs whenever the sight encounters 
a slightly moist, but smooth and moderately thick 
cloud and has contact with the sun bv refraction. 
Seeing the radiance in this way produces in us the 
illusion that the thing we see is in the cloud. Now 
the de\'ices and ruses of Love's operations on noble 
souls who love beauty are of the very same kind : he 
refracts their memories from the phenomena of this 
world, which are called beautiful, to the marvellous 

anum : " Flowers are said to be tender because they grow 
in the spring, the particular season of love. That is why 
Alcaeus calls Love the child of the West Wind and the 
Rainbow." 

* The Rainbow ; but the word here rendered " brilliance " 
may mean " flowery," for which see the quotation in the 
preceding note. 

« Cf. Mor. 358 f f. ; 894 b-f ; 921 a. 

407 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(765) Kal epdafxiov /cat fiaKaptov (os dXr^dcos cKeZvo /cat 
davfidaiov KaXov. 

" 'AAA' ol TToAAot [xev iv Tratcrt /cat yyvat^tv 
cjarrep iv KaTOTrrpoLS etScoXov avrov ^avra^o/xevov 
766 hicjKovres Kal i/»7jAa0C(ivTes" ouSev T^hovrjs ju,e/xty- 
IxcvTjs XvTTrj SvvavraL Xa^eXv ^e^aLOTcpov dAA' o0- 
ros eoLKev 6 rov 'I^tovo?^ tAtyyo? e?vai /cat TrXdvos, 
iv vi^eai k€v6v coairep cr/ctat? Orjpwfjiivov^ to tto- 
dovfievov wcTTrep ol TratSe? 7Tpo6vfxovfJ.€VO(, rrjv Ipiv 
iXelv TOtv' ■)(^ep6lv, IXkoixcvoi Trpos ro 0atyo/i.evov. 

^v(f>vovs 8' ipaarov /cat aaxfjpovos dXXos rpo- 
7TOS' e/c€t yd/3 dva/cAarat Trpds" to deiov /cat votjtov 
KaXov oparov 8e CTCo/Ltaro? ivTVxd)v /cdAAet /cat 
)(p(J^>lJ'€VOS olov opydvcp rivi ttJ? fjLvqfjuTjs dairdt^erai 
/cat dyaTTCt, /cat cruvcov /cat yeyrjdo)? en fiaXXov iK- 
^Ae'yerat tt^v Stdv'otav /cat oure /xerd acofjidTCOv 
ovres ivravda tovtl to ^cDs" eTrnrodovvTes Kad- 
B r]VTai /cat davp,dt,ovres- ovt iKel yivofxevoL fierd 
rrjV reAeuTT^v, Sevpo vrdAtv arpe<f)6pLevoi Kal hpaire- 
revovres iv dvpais veoydpaov /cat Soifiariots kv- 
XivSovvrai, Svaovetpa ^avraapidrLa (f)iX'qSovojv /cat 
<f)iXoaa>iJidT(x)v dvBpcjv Kal yvvaiKcov ov St/catws' 
ipojTLKUiv TTpoaayopevofiivcov. 

" '0 yap d)s dXrjdoJs ipcoriKos iKel yevofievos 
Kal Tots KaXols opuX-qoras fj difiis, iTTriptorai /cat 

^ '\^iovos Winckelmann : TrAct'ofos. 

* dr]po}(xevov Reiske : drjpcjixevovs. 

' Toii' Doehner : raiv. 

" Cf. 766 E infra ; 944 e ; Plato, Symposium, 210 d ff. 
408 



THE DIALOGUE ON LO\'E, 765-766 

Beauty of that other world,** that di\'ine and blessed 
entity which is the real object of love. 

" Yet most men, since they pursue in boys and 
women merely the mirrored image of Beauty, can 
attain by their groping nothing more solid than a 
pleasure mixed with pain.* Probably this is the 
meaning of Ixion's "^ constant whirling and irregular 
course, for the object of his desire and pursuit was an 
illusion in the clouds, as it were an empty shadow. It 
is like the eagerness of children to catch the rainbow 
in their hands, attracted by its mere appearance. 

" But the noble and self-controlled lover has a 
different bent. His regard is refracted to the other 
world, to Beauty diWne and intelligible. When he 
encounters beauty in a visible body, he treats it as 
an instrument to memory-. He welcomes and delights 
in it, yet the pleasure of its company only serves the 
more to inflame his spirit. \Miile he is in this world 
and involved with bodies, he is not content to confine 
his activity to a wonder-struck yearning for the 
illumination of \isible beauty ; nor when he comes 
to the other world after death does he attempt to 
■WTcnch himself away and run back for an erotic 
wallow at the chamber doors of the newly wed — 
those ill-omened dreams of men and women in love 
with the pleasures of the body : it is very wTong to 
call them lovers.** 

" The true lover, when he has reached the other 
world and has consorted with true beauty in the holy 

* The " bittersweet " of Love from Sappho to Goethe has 
been collected by the commentators on Catullus, 68. 18. 

* Cf. Mor. m E. Ixion's pursuit of the cloudy Hera is 
most entertainingly set forth in Lucian's Dialogues of the 
Gods, 6 : " Here's a rascal who has tippled nectar to some 
purpose ! " ' Cf. Plato, Phaedo, 81 d. 

409 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(766) Kara>pyia(jT at /cat SiareAet Trepi rov avrov^ deov 
dvco ■)(opeva}V /cat avpLTrepLTToXcbv , axpi' ov ttolXlv 
et? rovs ^eX-qvTjs /cat ^ A.(f>pohirris Xeifxcovas cXdcov 
/cat KaraSapdojv irepas a.pxf]'TaL yeveaeoj?. 
C " 'AAAd ravra /xeV," €^17, " /xet^ovas" e'x^t rayv 
•napovrcov Aoycov virodeaeis. ro) S' "Epcuri /cat 
rovTO KadoLTTep rot? aAAot? 0eot? ' eveariv,' ws 
EuptTTtSTys' <f>''r}cri, ' TLpujjpiivcp p^atpetv avdpcjTTOJV vtto ' 
/cat TouvavTtov evp^eveararos yap iarL rots Sexo- 
fievoLS ifxpieXcos avrov ^apvs 8e rots' aTrau^aSi- 
aafievoLS.^ ovre yap ^evcov /cat Ik€twv dSt/cta? d 
Eertos" ovre yovecov dpas 6 TevedXtos ovrco Stca/cet 
/cat fi€T€t,ai rax^cos (hs^ ipaarals dyvii}pLOVT]del(jt,v 6 
"Epcu? o^vs inraKovei, twv aTratSeurcov /cat vTrept]- 
(fxivcov KoXaaT7]s. 

Tt ydp dv Xiyoi rt? Ev^uv^erov* /cat AeuKo/cd- 
/xav; Tt 8e* t')71' iv YsJJTrpco WapaKvirrovaav en 
vvv 7Tpoaayop€vo[JL€V7jv ; dXXd ttjv Topyovs lacos 
J) TTOLVTjv ovK dKiTjKoaTe Trjs l^p-^aarjs, TTapanX-qcna 
rfj HapaKVTTTOvarj Tradovarjs' ttXtjv eKeivrj p,€V 
aTTcXidwdr] TTapaKvipaaa tov epaarrjv iSetv e/c/cojUt- 
^ajjievov. 

" Trjs Se Topyovs "AaavSpos rt? rjpdadr], veos 
eTTieiKrjs /cat yevet Xap^irpos, e/c Se XafXTrpcov els 

^ avTov Wyttenbach : avrov. a 

* anavQahiaaixevois Winckelmann : diravdiaafievois E. dnav- 
0a8i.a^ofi€vois B. 

' (Its Basel edition : km. 

* Ev$vveTov Reiske. 

* AevKOKOfiav ; ri 8e Rohde : Aei^/co/ia»^rt8a. 

410 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 766 

way, grows \\-ings and joins in the continual celebra- 
tion of his god's mysteries," escorting * him in the 
celestial dance until it is time for him to go again to 
the meadows of the Moon and Aphrodite '^ and fall 
asleep before he begins another existence in this 
world. 

" But these topics," said my father, " take us 
beyond the purposes of the present discussion. Love, 
like the other gods, as Euripides •* says. 

Can be pleased by honours given him by men : 

but he can also be displeased : he is most gracious 
to those who receive him as they should and severe 
with those who have stubbornly rejected him. Neither 
does the god of Hospitality so quickly pursue and 
avenge •wTongs done to strangers and suppliants, nor 
the god of the Family a father's curse, as is Eros 
s\^'ift to respond to the complaints of outraged lovers 
and quick to punish the ill-mannered and disdainful. 

" Why tell the tale of Euxynthetus and Leuco- 
coma ? ' Or repeat the stor}- of the girl who is still 
called Paracyptousa ^ in Cyprus ? But perhaps you 
haven't heard the punishment of the Cretan Gorgo, 
who was treated verj* much like Paracj-ptousa, except 
that the latter was turned to stone at the moment 
when she peeped out of the window to watch the 
funeral procession of her lover. 

" Well, a certain Asander, an upright youth from 
a distinguished family, fell in love with Gorgo. 

• See Plato, Phaedrus, 249 a, 250 b ff. 

• Cf. 745 E supra. « Cf. 764 d supra. 
** Hippolytus, 7. 

• See Strabo, x. 4. 12. 

' Cf. Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses, 39. The name 
means " The Peeper." 

411 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(766) TaTTCLva Trpdynara /cat dSo^tav^ d(f)L'ynevos, ofjLtos 
avTov oySevo? aTrrj^iov^ dXXd t7)v Topyo), 8id 
rrXovrov cu? eot/ce Trepifxdx'rjTov ovaav /cat TToXvfxvi]- 
arevTOV, jjrec yvvdlKa auyyevrjs Ci>v, ttoXXovs e^iov 
/cat dyadovs crvvepcovras avTM, Trdvras Se rovs 

7T€pL rqV KOpiqV eTTtrpOTTOVS /cat OlKeCOVS 7T€7T€L- 
KOJS . . . 

21. " "Ert roivvv a? Xiyovaiv atria? /cat ye- 
E veaet? "Epajro?, tStai juev ovSerepov yevovs etcrt 
/cotvat 8' d[jL(f)OT€pcov. Kai yap eiScoXa SiJTTovdev ev- 
Svo/jceva rots epcoTLKoZs /cat Siarpexovra Kivelv /cat 
yapyaXit,€iv rov oyKov^ et? CTrepfxa crvvoXtadatvovra 
rot? aAAots" ax'TjIJ'O.rLajjiots ov Svvarov puev dno Trai- 
Scov, dSuvarov S' (xtto ywat/ccuv; /cat ra? /caAa? 
Tai/ra? /cat tepaj a?* dvapLvi^aei^ KaXovpiev rjfieLS €ttI 
TO deiov /cat oXtjOlvov /cat oAy/LtTrtov €/c€tvo /caAAos", 
at? «/'i'X''7 TTTcpovTat, ri dv /cojAuot* yiveadai puev 
aTTo TTalhcov /cat avro veavlaKcov, ylveadai 8' ciTro 
TTapdevojv /cat yurat/ccDi', orav -i^^o? ayvov /cat /coa- 
F jLttov ev cS/oa /cat ;){a/t)tTt jxop^rjs Sta^ave? yeVr^rai, 
KaOdnep opdiov VTTohrjjxa hecKwai ttoSo? €V(f)vtav, 
(1)9 ^ApiOTiov eXeyev rf orav iv etSecrt /caAots" /cat 

^ dSo^iav Bolkestein (c/. 53 b, 69 c) : eurcAiJ B ; lacuna in E. 

* airri^iov Bernardakis : dirrj^iovro. 

^ oyKov] yovov Rabinowitz. 

* as added by Rabinowitz after Bernardakis. 

* dv KcoXvoL Bernardakis : KcuXvei E ; oSv KcuXvei B. 

' ^ added by Bernardakis. 

" Here unfortunately the story ends, though the mss. indi- 
cate no lacuna. The gap must be a long one ; for when the 
dialogue is resumed, we have left the Shrine of the Muses 
and are on the way back to Thespiae. Zeuxippus has spoken 

412 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 766 

Though he had fallen on evil, disreputable days after 
his distinguished beginnings, nevertheless he did 
not think that anything was too good for him. He 
even asked Gorgo to be his ^vife, since he was her 
kinsman. The lady was, it seems, much sought after 
for her wealth, so that Asander had plenty of worthy 
rivals. He, however, was able to win over all the 
girl's guardians and relatives ..." 

21. " Furthermore, the causes that they ^ give for 
the generation of love are peculiar to neither sex 
and common to both. For is it really the case that 
visual shapes emanating from boys can, but the 
same from women cannot, enter into the body of the 
lover where, coursing through him, they stimulate 
and tickle the whole mass and, by gliding along \nth 
the other configurations of atoms, produce seed ? " 
And those beautiful and sacred passions which we •* 
call recollections of the diWne, the true, the Olympian 
beauty of the other world, by which the soul is made 
winged — why should they not spring from maidens 
and women, as well as from boys and striplings, 
whenever a pure and disciplined character shines 
through from within a beautiful and charming out- 
ward shape (just as a well-made shoe, as Ariston * 
remarked, reveals a shapely foot) — or whenever the 

against conjugal love and Plutarch is in the act of replying 
to him. *" Probably the Epicureans. 

* See the Epicurean doctrine mentioned in the note on 
765 c supra. 

^ As Platonists, opposed to Epicurean dogma. The un- 
expressed antecedent of the relative is " passions " (some 
word like fxavias may have fallen out, or be understood) : 
see Plato, Phaedrus, 249 d-e. 

• Von Arnim, .S. V.F. i, p. 390 ; but Wehrli {Me Schule 
des Aristoteles, vol. vi) assigns the fragment to Ariston of 
Ceos (frag. 21). 

413 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(766) Kadapolg acoixaaiv ix^'H Aa/xTrpd /cet/xeva^ ^'^XV^ 
opda /cat ddpvTTTa' KarlScoaiv ol Seivoi tcjv toiov- 
rcov aladdveadai ; 

Ov yap 6 ixev <f>cX'rjSovos ipcorrjOels ec 

TTpos drjXv vevei fidXXov ■^ iirl rdppeva 

767 /cai d7TOKpLvd[ji€vos , 

OTTOV TTpOCrfj TO KOiXXoS, d.pL(f}L8€^LOS, 

eSofev oIk€lcx)S dTTOKpivaadai rrjs iTnOv/xlas' 6 8e 
(f)LX6KaXos Kal yevvalos ov TTpos to KaXov ovSe rrjv 
€V(f)vtav dAAct fxoplcov Stat^o/ads' TroietTai tovs epco- 
ras. 

Kal <f)iXnnTog fxev dvqp ovSev rJTTOv doTra^eTai 
Tov IloSdpyov rr]v €V(f>vtav ' AWr)s rrjs 'Aya/xe- 
fjivoverjs '*• /cat dr^parLKos ov rols appeal ■)(aip€L 
jxovov, dXXd Kal K/Di^oo-a? Tp€(f>eL /cat AaKatVa? 
OKvXaKas' 6 Se (fyiXoKaXos /cat (j)iXdvdpojTTos ovx 
op-aXos ioTLV oi58' opLOLos dpi(f)OT€poLS roL£ yeveatv, 
dAA' (voTTep IpbaTLCov olofxevos elvai 8ia(f)opds epo)- 
B T6t)v* yvvaiKcbv /cat dvSpaiv; 

KatTot T7JV y' (Zpav ' dvdos dpeTrjs ' eivat 
Aeyoyat, {xr) (f>dvaL 8' dv^eiv ro drjXv jjurjSe TTOieZv 
€p,(f)aaLv €V(f>vtas vpos dperrjv aroTTov eari,' /cat yap 

^ Keifieva Meziriacus : Koi Kelfieva. 

* adpvTTTa Stephanus : Opvrrra (Rabinowitz suspects that 
opOa Kal adpvTTTa are an interpolated gloss). 

' KldT}s TTJs 'Ayafiefivove-r]; Hubert, deleting -q, the preceding 
word : Atdrjv ttjv 'Ayafiefivoveriv. 

* e'pcoTcov Reiske : ipiovTcov. 

" Nauck, op. cit. p. 906, Adespoton 355 ; Kock, Com. 
Att. Frag, iii, p. 476, Adespoton 360. See also Mor. 34 a. 

414 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 766-767 

clearcut traces of a shining soul stored up in beautiful 
forms and pure bodies are perceived undistorted, ■with- 
out a flaw, by those capable of such perceptions. 
" In the play, the pleasure-lover is asked whether 

To women more than men is he inclined ? 

And he answers 

AMiere there is beauty, he is ambidexterous. " 

If he is to be given credit for an answer well suited to 
lust, it is no less true that the noble lover of beauty 
engages in love wherever he sees excellence and 
splendid natural endowment \v-ithout regard for any 
difference in physiological detail. 

" A lover of horses takes pleasure in the excellent 
quaUties of ' Aethe, Agamemnon's mare ' * no less 
than in those of the horse Podargus. The hunter has 
no special preference for male dogs, but also keeps 
Cretan and Laconian bitches. So too \vi\\ not the 
lover of human beauty be fairly and equably disposed 
toward both sexes, instead of supposing that males 
and females are as different in the matter of love as 
they are in their clothes ? . . . 

" To be sure they say " that beauty is the * flower of 
virtue ' ; yet it would be absurd to deny that the 
female produces that flower or gives a ' presentation * 
of a ' natural bent for virtue.' Aeschylus •* is surely 

* Homer, Iliad, xxiii. 295 ; rf. ^for. 32 e ; 209 c ; 988 a ; 
Life of Agesilaiis, ix (600 e). 

' The Stoics and specifically Chrysippus : von Arnim, 
S.V.F. iii, p. 718. Rabinowitz thinks that there is another 
lacuna before these words. In it the Stoic position on women 
was stated, " a position which Plutarch believes to be in- 
compatible with their further general view that beauty is the 
flower of virtue." Plutarch enjoys parodying Stoic jargon. 

<» Frag. 243 (Nauck, p. 78) ; ef. Mor. 81 d. 

415 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 
(767) AlaxvXos opdcos eTToirjae 

veas yvvaiKos ov /xe ixrj Xadrj ^Xiyoyv 
6(f)daXix6s, 17x19 dvSpos fi yeyevfxevT]. 

iTorepov ovv Irayuov fxev rjdovs Kal OLKoXdarov Kai 
Si,€(f)9op6TOS cri^ju.eia rot? etSecri tcDv yvvatKwv ctti- 
rpdx^t, KoafMLOv Se /cat ao)j>povos ovhev cTreari t^ 
fiop<f>fj ipeyyos ; ^^ TToXXd fxev eTreari /cat avveTn(f)ai- 
verac, /civet 8' ovdev ovSe TrpoaKaXelrat, rov epcora; 
ovSerepov yap evXoyov ovS' a.Xr)des. 
C " 'AAAa KOLvcbs waTTep Se'Set/crat rot? yeveai 
vavTcov vTTapxovTOJV , a>a7T€p kolvov^ crvardvros rod 
dycuros'/ c5 Aa</>vat€, Trpos eKeivovs p-axiop-eda* rovs 
Xoyovs, ovs 6 Zey^tTTTTo? dprlcos birjXdev, CTnOvfJiia 
Tov "EpcuTtt ravTo ttoicov dKaraaTarcp /cat Trpos to 
d/coAacTTOV iK(f)€povar) rrjv ipvxijv, ovk avros ovroi 
7r€7T€i.GfJi,€vos, OLKr^KoaJS 8e TToAAct/cts" dvBpojv 8va- 
KoXojv /cat dvepdcTTOJV c5v* ol [M€V dOXia yvvaia 

TTpOLKl^ioLS i(f>€XK6fX€V0L,^ CtTtt' ;)(/>7JjLtaTCOV' Ct? Ot/CO" 

vofiiav Kal Xoyiapiovs ifx^dXXovres dveXevdepovg, 
D ^uyo/xa;;^oi'i'T€? ocrrjfjiepaL Bid ;^etpos' I^ouctiv 01 8e 
TTaihiDV SeojxevoL fidXXov 1^ yvvaiKCJV, (LoTrep ot rer- 
Ttye? €1? CT/ciAAav '^ rt roiovro rrjv yovrjv d(f)Ldaiv, 
ovroj Sid rdxovs ols ervx^^ crcu/xaaiv ivaTToyevvi]- 
aavres /cat Kapirov dpdfievoi. ;)^ai/)€iv ccDcriv 17877 tov 

^ ^ added by Meziriacus. 

* Koivov Reiske : k vov E. kvov B. 

' TOV d.yo>vos added by Bernardakis after Madvig : there 
is a lacuna of 10 letters in E ; of 8 in B ; cf. 753 b. 

* /iax<o/xe&a Amyot : fiaxoneda, 

416 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 767 

right in saying, 

An ardent eye betrays the tender girl 
Who once has tasted of the joys of love. 

Do the ' signs ' betokening a flighty, unchaste, and 
corrupt character overrun women's faces, while no 
lustre is added to a female's beauty by a chaste and 
modest character ? Or are there many ' signs ' of the 
latter which 'present themselves in combination,' yet 
nevertheless do not move or evoke our love ? Neither 
position is well taken or true. 

" But now, Daphnaeus, since we have shown that 
all these characteristics belong to both sexes ahke, let 
us too join in the struggle and make common cause 
against those arguments which Zeuxippus recently 
developed. He identified Love with an uncon- 
trolled desire which forced the soul into debau- 
chery, not that he was himself con\inced of this, but 
because he had often heard it from ill-tempered 
fellows," who had never fallen in love. Some of these 
creatures attach to themselves a wTctched female 
for her bit of dowrv", then thrust her into the keeping 
of strict and slavish accounts, quarrel with her day 
after day, and keep her under their thumbs. Others 
want children more than a wife : like cicadas * who 
eject their seed into a squill or something of the sort, 
they are quick to fecundate the first body they come 
upon. When they have reaped the fruit, they are 

" P*robably the Cyrenaics and Epicureans. 
* Cf. Plato, Symposium, 191 b. 

' wv added by Meziriacus. 

* iifieXKOfievoi Reiske: f<f>€XK6fj.€va. 

■> flTa\y. C. H. : /x€Td. 

• Irvxov BoUaan. 

VOL. IX p 417 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(767) ydfiov, ^ fidvovTos ov cftpovrt^ovaiv ou8' d^iovaiv ^ 
ipdv oj3S' ipdadat. 

" Hrepyeadai, Se Kal arepyecv i.vi fxot, Bokcl 
ypap^jxari rov ariyeiv TrapaXXdrrov evdvs e/Lt(^at- 
veiv rrjv vtto ^povov kol avvrjdeias dvdyKrj /xe/xty- i 
fievrjv evvoiav. (L 8' av "Epco? eTnaKiqijjrj re^ koL 
eTTtTTvevar) , TrpaJrov fxev e/c rrjs IlAaTa»vt/c7ys' TToXecos 
' TO ifjbov ' e^ei /cat ' to ovk ifiov ' • ov yap aTrXajs 
Koiva ra (piAcDV Kat epwvTCOv aAA ol tols 
criofiaokv opi^opievoi Tas i/jv^ds ^ia. avvdyovat, /cat 
avvT7]Kov(n, pirjTe ^ovXofievoL 8u' elvai [jlt]T€ vo/xi- 

^OVT€S. 

" "E,7T€LTa acjo^poavvrj rrrpos aAAT^Aous", rj'S p-dXiGTa 
BeiTai ydfxog, rj piev e^codev Kal vojjlcdv evcKa* 
TtXeov exovaa tov eKovaiov to jSe^iacr/xeVov vtt 
alaxvvTjs Kal (f)6Pcov, 

TToXXcov )(aXLva)v epyov oia/ctov d afia, 

8id x^f'pds iaTLV del tols crvvova-LV "Epcori 8' iyKpa- 
Teias ToaovTOV Kal Koapov Kal Tn'crrecos' pcTeaTiv, 
c5crT€, Koiv dKoXdoTov TTOTe Oiyrj ijJ^XV^' dTreoTpeipe 
Tosv dXXcov ipacTTOJV, e/c/coi/fa? 8e to Qpacros /cat 
/caTa/cAaoa? to ao^apov Kal dvdyojyov, ip^a- 

^ T€ added by Bernardakis in a lacuna. 

* Kal ipcLvroiv Pohlenz to fill a lacuna (oi58e iravrcuv 
Winckelmann). ^ ol Amyot : ^. 

* ev€Ka added by Hubert to fill a lacuna. 
^ epyov Stephanus : epycov. 

" The Greek words that differ by a letter are stergein, 
" cherish," and stegein, " not to leak " (of a roof, for in- 
stance). So affection is like a tight roof that keeps the home 
cosy. * Cf. Mor. 448 e. 

« Republic, 462 c ; cf. Mor. 140 d ; 484 d. The citizens 

418 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 767 

ready for divorce ; or, if the marriage stands, they 
pay no attention to it, so little do they care for giving 
or receiving love. 

" But between ' attachment to wife ' and ' attach- 
ment to life ' " the difference is only that of a single 
letter, and this immediately gives us a hint of the 
mutual loyalty that time and companionship are 
bound to create.'' The man whom Love strikes and 
inspires will first of all come to understand ' mine ' 
and ' not mine ' as these terms are used in Plato's 
city." The phrase, ' all is held in common among 
friends ' '^ and lovers is not one of absolute validity : it 
applies only to those who, though separated in body, 
forcibly join their souls and fuse them together,* no 
longer v\ishing to be separate entities, or believing 
that they are so. 

In the next place, there is temperance, a mutual 
self-restraint which is a principal requirement of 
marriage. The temperance that coraes from -without 
and in deference to usage is imposed by shame or 
fear, rather than voluntary ; 

The task of many a bit and many a rudder, ' 

it is always in the power of those who live together. 
Love, however, has in himself enough self-control, 
decorum, and mutual trust, so that if he ever but 
touches the heart even of a profligate, he turns him 
from his other lovers, drives out insolence, humbles 
pride and intractability, and brings in modesty, 

of Plato's State used the terms " mine," " not mine " in 
concert about the same things, not individually or selfishly. 

^ Cf. Mor. 644 c ; 743 e. 

• Cf. Mor. 156 c ; 769 a ; Plato, Symposium, 192 e. 

f Sophocles, frag. 785 (Nauck, p. 315) ; cf. Life of Alex- 
ander, vii (667 f). 

419 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(767) Acov^ atSca Kal aLCOTrrjv Kal Tjcrvxtav Kal a)(i^[j,a 
J" Trepidels Koafitov, evos in'qKoov iTToirjcrev. 

" "lore SijiTovdev aKofj AatSa ttjv dolSifMov €K€t- 

vr)v /cat 7ToXvT]parov, to? e77€^Aeye TTodo) rrjv 

EAActSa, [jLoiXXov be rat? Svalv '^v 7T€pi,fji,d)(7jros da- 

Xdcraais- iirel 8' epcos ediyev avrrjs 'IttttoXoxov 

Tov QeaaaXov, tov 

vbari yXoipcp /cara/cAu^Ojueror TTpoXiTTova 
'AKpoKopivdov 

/cat drroSpdaa raJv dXXcov ipaarcov Kpv(f)a ttoXvv opui- 
768 Xov /cat rcDv iraipcjv^ fxeyav arparov cpx^ro Koa- 
fiLCos' CKel S' avTTjv at yuvat/ce? vtto (f)d6vov /cat 
^ijXov Std TO KdXXos els Icpov ^A(f>pohLrr}? Ttpo- 
ayayovaai KariXevaav Kal hie<j>deLpav' odev to? 
€oiK€v en vvv to lepov ' 'A^poSiVry? dvSpo^ovov ' 



KaXoVGLV. 
It ui 



'Icr/zev 81^ /cat depaTxaivihta Seairorcov cf)evyovTa 
avvovalas /cat jSaatAtStov vnepopcovras tStcoTa?, 
orav "Epcora SeCTTrtJTi^i^ ev iltvxfj Kr'qacovrai. Kad- 
direp yap ev 'Pcofjurj (f>aal tov KaXovfxevov^ Siktci- 
Tcopos dvayopevdevTos dTTorideadai ra? aAAa? dp)(ds 
rovs exovras, ovrcos, ols dv "Kpcos Kvpios eyyevrj- 
rai, rdiv dXXcov SeaTrortov /cat dp^ovTcov iXevdepoi 
B Kal d(f)€TO(, Kaddnep lepoBovXoi SiareXovo'iv. rj Se 
•yewaia yvvq Trpog dvSpa vopupiov avyKpadeiaa 8t' 

"EptOTO? dpKTCOV dv V7T0fM€LVei€ Kal hpaKOVTOiV 

TTepi^oXds fxdXXov 7) iftavaLv dvbpo? dXXorpiov Kal 
avyKardKXicTLV . 

22. " 'A(f)6ovias Se TrapaBeiyfidrcov ovarjs Trpos 

^ efj^aXcov Aldine edition : tfi^d^XcDv. 
420 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 767-768 

silence, calm. He clothes him with the robes of 
decorum and makes him deaf to all appeals but one. 

" You have, of course, heard of Lais, the theme of 
song, the essence of loveliness — how she threw all 
Greece into a fever of longing or was, rather, the 
object of contention from sea to sea." But when she 
fell in love with Hippolochus the Thessalian, 

Forsaking Acrocorinth bathed in grey-green water,' 

and escaping secretly from the vast throngs of her 
other lovers and from the great army of harlots, she 
beat an orderly retreat. But when she came to 
Thessaly, the women there were envious and jealous 
of her beauty, decoyed her into a temple of Aphro- 
dite, and stoned her to death ; and this seems to be 
why to this very day they call it the temple of 
Murderous Aphrodite. 

" We also know quite well that slave girls will fly 
from the embrace of their masters, and subjects 
reject their own queen, when Love becomes the lord 
of their souls. At Rome, they say, when the so-called 
dictator is proclaimed, all the other magistrates 
resign their offices ; just so when Love enters as 
sovereign, men are ever after free and released from 
all other lords and masters and continue throughout 
their days to be, as it were, slaves of the god. A 
noble woman united by love to her lawful husband 
could endure the embrace of bears and snakes more 
readily than the touch and couch of another man. 

22. " Although there is an abundance of examples 

» That is, the two seas of Corinth, the Saronic Gulf and the 
Gulf of Corinth. » Euripides, frag. 1081 (Xauck, p. 703). 

* TToXvv ofiiXov Kol TcDv €Tcup<ov Tov added by Bernardakis to 
fill a lacuna. * KoXovfxevov Xylander : koAov. 

421 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 
(768) y vfids Tovs 6[jLox<Jopovs tov deov /cat OLaaanas, 

OfJiCOS TO 7T€pL KctjLtjLtai'^ OVK d^lOV eOTL TTjV FaAtt- 

riKTjv TrapeXdeXv. ravrrjg yap iKTrpeTTeardrrjs ttjv 
oijjiv yevopLevrjs, Jlcvdrtp Se toj Terpdpxjj yapLTjdeL- 
<rqs, TiLvopt,^ ipaadels Swarcoraros TaXarcov dn- 
cKTeive TOV ^LvaTov, d)s ovTe ^Laaaadai Svvdfievos 
ovT€ TTelaat ttjv dvdpcoTTov eKelvov ^wvtos. Tyr Se 

C TTJ K^dfi/jLT) KaTa(f)vyrj /cat TrapapbvOia tov nddovs 
lepojavvrj TraTpcoos A/^re/xtSos'* /cat Ta TToXXd napd 
TTJ dew SceTpL^ev, ovSeva TTpoaieixevq, [xvaifjievcov 
TToXXdJv fiaaiXecDV /cat SwaoTcbv aiiTt^v. tov jxevTOi 
TiivopLyos ToXfjiTjaavTOS ivTV^^Zv irepl ydpuov, ttjv 
iretpav ovk €<f>vyev oj38' e/xejaj/faro irepl tcov yeyovo- 
Tcov, 60? 8t' evvoiav avTrjs /cat rrodov ovk dXXr) tlvl 
fxoxd'^pio- TTpoaxdevTOS tov Hivopiyos. rjK€v ovv 
TTtCTTeucras" eKelvos /cat ^Vet tov ydfiov -q 8' cxtt- 
rjVT7]ae /cat he^LCoaapievT] /cat Trpocrayayovaa Ta> 
jSoj/Ltoi TTJg Beds eanreiaev e/c (fjidX-qg /xeAt/cparov, ws 
€OLK€, TTeffyappbaKcopievov cW^ daov TJjJiiav fxepos 

D avT"?) TTpoeKVLOvaa napeScoKe Tip TaXdTTj to Xolttov 
(x)S 8' et8ev eKTreTTCoKOTa, Xapbirpov dvojXoXv^e /cat 
(jidey^apievrj Tovvofxa tov TedvetoTOS , ' TavTrjv/ 
etirev, ' iyd) ttjv rjpepav, d> (jiiXTaT avep, rrpoa- 
[xevovaa aov p^copt? e^a>r avtapa;?" vvv 8e Ko/jnaaL 
/Lie ;^at/3a>v rjiJLVvdp,7]v yap vnep aov tov KaKiaTov 

dvdpCOTTCOV, aOL pL€V ^LOV TOVTtp 8e daVaTOV KOIVCJVOS 

rjSeoJS yevofjLevr)." 6 /xev ovv Titvopi^ iv (f>opeicp 
^ Kdfj.fiav Xylander : Ka/j-ifiav. 

" See Mor. 257 e ff. where the story is told at greater 
length ; Polyaenus, viii. 39. 

* To solemnize the betrothal. 

* Mor. 258 c is rather more colourful about the gentleman's 

422 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOV'E, 768 

of this — at least to you who are fellow countrymen 
and initiates of the god — yet I hardly think it right 
to pass over the story of Camma of Galatia." She 
was a very beautiful woman married to Sinatus the 
tetrarch. Sinorix, the most powerful of the Galatians, 
fell in love with her and killed Sinatus, since he was 
unable to obtain the lady's consent either by force or 
persuasion while her husband was alive. Now Camma 
had a refuge and a consolation for her tragedy in 
ser\ing as hereditary priestess of Artemis. She 
spent the greater part of her time in the goddess' 
temple and received no one, though many kings and 
potentates came to woo her. Yet when Sinorix dared 
to propose marriage, she did not shun his overtures 
or reproach him for past deeds, as if an act inspired 
by his kind regards . and love for her could have 
nothing \\-icked about it. So he trusted in this and 
came to the temple and asked her to marrj^ him. She 
met him, gave him her hand, led him to the altar of 
the goddess, and poured as a libation * a phial of 
hydromel which was, it seems, mixed with poison. 
Thereupon she drank off half of it herself as though 
it were a toast and gave the rest to the Galatian. 
When she saw that he had swallowed it, she shouted 
loud and clear in triumph and uttered the dead man's 
name. ' It was,' she cried, ' dearest husband, be- 
cause I was awaiting this day that I have endured 
my tortured life without you. Now rejoice and take 
me. I have avenged you on the vilest of creatures, 
sharing death with him as gladly as I did my life 
with you.' So Sinorix '^ was carried out in a litter 

death : " he mounted a chariot as if to try shaking and 
jolting as a relief, but almost immediately he had to climb 
down, was changed over to a litter, and expired when night 
fell." 

423 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(768) KOju.t^ojLtevo? ^era fiiKpov ireXevrrjaev, rj 8e Ka/ti/xa 
TTjv Tjiiepav im^icoaaaa /cat ttjv vvKra Aeyerat jMctA' 
evdapaojs /cat IXapcos oiTrodavelv. 

23. " noAAcuv Se TOLOvrcov yeyovorcov /cat Trap' 
E ry/Lttv /cat Trapa rot? jSapjSctpot?, tiV av^ arao-p^otro 
TcDv T17V ^ K<l>pohirriv Xoihopovvrojv , ojs "Epoin Trpoa- 
de/jLevT] /cat Trapovcra KcoXvei ^tAiav yeveadai; ttjv 
[xevTOt^ TTpos d'ppev' appevos opuXiav, [xaXXov S' 
aKpaaiav /cat eTTi.Tn^S'qaiv, etTTOt ti? av ervoTjaas' 

v^pis raS' oi);!^t' KuTrpt? e^cpya^erai. 

810 Toy? /iev rjBofievovs tco Traap^etv ei? to p^etpio-rov 
Tidefjievoi yevos /ca/cta? oy're TTiarecos pbolpav ovr* 
alBovs ovre ^tAia? v^e/xo/xev, aAA' a>S" dXrjdws Kara* 
Tov So^o/cAea 

^IXcov TOLOVTCOV OL jxev ecrrepT^/xeVot 
■)(aLpovaLV, OL 8 €)(ovt€s ev)(ovTat (f)vyelv. 

oaoL Se /xt) /ca/cot 7T€<f)VK6Tes i^rjTrarTjdrjaav ^ /care- 
F ^idad-qaav ivSovvac /cat Trapaorx^tv iavrovs, ovSeva 
p,dXXov dvdpwTTWv 'q rovs htaQivras vcftopcofievoi 
/cat [JLLaovvres StareAoucrt /cat TTi/cpcDs" djJiVvovTai 
Kaipov TTapaSovTOS' ^Ap)(eXa6v re yap avre/CTetve 
Kparea? epcofxevos yeyovois, /cat tov Oepatov 
' AXe^avhpov nu^oAaos" neptavSpo? 8' o 'A/xj3pa/ct- 

^ av added by Madvig. 

^ /xeWoi Emperius : /xev^/xei- oiJv Wyttenbach). 

' oi5xi Hermann : 01);^ 17. 

* Kara Basel edition : koL 

* XaCpovaiv Xylander : »cai xo-^P°vaiv. 

" Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 917, Adespoton 409. As- 
sonance points up the antithesis of Hybris (insolence) and 
Cypris (love). 

424. 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 768 

and died shortly after. Camma lived through that 
day and the following night and is said to have ex- 
pired with the greatest courage and good cheer. 

23. " Since many such things have happened both 
here in Greece and in foreign parts, who could be 
patient when men rexile Aphrodite, claiming that 
when she joins and accompanies Eros, it is impossible 
for friendship to exist ? Now of the union of male 
with male (it is, rather, not a union, but a lasci%-ious 
assault), one would be right to say, 

This is the work of Hybris, not of Cj^pris." 

That is why we class those who enjoy the passive 
part * as belonging to the lowest depth of viceanff 
allow them not the least degree of confidence or 
respect or friendship. Of such creatures the words 
of Sophocles '^ are true : 

Of friends like them it's joy to be bereft. 

And those who have them pray for some escape. 

Young men not naturally \icious, who have been 
Ivu-ed or forced into yielding and letting themselves 
be abused, forever after mistrust and hate no one on 
earth more than the men who so served them and, if 
opportunity offers, they take a terrible vengeance. 
Crateas ** slew Archelaiis who had been his lover and 
Pytholaiis killed Alexander of Pherae.* Periander,^ 

* Compare Flaceliere's interpretation and Robbins on 
Ptolemy, Tetrabiblos, ii. 3. 62 (L.C.L. ed. p. 135) ; iii. 14. 
172 ; iv. 5. 187 (p. 402). 

« Frag. 779 (Nauck, p. 313) ; ef. Mor. 94 d. 

* Cf. Plato, Alcibiades II, 141 d ; Aristotle, Politics, 
1311 b 8 ff. 

* Cf. Life of Pelopidas, xxxv (297 e fF.), 
f Cf. Aristotle, PolUics, 1311 a 39 ff. 

485 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(768) o)t6)v Tvpavvos rjpcora rov ipcofxevov el [xrJTTOj Kvei, 
KOLKelvos TTapo^vvdels a.TT€Kreiv€v avrov. 
769 " 'AAAa^ yvvai^l ye* yaixcrats ap^at ravra ^lAia?, 
wa7T€p Upuiv fjieydXtov KOLVCovT^nara. /cat to rrjs 
rj^ovrjs /JiiKpov, rj 8' ciTro ravrrjs dva^Xaardvovaa 
Kad^ ripLepav rifir] /cat xapi? /cat dyaTrrjcns dXX'qXojv 
/cat TTtCTTtS" ovT€ AcAc^ous" iXey^ei Xrjpovvras, otl 
r7]v A(l)po8iT'qv ' "Ap/xa ' KaXovacv, ov6' "Ofirjpov 
^iXoTTfra ' TTjv TOLavTTjv TTpoaayopevovra avvov- 
aiav TOP re SdAtova jxaprvpeL yeyovevai twv 
yapuiKwv epLTTetporarov vojjLoderrjv, KeXevaavra firj 
eXarrov rj rplg Kara [Ji7]va rfj yapierfj TrAT^ata^etv, 
ovx rjSovrjs eVe/ca St^TTovOev,^ aAA' (Larrep at TroAet? 
B 8ta xpovov CTTTovSas" dvaveovvrat rrpos dAATjAa?, 
ovTOi's dpa PovXofxevov*^ dvaveovadat rov ydp,ov e/c 
rcov eKdarore avXXeyo[xeviov eyKXrjixdrcov^ iv rfj 
roiavrrj (f>iXo(f)poavvrj . 

'AAAa TToXXd (f)avXa /cat [xaviKa rcov yvvaLKeioiv^ 
epcorcov. ri 8'; ov-)(l TrXeiova rcov TraihiKcov ; 

oLKelov etBos^ epi^XeTTcov (hXiadavov 

dyevecos dnaXos /cat veavta? /caAos", 

ifx^vvr'^ aTTodavetv KdTnypdpLixaros rv)(^elv. 

dAA' (Larrep rovro TrachopbavLa, ovrws cKelvo yvvai- 
Ko/Ltavta* TO Trddos, ovSerepov 8' epcos eariv. 

^ dAAa Stephanus : a/xa. * ye Reiske : re. 

^ hrjTTovdev Leonardus : nodev. 

* PovXofievov Reiske : PovXofjLevoi. 

^ iyKXrjfiaTcov Emperius : (7)(r]^dTU)v. 

* yvvaiKelaiv Meziriacus : yvvaiKiov. 

' oLKeiov etSoj Post : oiKeiorqTos. 

* i^<f)vvr' Stephanus : iv<f>vvTa. 

• ovTCDS iKclvo yvvaiKOfiavia added by Bernardakis. 

426 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 76&-769 

t}Tant of Ambracia, asked his minion whether he 
was not yet pregnant ; the boy fell into a rage and 
slew him. 

" On the other hand, in the case of lawful wives, 
physical union is the beginning of friendship, a 
sharing, as it were, in great mysteries. Pleasure is 
short ; but the respect and kindness and mutual 
aflFection and loyalty that daily spring from it con- 
victs neither the Delphians of raving when they call 
Aphrodite ' Harmony ' •* nor Homer ** when he desig- 
nates such a union as ' friendship.' It also proves that 
Solon '^ was a very experienced legislator of marriage 
laws. He prescribed that a man should consort ^\-ith 
his wife not less than three times a month — not for 
pleasure surely, but as cities renew their mutual 
agreements from time to time,** just so he must have 
wished this to be a renewal of marriage and with 
such an act of tenderness to ^vipe out the complaints 
that accumulate from everj'day living. 

But,' you may say, ' there is much that is bad 
and mad in the love of women.' And doesn't that of 
boys have even more ? 

Seeing a kindred shape I swooned away.* 

Beardless, soft, a lovely boy. 

Clasped in his arms I'd die and find my epitaph.' 

But just as this is boy-madness, so that other affliction 
is to be woman-crazy : neither is love. 

• Cf. Mor. 156 c-D. 

• Homer, Iliad, xiv. 209 and often. 
« Life of Solon, xx (89 c). 

' Cf. Mor. 14.3 D. 

• Like Narcissus, falling in love with himself. 

' All by unknown comic poets : Kock, iii, p. 451, Adespota 
222-224. 

427 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(769) Atottov ovv to yvvai^lv dperrjs (fxivai ii'qha^fj^ 

fj,€T€tvai' TL 8e Set Xeyeiv Trepl^ craxfipoavvrjs Kal 
(jvv€a€0}S avToJVy en 8e Triarecos Kal SiKaiocrvvris, 
07T0V Kat TO avhpeZov KOI TO dappaXeov Kal to fxe- 
C yaXoiJjvxov iv TToXXals i7Ti,(f>av€s^ yiyove; to 8e 
TTpos ToAAa KaXriv* T-r^v <f>vaiv avTcbv, dAAd* ijieyov- 
Tas" et? p.6vr]v jyiXiav avappLooTOV (XTro^atVetv, navrd- 
TTaai heivov. Kal yap ^iX6t€kvoi Kal (^iXavhpoi Kal 

TO GTCpKTLKOV oAcO? €V aVTals , (X>G7T€p €V<f)Vr]g X^P^ 

Kal ScKTiKT} <l>iXlas, ovT€ 7T€idovg ovT€ ;;^aptTa>v 
dfioipov VTTOKeiTai. KaOdnep 8e Xoycp TToirjais 
rjSvGixaTa pueXr] Kal jLte'rpa Kal pvdfMovs e^ap/xocraaa 
Kal TO TTatSevov avTOV Kivr)TiK(i}Tepov eTTolrjae Kal 
TO jSAdvrTov d(f)vXaKT6T€pov, ovTCx}? T) (f)vcns yvvaiKl 
TTepidelaa X^P''^ oipeats Kal (f>covrjs mdavoTrjTa Kal 
fiop<f>rjs €7Taycoy6v etSos, ttj jtxev d/coAdcrra) Trpos 
D r^hovr^v Kal aTrdTrjv ttj Se aw(f)povi Trpog cvvoiav 
dvSpos Kal <j)iXiav jxeydXa avvT^pyqaev. 

" *0 /xev ovv UXaTCOV tov "EevoKpaTTj, rdAAa 
yevvalov ovTa Kal p,eyav, avoTrjpoTaTOv Se to) '^^et, 
TrapcKdXei dvecv rats' ^dpiai. XPV^'^V ^' ^^ '^''^ 
yvvaLKi Kal aoi^povi -Tra/aatve'aete to) "Epcort dveiv, 
OTTCDS evpievrjs avvoiKovpjj Tip yd/xoj Kal rjhvopiaaiv 
avTTjv iTTiKocrpLTjor} Trdat rots"* yuvat/cetot?, /cat pt,rj 

^ fiTjbanfj Bernardakis : /xr^S' oXXtjs. 

* Ti 8e Sei Xeyeiv Trepl Winckelmann : tL Set Xeyeiv; irepi 
Se BE. * eTTi<f)aves Basel edition : e7n<f>aveiais. 

* TO Se TTpos ToAAa KaXrjv Bernardakis : Se irpos to, dXXa Kara, 

428 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 769 

" So it is ridiculous to maintain that women have 
no participation in virtue." What need is there to 
discuss their prudence and intelhgence, or their 
loyalty and justice, when many women have exhibited 
a daring and great-hearted courage which is truly 
masculine ? And to declare that their nature is 
noble in all other relationships and then to censure 
it as being unsuitable for friendship alone — that is 
surely a strange procedure. They are, in fact, fond 
of their children and their husbands ; their affections 
are like a rich soil ready to receive the germ of 
friendship ; and beneath it all is a layer of seductive 
grace. Just as poetry adds to the prose meaning the 
delights of song and metre and rhythm, making its 
educational power more forceful and its capacity for 
doing harm more irresistible ; just so nature has 
endowed women ^ith a charming face, a persuasive 
voice, a seductive physical beauty and has thus given 
the dissolute woman great advantages for the be- 
guilement of pleasure, but to the chaste, great re- 
sources also to gain the goodwill and friendship of her 
husband. 

" Now Plato ^ urged Xenocrates, a noble and great- 
hearted youth, but of a verj' morose character, to 
sacrifice to the Graces. Just so one would ad\-ise a 
\'irtuous, chaste woman to sacrifice to Love that he 
may smile on her marriage and be guardian of her 
home, adorning her with such allurements as become 
a woman, and that her husband may not be diverted 

» Cf. 767 B supra. 
» Cf. Mor. 141 F ; Life of Marius, ii (407 a). 

* aXXa Bernardakis : oAA' ^. 

• TfhvafjLaaiv avrrpf eTTiKOGfi-^arj ndat rols added by Hubert to 
fill a lacuna in the mss. 

429 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(769) 7tpo9 erepav^ drroppvelg 6 dvrjp dvayKa^rjrai rd? e/c 
Trjs KcofxwSlas Xeyecv <f>ojvds 

otav dSiKco yvvaix 6 hvcrSaifiajv iyco. 

TO yap ipdv iv ydpico rov ipdaQai fi.€Zl^ov dyadov 
E 6CTTI* TToAAcSv yap dp,apr7]p.drajv dnaXXdrTei, fJidX- 
Xov 8e Trdvrcov oaa hia^deipei kol XvfjbaLverai rov 
ydfiov. 

24. " To 8' ifjiTTades iv dpxfj Kal BaKvov, Jj fxa- 
Kdpie Zeu^tTTTTC, p/T] (fio^ridris ojs eXKog rj 6ha^rjap.6v 
KairoL Kal fxed' eXKovs tacos ovSev^ Seivov wairep 
rd BevSpa avp,(f)V'rj yeviadai Ttpos yvvaiKa ;^p7^aT7^i/. 
eXKcoais Se Kal Kvijaecos dpx^]' /^i^tS" ydp ovk eari 
TCxiv p/T] TTpos aXXrjXa TreTTovdorcov. 

" Taparret 8e Kal p.adijp^ara TratSa? dp)(op,4vovs 
Kal <j)iXoao(jiia veovs' oAA' ovre tovtols del 77apa- 
fievcL TO SrjKTLKov ovre rot? epcoaiv,^ dXX' oiOTrep 
F vypdjv 77/30? dXXrjXa avp,7T€a6vTCov TToieZv rtva 8o/cet 
^CCTtv ev dpxfj Kal Tapa^cv 6 "Epta?, efra ;;^pova> 
KaTaards* Kal Kadaipedels rrjv Pe^aiordrrjv Sidde- 
atv irapdaxev. avrrf ydp iartv ws dXrjdcbs rj St' 
oXu)v Xeyop^evrj Kpdais, rj tcov ipcovrcov rj Be rcov 
oAAcos'* avpi^Lovvrcov rat? /car' 'Ettikou/jov d^at? 
Kal TrepiTrXoKaLS eoiKe, avyKpovaeis Xapi^dvovaa 

^ iraipav W. C. H. * ouSev Winckelmann : ovSev tj. 

* iptooiv Basel edition : opwaiv. 

* KaTaaras Xylander : Karaarqaas. 

* avTTj Stephanus : ai5Ti7. 

* ipcLvTCjv rj Se Ttov aAAco? Reiske : eputroiv dXXwv. 

430 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 769 

to a rival and be forced to repeat the cry of the man 
in the comedy : 

Wretch that I am to injure such a wife ! " 

For in marriage, to love is a greater boon than to be 
loved : it rescues us from many errors — or rather 
from all errors that WTeck or impair wedlock. 

24>. " Do not, my dear Zeuxippus, be afraid of that 
sharp pain which comes at the beginning of marriage 
— don't fear it as though it were a wound or a bite. 
And even if there were a wound, there is nothing very 
alarming in that when the union is \vith a good woman : 
it is like grafting a tree. Another wounding is a 
preliminary- to pregnancy, for there is no impregna- 
tion without reciprocal hurt. 

" Studies are disturbing to boys at the very begin- 
ning and philosophy upsets young men * ; yet this 
stinging smart does not remain the same for them 
forever. The same is true of lovers ; just as with the 
mixing of two Uquids, love seems at first to cause 
some effervescence and agitation, but as time goes 
on it settles down and is reduced and produces the 
best sort of stability. For this truly is what is called 
' integral amalgamation,' '^ that of a married couple 
who love each other ; but the union of those who 
merely live together is hke the contacts and inter- 
lacing of Epicurus' •* atoms, which collide and rebound, 

" Kock, p. 450, Adespoton 2-21. 

" C/. Plato, Republic, 539 b. 

" See Mor. 142 f f. (trans. Babbitt) : "As the mixing of 
liquids, according to what men of science say, extends through 
their entire content, so also in the case of married people 
there ought to be a mutual amalgamation of their bodies, 
propertv, friends, and relations." See also Antipater, frag. 
63 (von Amim, S. V.F. i, p. 255). 

«' Cf. Mor. 1112 c (Epicurus, frag. 286 Usener). 

431 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(769) KaL aiTOTT'qhrjaeL^ , evorrjra 8' ov TToiovaa roiavrrjv, 

770 otav "Epoj? TTotei yajXLKrjs KOivojvias CTriAajSo/xevo?. 

Ovre yap rjSoval im€l^ov€s oltt* aAAa>r ovre 

Xpelai avvcx^arepat mpos aXXovs ovre ^tAta? to 

KoXov Iripas evSo^ov ovru) /cat ^rjXojrov, to? 

o^' 6pLo<j>poveovT€ vorjp,aaiv olkov e-)(f]Tov 
avr]p TjBe yvvq' 

Kat yap 6 vojjlos ^orjdeZ /cat yewTjcrecos /coiv^s' eve/ca^ 
/cat Tous" 6eovs "Epcoros" i^ (f)vais aTToSeiKWOL 8eo- 
fievovs. ovTO} yap 

ipdv [jL€v on^pov yalav 

oi TTOtrjTal Xeyovai Kat y^? ovpavov, epdv S' tJXiov 
aiXijvrjg ol (j>vaiKOL /cat ovyyiveadai /cat Kveiadai' 
/cat yTji' S' dvOpcoTTCov [xrjrepa /cat S^cocov /cat (f)VTCOV 
aTTavrajv yeveaiv ovk avayKalov aTToXeadai rrork 
B /cat o^eadrjvaL TravraTTaaiv , orav 6 Setvos" "Epoj? -^ 
Ifiepos^ rov deov ttjv vXrjv aTToXiTrrj /cat nava'qTaL 
TTodovaa /cat Sttu/covcra ti7v eKeWev dpxw '^^^ 

KLVrjtTLV ; 

'AAA' tva /XT^ jLta/cpav aTTOTrAav^acr^at 8o/ca»/xev ■^ 
KOfMiSfj (f)XvapeLV, olada roiis 77atSt/cous" epcoras cos 
€1? d^e^aLorrjra^ ttoXXo. ^iyovai^ /cat aKojTTTOvat 
Xlyovres woTt^p coov avrivv rpiX} Staipeladai^ rrjv 
<f>iXiav, avTovs Se vofxaScov Slktjv eveapit,ovras rots 

* evcKa added by Hubert. * Ifiepos Stephanus : y.4pos. 

' CIS dpepaioT-rjTa Wyttenbach : d^e^aioTaTa. 

* ipeyovai Wyttenbach : Xeyovai. 
* Tpi;^i Siaipeiadai Meziriacus : rpixTJ alpeladai. 

" Homer, Odyssey, vi. 183-184. 

>• Euripides, frag. 898. 7 (Nauck, p. 648). Verses 1 and 2 
were quoted in 756 d supra. 

432 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 769-770 

but never achieve the unity that Love creates when 
he takes in hand a partnership in marriage. 

" There can be no greater pleasures derived from 
others nor more continuous ser\ices conferred on 
others than those found in marriage, nor can the 
beauty of another friendship be so highly esteemed 
or so en\iable as 

When a man and wife keep house in perfect harmony." 

The law, in fact, assists Eros in bringing about pro- 
creation in all societies ; and nature brings it about 
that even the gods have need of him. It is in this 
sense, then, that the poets say that 

The earth loves rain, * 

and that Heaven loves Earth ; and in this sense, too, 
natural philosophers assert that the sun loves the 
moon and that they unite and propagate. And since 
earth is the mother of all men and a source of genera- 
tion for all beasts and plants, will she not be destined 
to perish at some time or other and be completely 
extinguished if ever the mighty love and desire of 
the god abandons her matter "^ and if ever she stops 
longing for and pursuing the principle of her motion 
which derives from that source ? 

" But I don't want you to think that I am wander- 
ing far from my subject and merely raving on. You 
are well aware, I take it, how often men condemn 
and make jests about the inconstancy of boy-lovers. 
They say that such friendships are parted by a hair 
as eggs are "* ; that these lovers are like nomads who 
pass the spring of the year in regions that are lush 

<■ That is, Earth as vXt) (matter). 
' Cf. Plato, Symposium, 190 d-e. 

433 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(770) redriXoai kol dvdrjpol? eld* cog^ e/c yrjs^ TroAe/itias' 
dvaarparoTTeSevetv eVi' 8e (jiopTLKOirepov 6 ao<f>iG- 
TTjs BtCDV rds Tcov KaXwv rpixcLS 'ApfxoStovg e/caAet 
G /cat ^ ApiaroyeiTovas , cos" a/xa KaA'^s'^ rvpavviSos 
oLTTaXXarTOiJievovs vtt^ avrojv rovs epaaras. ravra 
fiev ov Si/caitos" Karr^yopeZrai tcDv' yvT^crtoiv epaarcov 
TO. 8' utt''^ EuptTTiSou prjdevT^ earl koIju/jo,' e(j)r] yap 
^Ayddwva rov KaXov rjhrj yevetcovra nepL^aXXcov 
Kal Karaa7Ta^6fjL€vos, on TUiv KoXdv koXov^ /cat 
TO fj-eTOTruipov . . . iKSe^eTai piovov . . . ovS ev 
ttoXloIs^ aTTaKfJidl^ojv^ /cat pvrlaLV, aAA' dxpi' rd^oiv 
/cat fjivrjixdrcov Trapafievei. Kal avt,vyias oXiyas earc 
77-atSt/cajv, pivpias 8e yvvaiKeicov ipwrcov KarapiOpurj- 
aaadai, Trdarjs Triarecos KOLVojviav TTiarcbs dp,a Kat 
7Tpodvp,(jos avvhiacjjepovaas- ^ovXofxai 8' ev ti t<Sv 
Kad' rjpids €7TL Kat'aapo? OveaTTaatavov yeyovorcov 
hteXdelv. 

25. " KtoytAio?' ydp, 6 TTjV iv TaXarLO. Kivqaas 
J) aTTooTaaLV, dXXovs re ttoXXovs ojs et/cos ea^e kolvoj- 
vovs /cat SajSti^ov av8pa veov ovk dyevvfj, irXovrcp 
8e /cat 8d|^T7 raAaraJv^" Trdvrcov eTn(j>aviararov . aifja- 
/Ltevot 8e TTpaypbdrcov p.eydXa>v iacfidXrjaav Kal Slktjv 
Scoaeiv TTpoaSoKcovres ol jLtev avrovs dvrjpovv, ol 
8e (f)€vyovr€s riXioKovro. toj 8e Sa^tVo) ra /xev 
aAAa TTpdypLara paSlcos 7ra/>et;^€v €/C7ro8a>v yeveadai 

^ eW cos Bernardakis : evdvs. 
" yijs Reiske : ttjs. 

* €Ti Stephanus : eVet. 

* a^a KaA'^s] av aTToXrk Bernardakis ; dXXoKorov Post. 

* wtt' Stephanus : vTrep. 

• KoAoj' added by the Basel edition (later on in the sentence). 

' oi5S' ev TToXials Salmasius : oi58ev woXiwaa. 

* oivaKfidioDv Warmington : d/c/xa^tov. 

4S4 



f 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 770 

and blooming and then decamp as though from a 
hostile country. Even more vulgarly the sophist 
Bion used to call the beards of beautiful boys Har- 
modius and Aristogeiton " because, as the hair grows, 
it frees their lovers from a beautiful '' tyranny ! It is, 
however, unjust to bring these charges against true 
and genuine lovers. Euripides' *' remark is clever : 
he observed upon embracing and kissing Agathon, 
though the latter 's beard had already gro^vn, that even 
the autumn of the fair is fair.'* . . . and even among 
wrinkles remains flourishing, indeed right up to the 
tomb. There are very few examples of a durable 
relationship among boy lovers, but countless numbers 
of successful unions \vith women may be enumerated, 
distinguished from beginning to end by every sort of 
fidelity and zealous loyalty. I should like to tell you 
of one such event that occurred in our time during 
the reign of Vespasian. 

25. " Civilis,* who stirred up the revolt in Gaul, had 
naturally many associates. Among them was Sabinus, 
a young man of good family, whose wealth and re- 
putation were second to none of the Gauls. When 
their great enterprise collapsed, in the expectation 
of reprisal some killed themselves and some tried to 
escape, but were caught. Sabinus' aflFairs were not 
such as to prevent him from getting away and making 

' See 760 b supra. 

* Or, adopting Post's correction, " a monstrous tyranny." 

« C/. Mor. 177 A-B ; Life of Alcibiades, i (192 a). 

•* Here follow several lacunae, partially indicated in one 
MS. The sense to be supplied is doubtless : " At any rate 
the love of chaste women admits no autumn, but even amid 
grey hairs ..." ' Tacitus, Histories, iv. 67. 

• Kiout'Atos Madvig : KioJAios. 
^^ roAaToiv Wyttenbach : avOponrcov, 

435 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(770) Kal Kara<f>vye.Lv els rovs ^ap^dpovs' '^v 8e yvvacKa 
TTaacov dpiarriv rjyfievos, rjv eKCi fxev 'E/attovi^v^ 
eKaXovv, 'EiXXrjVLGTL 8' av ris 'HpcoiSa Trpoaayo- 

E pevaeiev, ovr* dTToXnTciv hvvaros rjv ovre /xe^' 
eavTov KOfjLL^eLV. e)(a>v ovv /car' dypov OLTTod-qKas 
XP'TiP'O-Tixiv opvKras VTToyeiovs, as Suo fjLovot, tojv oltt- 
eXevdepcDV avv^Beicrav, rovs p^ev aXkovs (XTn^AAa^ev 
ocKeras, o>s /LteAAojv ^appuaKOis dvaipelv davrov, 
hvo Se TTcarovs irapaXa^oiv els to. vnoyeia Kar- 
e^rj- TTpos 8e rr^v yvvacKa MapnaXLov eTrepn/jev 
direXevdepov aTrayyeXovvra re^vavat /xev vtto <f)ap- 
pLaKcov, avp,'n€(j)XexdaL 8e /Lterd tov acopiaros rrjv 
CTravXiv e^ovXero yap ro) Trevdet jj^/^Tja^ai" rijs 
yvvaiKos dXTjOivip^ Trpos TTiarLV rrjs Xeyopievrjs re- 
Xevrijs. 

" "0 Kal crvve^rj' pti/racra ydp, ottcos ervx'^, to 

F CTc5ju.a /xer' olktcov* /cat dXo<f)vppi(x)v rjpLepas rpeZs 
Kal vvKras datros hieKapreprjae. ravra 8' o 2a- 
^vos TTVvdavopievos kol (f)O^T]deLS, pi^r] hiacfydeiprj 
TTavrdnaaLV iavT'qv, eKeXevae (^pdaai Kpv<l>a tov 
yiaprLoXiov Trpos avrrjv, on ^rj Kal KpvTnerai, 
771 heZrai 8' avrrjs dXiyov epip,elvai, rip rrevdei, Kal 
pLrjSev 7TapaXeL7T€LV (Lare^ 7ndavr]v ev rfj Trpoamoir]- 
aei yeveadai. rd p,ev ovv dXXa Trapd rrjs yvvaiKos 
evayiovLcos avverpaycphelro rfj So^rj rov iraBovs' 
eKelvov 8' IheZv TTodovaa vvKros cpx'^ro, Kal TrdXiv 
eTTavrjXdev. e/c 8e rovrov Xavddvovaa rovs dXXovs 
oXlyov dneSet avt,rjv ev "AiSov rdvSpl rrXeov^ ^i'^S 
errrd p/qvojv. 

* 'Eurrov^i'] Epponinam Tacitus ; 'E/xiroviVav Amyot ; He- 
liovrjv Salmasius. 

* nevOei xp^o-flai added by Meziriacus to fill a lacuna. 

436 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 770-771 

good his escape to a foreign countn', except that he 
had married a most remarkable wife. Her Gaulish 
name was Empona, which may be translated into 
Greek as ' Heroine.' He could not abandon her nor 
take her with him. Now he had in the country under- 
ground caves for the storing of his treasures and 
these caves were known only to two of his freedmen. 
He dismissed all the other slaves, saying that he was 
going to poison himself, and took his two trusted 
servants down into the caves with him. To his wife 
he sent one of the freedmen, Martial, to tell her that 
he had poisoned himself and that his body had been 
consumed in the burning of his country house, for he 
wished to make use of his wife's genuine grief to gain 
credit for the report of his death. 

" And so it turned out. Empona threw herself, 
just as she was, on the ground and remained there 
without any nourishment for three days and three 
nights, in lamentation and tears. When Sabinus 
heard this, being afraid that she would make away 
wdth herself completely, he ordered Martial to report 
to her secretly that he was alive and in hiding, and 
begged her to continue in her mourning a little while 
longer and to neglect nothing that would make her 
simulation con\'incing. She, then, played the role of 
grief to tragic perfection in outward show ; but she 
so longed to see him that she visited him at night and 
returned again by night. Hereafter for more than 
seven continuous months, unknowTi to anyone, she 
all but lived in the underworld with her husband. 



' dXrjdivw Meziriacus : dXvdivd>s. 

* oltcrwv added by Winckelmann. 

• /itjScv irapaXnrdv ware added by Reiske to fill a lacuna. 

* TrXeov Winckelmann : nXrjv. 

437 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(771) " 'Ev ots KaraaK€vdaaaa rov SajStvov icrdrJTL 
/cat Kovpa /cat /caraSeCTCt rrjs Ke^aXi)s dyvcoarov 
els 'Pcofirjv eKOfjLLae /xed* iavrrjs eXTTcScov^ tlvcov 
cvSeSojJievcov. TTpa^aaa 8' ovBev avdis eTravrjXde, 
/cat TO. /iev TToAAa eKeivq) crvvrjv vtto yfjs, 8td XP^~ 
vov 8' ei? TToAtv i(f>oiTa rat? <^tAats" opcoixevq /cat a 

B ot/cetat? yuvai^L ro Se ttolvtcdv aTnarorarov * " 
eXade Kvovaa Xovofjuevrj [xera rcov yvvaiKaJv to 
yap (f)dpp,aKov, cL rrjv KOfirjv at ywat/ces" evaAei^o- 
fxevaL^ TTOiovat, )(pvaoet,8rj /cat Trvppdv,* e;^et Xiiraafxa 
aapKOTTotov •^ ;)(ai;vajTi/c6v aapKos, coad' olov 8ta- 
■Xyaiv rtv' "^ Stoy/ccoatv ifjiTTotelv d<^d6va> 817 XP^" 
jLte'vj^ TovTCp irpos to. Xolttol fieprj tov awfxaros, 
alp6p,€Vov /cat dvaTnjXTTXdpievov drreKpyTTre rov rrjs 
yaarpos oyKov. rds 8' oiStvas' auri^ /ca^' eavrrjv 
hiT^veyKCv , (Zarrep iv (f)coXecp Ae'atva /caraSucra 77^00? 
TOV dvhpa, /cat toj)? yevopbivovs tnredpeijjaro aKVfi- 
vovs dppevas' Svo yap ereKC. rwv 8' utcDr o /xev 

C ev AlyvTTro) Treaajv ireXevrrjo-ev , 6 8' erepos dprt 
/cat TTpcp'qv yeyovev iv AeA^ot? Trap' T^/ztv ovop,a 
SajStvos". 

'ATTo/cretVet /xev ouv avrrjv 6 Kataap* aTTo- 
Kreivas 8e 8t8a>crt Slktjv, iv oXtyw xpovcv rov yevovs 
iravros apSrjv dvaipedivros. ovhkv yap rjveyKev -q 

^ iXmSwv added by Reiske. 

^ d-maTorarov Basel edition : anLarov tovtmv. 

^ evoAet^d/xerat Stephanus : dvoAti^d/xevai. 

* TTvppav Basel edition : irvpav. 

" This may mean that the dialogue was written after a.d. 
116-117, during which year the only war in Egypt between 
the death of Domitian and that of Plutarch was briefly fought 
(Cichoriiis, Romische Studien, pp. 406 ff.). 

438 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 771 

Meanwhile she disguised Sabinus completely by 
refashioning his clothes, by clipping and binding up 
his hair and took him ^vith her to Rome, since there 
was some hope of a pardon. But she accompHshed 
nothing and returned home again, now spending the 
greater part of her life with him underground, yet 
from time to time going to to\vn to show herself 
to her friends and relatives. And what is most in- 
credible of all, she succeeded in keeping the know- 
ledge of her pregnancy from these ladies, even 
though she bathed ^vith them. There is an ointment 
which women rub on their hair to make it gold or 
red ; it contains grease which fills or puffs out the 
flesh and produces a sort of dilation or swelling. She 
spread this ointment in profusion on all other parts 
of her body except the abdomen and thus concealed 
its size as it swelled and filled out. She endured her 
birth pangs completely alone, like a lioness in a den, 
descending into the earth to rejoin her husband ; 
she brought up secretly the male cubs that were bom. 
There were two of them : one son was killed in 
Egypt," but the other visited us recently in Delphi. 
His name was Sabinus . . .^ 

" Though Caesar put her to death, yet he paid the 
penalty for this murder when his family was totally 
extinguished in a short time." No act of his princi- 

' There is probably a lacuna here, stating' the circum- 
stances of Sabinus' eventual discovery. According to Tacitus 
he eluded his pursuers for nine years. Dio Cassius (Ixv. 16) 
says that the whole family was brought to Rome and implies 
that they were executed by Vespasian. But Plutarch's per- 
sonal evidence about the survival of the sons casts doubt on 
this. The wife, at any rate, must have been taken to Rome. 

* Actually Vespasian died (peacefully : " vae, puto deus 
fio ") in A.D. 79 and Domitian was not murdered until 96. 

439 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(771) To^' rjycfjLovLa aKvdpcoTTorepov^ ovSe fioiXXov irepav 
eiKos 17V /cat deovs Kal Baifiovas oipiv aTToarpa<j)r\vai' 
KavToi rov oIktov e^r/peL ru>v decofxevcov to dappa- 
Xeov avTTJs Kal fjbeyaXrjyopov, o) Kal ixdXiara Trapco- 
^vve Tov OveoTTaaiavov , djs aTreyvco rrjs acorrjplas 
•npos avTov aXXayr]v KcXevovaa rov ^iov^' ^e^tw- 
Kevai, yap vtto okotco Kal Kara yrjs rjSiov •^ j8a- 
atXeveiv eKclvov."^ 

D 26. 'Kvravda fjiev 6 Trarrjp €(f)r) rov nepl "Epa>- 
Tos" avroXg reXevrrjaau Xoyov, roJv Qiaincxyv* eyyvs 
ovaiv 6<f>dfivai Se Trpoaiovra ddrrcv -^ ^dhrjv Trpos 
avrovs eva rcjv Hetaiov iraipcov Aioyevrj' rov Se 
Sco/cActpoy rrpos avrov ert TToppojdev elvovrog, " ov 
TToXefjLov y\ c5 Aioyeves, aTrayyeXXcov ," eKeivov, 
" ovK ev(f)r)iJirja€r€," <f>dvai, " ydp,iov ovrcov Kal rrpo 
d^ere ddaaov, cos vpbds rrjs Ovaias Trepip.evova'qs ; ' 
riavTa? pikv ovv rjadrjvai,, rov 8e Zeu^tTriTov ipe- 
adai el eri^ -x^aXeTTog iari. 

Ylpwros fiev ovv," <j>dvaL* " avvexcoprjcre rfj 

laprjvoSwpa' /cat vvv ckcjv arechavov Kal XevKov 

t/iartov Xa^chv otos iariv rjyetadai 8t' dyopds Trpos 

rov Ueov. 

E " 'AAA tcofxev, val pa Ata," rov irarepa eiTietv, 

tcopev, OTTCog iTTeyyeXdacvpev rdvSpl Kal rovl 

deov rrpoaKvvrjaa>pev hrjXos ydp icrri -xP^ipcov Koi 

TTapcbv evpevrjs roXg Tvparropevois ." 

^ rj rod' rjyeiiovia aKvOpcoTTorepov Basel edition : t6t€ ijyc^ 
fjioviav aKvdpojTTOTepav. ^ tov ^lov added by Bolkestein. 

' ^aaiXeveiv eKelvov W. C. H. after Bernardakis : PaatX€va>»\ 
eVctVojj. * Qeantuiv Stephanus : deoTnecov. 

440 



I 



THE DIALOGUE ON LOVE, 771 

pate was more grira and no other gave the gods and 
the spirits such good reason to avert their faces. Yet 
the audacity and pride of her words abohshed pity 
in the spectators and roused Vespasian to a high 
pitch of fury : she renounced all hope of sur\ival 
and challenged him to exchange his life A^ith hers, 
declaring that she had lived more happily in the 
underground darkness than he had on his throne." 

26. And it was at this point, my father said, that 
the conversation about love came to an end, for they 
were now near Thespiae and one of Pisias' friends, 
Diogenes, was observed to be approaching them on 
the run. While he was still at some distance, Soclarus 
called to him, " It's not a war " you're going to tell 
us of, Diogenes ? " " Hush ! " cried the latter. " A 
marriage is on foot. Please hurry up, for the sacrifice 
only awaits your presence." 

They were all pleased and Zeuxippus inquired 
whether Diogenes' friend was still angry. 

" On the contrary," said Diogenes, " he was the 
first to agree to Ismenodora's proposal. And now he 
has eagerly put on a chaplet and a white cloak to 
lead the procession through the market-place to the 
temple of the god." 

Forward then, by all means forward," said my 
father, " so that we may have a laugh at the man 
and salute the god. For it's plain to see that he 
approves and is graciously present at this affair." 

" Cf. Plato, Phaedrus, 242 b ; Leutsch & Schneidewin, 
Paroemiographi Graeci, ii, p. 84 : " .said of those who bring 
glad tidings." 

* ipeoBai el en Wyttenbach : epdcrdcu en or opdadai otu 
• (fxivau, Hubert, adding t6v Auyyevr] : ev ^ or cos eyijv. 



441 



INDEX 

OF PROPER NAMES AND OF 
SELECTED SUBJECTS 

COMPILED BY W. C. HELMBOLD 

[The subject index makes no claim to completeness; it includes only 
what the compiler believed might be useful.] 



A : see alpha 

Abdera, 49 : town of Thrace 

Academics, 253 

Academy, 115 : the school of 

philosophy founded by Plato 

at Athens 
Achaeans, 243, 257, 379 : the 

Greeks at Troy 
Acheron, 203, 393 : river of the 

lower world 
AchiUes, 11, 41, 151, 221, 243, 259, 

291, 321 note b, 381 : Greek 

hero in the Trojan War 
Acrocorlnth, 421 : the citadel of 

Corinth 
Admetus, 381, 383 : king of 

Pherae in Thessaly 
Adonis(es), 349 : beloved of 

Aphrodite 
Aegina, 249 : island in the Saronic 

gulf 
Aeneas, 239 : Trojan hero 
Aeolus, 293 : son of Hellen 
Aeschylus, 101,321,415 ; quoted, 

321, 351, 357, 365, 391, 417 : 

Athenian tragic poet, circa 525- 

456 B.C. 
Aethe, 415 : Agamemnon's racing 

mare 
Agamemnon, 57, 93, 225, 257, 261, 

263, 415 : the Greek general at 

Troy 



Agatharchidas, 197 : Greek his- 
torian 

Agathoclea, 333 and note / : mis- 
tress of Ptolemy IV 

Agathon, 57, 73, 435 : Athenian 
tragic poet, circa 447-400 B.C. 

agnus castus, 307 

Agrigentura, 373 : city of Sicily 

Agrionia, 111 : Boeotian festival 
of Dionysus 

Agrotera, 355 : epithet of Artemis 

Ahriman, 365 note b : Persian 
divinity 

Ajax, 41, 229, 241-249 : one of 
the Greek heroes at Troy 

akrasia, akratisma, ahratot, 161 

Alcaeus, 7, 161 ; quoted, 7, 161, 
395, 407 : l>Tic poet of Lesbos ; 
born circa 620 B.C. 

Alcestis, 381, 383 : wife of Ad- 
metus 

Alcibiades, 73, 385, 387 : Athen- 
ian politician and general, circa 
450-404 B.C. 

Alexander, 113, 117, 203, 223, 
373, 375 : the Great, 356-323 
B.C. 

Alexander, 255, 257, 263, 265 : 
Paris, prince of Troy ; see also 
Paris 

Alexander, 425 : of Pherae ; mas- 
ter of Thessaly 369-358 B.C. 

443 



INDEX 



Alexandrians, 335 

Alexicrates, 175 : a Pythagorean 

contemporary with Plutarch 
Alexio, 27, 29 (and c/. 309) : 

Plutarch's father-in-law 
alpha, 227-233 : the first letter of 

the Greek alphabet 
Alpheiis, 291 : the largest river 

of the Peloponnesus 
Ambracia, 427 : a Greek city 

north of Actium 
Ammonius, 131, 137-141, 215, 

219, 221, 227, 229, 241, 243, 

265, 269, 271, 279, 283, 289, 

299 : Plutarch's instructor in 

philosophy 
Amphictyon, 149: reputed founder 

of the Amphictyons 
Amphictyons, 43 : a religious 

league of cities near Delphi and 

Thermopylae 
Amphissa, 381 : a town in Locris 
Amyclean, 295 : from Amyclae, 

a town near Sparta 
Anacreon, 79 ; quoted, 319 : 

lyric poet of the sixth century 

B.C. 

Anaires, 353 : Ares the slayer 

Anankfi : see Necessity 

Anaxagoras, 139, 141 : Ionian 
philosopher, circa 500-428 B.C. 

Anaxarchus, 49, 223 and note e : 
philosopher of Abdera 

Anaximander, 185 : Ionian philo- 
sopher of the sixth century B.C. 

andreia, 93 

Antalcidas, 91 : a Spartan, re- 
sponsible for the notorious 
" peace " of 387 B.C. 

Anthemion, 385 : Athenian, fa- 
ther of Anvtus 

Anthemion, 311, 313, 329-333, 
343, 347 : native of Thespiae 

Anthesterion, 209 and note c : 
Athenian month 

Antigonus, 337 : Gonatas, king of 
Macedonia 283-239 B.C. 

Antileon, 373 : of Metapontum 

Antimachus, 209 : of Colophon, 
poet of the fourth century B.C. 

Antipater, 304 note a, 431 note c : 
Stoic philosopher of the second 
century B.C. 

Antipatrides, 373, 375 : friend of 
Alexander the Great 

444, 



Antisthenes, 73 : Socratic philo- 
sopher 

Anton, 379 : of Chalcis 

Anytus, 385, 387 : Athenian, 
lover of Alcibiades and accuser 
of Socrates 

Aphrodite, 51, 237-241, 293, 323, 
325, 335, 351, 353, 361, 369, 
371, 397, 399, 411, 421, 425, 
427 : the goddess ; see also 
Cypris 

Apis, 117, 118 note a : the sacred 
bull of Egypt 

Apollo, 73, 115, 151, 235, 249, 265, 
275, 291, 357, 363, 383, 399 
note c : the god 

Aratus, quoted, 141 : CUician 
poet, circa 315-249 B.C. 

Arcesilatis, 51 : Academic philo- 
sopher, circa 315-241 B.C. 

Archelaiis, 425 : king of Mace- 
donia 413-399 B.C. 

Archidamus, 309 : Thespian, fa- 
ther of Daphnaeus 

ArchUochus, quoted, 313 : iambic 
and elegiac poet of the eighth or 
seventh century B.C. 

Archytas, 121 : Pythagorean 
philosopher of the fourth cen- 
turv B.C. 

Ares, 101, 353, 355, 365, 369, 375, 
383, 393 : the god 

Argive, 327 

Argos, 249, 371 : city of the 
Peloponnesus 

Aristaeus, 355 : hero, son of 
Apollo 

Aristion, 309 : father of Socla- 
rus 

Aristippus, 317 : Cyrenaic philo- 
sopher 

Aristodemus, 57 : friend of So- 
crates 

Aristodemus, 131, 143 : of Cyprus 

Aristogeiton, 373, 435 : Athenian 
tyrannicide, killed in 514 B.C. 

Aristomenes, 381 : hero of the 
Second Messenian War. Plu- 
tarch wrote his life 

Ariston, 413 and note e : philo- 
sopher 

Ariston, 115 : Plato's father 

ariston : 161, 163 

Aristonica, 333 and note e : not 
identified 



INDEX 



Aristophanes, 73, 85 : Athenian 
comic poet, circa 445-388 B.C. 

Aristotle, 377 and note a : his- 
torian of Chalcis 

Aristotle, 31, 45, 131, 169, 199, 
203, 205, 209, 366 note b, 377 
note a : the philosopher, 384- 
322 B.C. 

Aristoxenus, 45, 79 : the learned 
Peripatetic 

Arsinoe U, 222 note a : wife and 
sister of Ptolemy II Phila- 
delphus 

Art€niis(es), 269, 271, 355, 399 
note c, 423 : the goddess 

Asander, 411, 413 : Cretan, lover 
of Gorgo 

Asclepiades, 187 and note c : 
Bithj-nian physician of the 
first century B.C. 

Asclepius, 115, 275, 359 note c : 
the god of healing 

Asia, 335 

Asopichus, 381 : Theban, beloved 
of Epaminondas 

aspharagos, 11, 13 

ass(es), 243, 337 

aUramon, 21 

Athena(s), 109. 239, 249, 269, 271, 
349, 355, 387 : the goddess 

Athenian(s), 33, 37, 91, 99, 149, 
151, 159, 209, 249, 337 

Athenodorus, 187 : medical wri- 
ter 

Athens, 77. 115. 131, 149, 159, 
197, 199. 315, 319, 349, 373, 393 

Atropos, 277 : one of the Fates 

Attains, 113 : II Philadelphus. 
220-138 B.C. 

Attis(es), 349 : the youthful con- 
sort of the goddess Cvbele 

Autobulus, 119, 125, 203, 207. 
209, 307 : Plutarch's son 

BABrLOSIASS, 153 

Bacchant, 291 

Bacchic, 363, 365 

Bacchis, 333 : courtesan of Mile- 
tus 

Bacchon, 311, 313, 329, 331 note 6, 
337-347 : youth of Thespiae 

BacchyUdes, 297 note b : choral 
poet of the fifth century B.C. 

barbarism, 191 

bass, 183 



Bathylllc, 80 note 6, 81 : a type 
of dance 

bears, 355, 421 

bees, 405 

Belestiche, 335 : mistress of Pto- 
lemy II 

Bion, 435 : Borj'sthenite philo- 
sopher, circa 325-255 B.C. 

bird(s), 17. 167, 169, 197, 319. 357 

bOSLTS 29 

Boedromion, 249. 251 : Attic 

month 
Boeotia, 41 

Boeotian(s), 39, 229, 309, 339, 381 
Boethus, 131-137 : Epicurean 

friend of Plutarch 

Cacus, 389 : monstrous son of 
Hephaestus 

Cadmus, 228 note e, 229, 235 : 
founder of Thebes 

Caesar (Augustus), 159 ; (Ves- 
pasian), 439 

Caesemius, 33, 35, 55, 59 : son- 
in-law of Florus 

Calliope, 265, 285 : Muse 

CaUistratus, 43 and note e, 45, 47 : 
rich Delphian 

calves, 315 

Camma, 423, 425 : Galatian hero- 
ine 

Caphisias, 143, 151 : sonof Theon 

Capliisodorus, 381 : Theban, be- 
loved of Epaminondas 

Cameades, 115 : Academic philo- 
sopher, circa 218-129 B.C. 

Carneia, 115 : festival at CyrenS 

Carthaginian, 165 

Cassius Longinus, 225 and note /, 
227 : of uncertain identitv 

Cato, 367 : M. Porcius Cato the 
Censor, circa 234-149 B.C. 

cattle, 87 

cena, 163 

Ceyx, 185 : husband of Halcyonfi 

Chaeronea, 73, 99 : town in 
Boeotia, Plutarch's birthplace 

Chalcidian(s), 377 ; of Thrace, 377 

Chalcis, 379 : city of Euboea 

Charites : see Charm, Graces 

Charm : 269, 278 note a, 279 ; 
see also Graces 

Chetron, 115 : the Centaur 

chickens, 181 ; see also fowls, 
hen(s) 

445 



INDEX 



Chios, 267 : large island off the 

coast of Asia Minor 
cholera, 193 
Chrysippus, 195, 267, 353, 415 

note c : the pillar of Stoic 

philosophy, circa 280-207 B.C. 
cicadas, 169, 417 
Cilicia, 199, 315 
Cimon, 381 : Athenian statesman 

and general, circa 512-449 B.C. 
Cinesias, 83 : character in a play 

of Plato Comicus 
Civilis, 435 : Gains Julius, noble 

Batavian who led the great 

rebellion in Gaul, a.d. 69-70 
Cleitomachus, 75 : great athlete 
Cleomachus, 875, 377 : Pharsalian 

general 
Clio, 267, 285 : Muse 
Clotho, 277 : one of the Fates 
Comedy : see New Comedy, Old 

Comedy 
comissatum, 165 
Corinth, 223, 421 ; see also Acro- 

corinth 
Corinthian, 149, 223 
corona, 165 

Corybantes, 363 : ecstatic devo- 
tees of Cybelg or Attis 
Corybantic, 365 
Cosmogony, 351 : poem of Par- 

menides 
Crateas, 425 : slayer of Archelaiis 
Cratinus, 83 : Athenian comic 

poet of the fifth century B.C. 
Cretan(s), 98, 151, 297, 381, 411, 

415 
crocodiles, 35 

Cronus, 261 : father of Zeus 
cuttlefish, 205 

Cybele, 363, 391 : the goddess 
Cyclopean, 179 

Cyclops, 18, 389 note e : the one- 
eyed giant 
Cynic(s), 113, 369 : philosophical 

sect 
Cynosarges, 818 note a, 819 : 

gymnasium at Athens 
Cyprian, 369 
Cypris, 239, 353, 425 ; see also 

Aphrodite 
Cyprus, 148, 411 
Cyprus-born, 323 
Cypselus, 149 : tyrant of Corinth 

circa 655-625 B.C. 

446 



Cyrenaeans, 115 
Cyrenaics, 47, 417 note a ; 
sophical sect 



philo- 



Daphnaeus, 309, 313, 315, 321- 
327, 357, 865, 887, 889 and 
note/, 891, 407, 417 : Thespian 

Daulis, 169 : city in Phocis 

Death : see Hades 

deer, 25, 855 ; see also stags 

deipnon, 161, 163 

Delos, 149 : sacred Aegean island 

Delphi, 23, 67, 149, 181, 249, 335, 
493 ; see also Pvtho 

Delphians, 151, 273, 277, 427 

Demeter(s), 271, 275 : goddess 

Demetrius II, 222 note c, 223 : 
king of Macedon 289-229 B.C. 

Deniocriteans, 199 

Democritus, 189, 205-209 ; quoted, 
141 : the laughing atomic phi- 
losopher of Abdera, circa 460- 
370 B.C. 

Demosthenes, 239, 255 : great 
Attic orator, 884-322 B.C. 

denies, 165 

Dexippus : see Dioxippus and 15 
note d 

Dicaearchus, 123 : Peripatetic of 
fourth century B.C. 

dictator, 421 : at Rome 

Diogenes, 441 : native of Thespiae 

Diogenes, 113 : of Sinope, Cynic 
philosopher, circa 400-325 B.C. 

Diogenes, 220 note a, 221 : school 
at Athens 

Diogenianus, 73, 77, 81, 85, 111, 
113, 119, 129, 187, 191, 193, 
199, 208 : of Pergamum, friend 
of Plutarch 

Diomedes, 237, 239 : Greek hero 
in the Trojan War 

Dione, 293 : mother of Aphro- 
ditS 

Dionysius, 265, 275 : friend of 
Plutarch 

Dionysius, 379 : poet 

Dionysius I, 113 : tyrant of Syra- 
cuse 406-367 B.C. 

Dionysus, 47, 75, 95, 101, 111, 
209, 231, 249. 275, 323. 357. 
363 : the god 

Dioxippus, 15 and note d, 17 : 
Hippocratean medical authority 



INDEX 



dog(8), 35, 39. 191, 203, 337, 415 

dog-flsh, 185 

dog-star, 7 : Sirius 

Domitian, 439 note c : emperor 

of Rome a.d. 81-96 
donkey, 243 

Dorus, 293 : son of Hellen 
Dotion, 297 : plain in Thessaly 

EAGLE, 319 

Echo, 81 

edere, 165 

Eg\T)t, 113, 145, 177, 235, 345, 

438 note a, 439 
Eg>-ptian(3), 35, 117, 177, 179, 

185, 235, 385, 393, 397 
Eileithj-ia, 359 : goddess protec- 
tor of childbirth 
elephantiasis, 187, 191 
Eleusinian, 403 note c : Mysteries 
Eleusis, 383 : town in Attica 
Eleuthereus, 103 : Dionysus 
ellops, 175 
Elpenor, 247 : companion of 

Odysseus 
Empedocles, quoted, 133, 147, 175, 

279, 349, 351 : Sicilian philo- 
sopher of the fifth century B.C. 
Empedocles, 173, 175 : friend of 

Plutarch 
EmiKjna, 437-441 : wife of Sabi- 

nu9 
Enyalios, 355 : Ares 
Epaminondas, 381 : Theban 

statesman and general, circa 

420-362 B.C. 
Ephebus, 199 : Athenian, friend 

of Plutarch 
Ephesian letters, 55 and note c 
Epicurean(s), 413 notes b-d, 417 

note a 
Epicurus, 207, 405 note o, 431 ; 

quoted, 133 : Athenian plulo- 

sopher, 342-271 B.C. 
Epidemics, 187 : work of Atheno- 

dorus 
epilepsy, 345 note c 
Er, 245 : in Plato, Republic 
Erasistratus, 9 and note d, 11, 15 : 

medical writer of the third 

century B.C. 
Erato, 287 : Muse 
Erato, 215, 219, 221, 265: young 

musical friend of Plutarch 
Eratosthenes, quoted, 15 : great 



aU-round Alexandrian scholar 
and poet, circa 275-194 B.C. 

Eretrians, 377 : of Euboea 

erispharagoi, 11 

Eros, 81, 307, 309, 313-319, 323, 
325, 333, 335, 339, 343-353, 359, 
361, 369, 371, 375, 379. 383-387. 
395-407, 411-421, 425, 429-433. 
441 : god of Love 

Erotidia, 307 : festival of Eros at 
Thespiae 

Ethiopia, 329 

Etruria, 167 

Etniscan(3), 167. 177 

Eubvdeus, 95 : ancient epithet of 
Dionysus 

Eucnamus, 381 ; warrior of Am- 
phissa 

Eudoxus, 121 : of Cnidus, mathe- 
matician and astronomer, circa 
408-355 B.C. 

Eumaeus, 41, 161 : heroic swine- 
herd of Odysseus 

euphrone, 94 note o, 95 

Eupolis, 83 ; quoted. 13 : Athe- 
nian comic poet of the fifth 
century B.C. 

Euripides, 55, 75, 113, 329 note c. 
347, 435 ; quoted, 15, 89. 103. 
117. 223, 291, 313, 343, 347, 
351, 353, 361, 367, 375, 385. 
395, 401, 411, 433 : Athenian 
tragic poet, circa 484-406 B.C. 

Eurydicfi, 383 : beloved of Or- 
pheus 

Eustrophus, 33. 39 : Athenian 
friend of Plutarch 

Euterpe, 267. 287 : Muse 

Euthydemus. 21. 23 and note e, 
25 : a contemporary of Plu- 
tarch 

Euxynthetus. 411 : Cretan lover 
of Leucocoma 

Evenus, quoted, 5 : IjTic poet of 
the fifth century B.C. 

Fates, 277 

Favorinus, 203. 205 and note c, 

207 : famous Gallic rhetorician, 

circa A.D. 80-150 
fish. 39. 173-185, 317. 319 
Flatterers, 13 : play of Eupolis 
Flavian, 307 : friend of Plutarch's 

son Autobulus 
Floras. 7, 13 and note 6, 21, 25, 

447 



INDEX 



33, 35. 55, 59, 61, 111, 115, 119, 
123, 125, 203 : L. Mestrius 
Florus, influential Roman 
friend of Plutarch 
fly (flies), 171, 315 
Forgetfulness : see Letli6 
fowls, 315 ; see also chickens, 

hen(s) 
Fury (Furies), 333, 353 

Gabba, 159, 371 : a court-jester 

of Augustus Caesar 
Galatia, 423 : Gaulish kingdom 

in Asia Minor 
Galatian(s), 423 
Gaul, 435 
Gaulish, 437 
Gauls, 203, 435 
geometry, 119 ff"., 403 
Glaucias, 91, 95, 253, 255, 261 : 

Athenian rhetor and friend of 

Plutarch 
Gnathaenion, 371 : courtesan 
Gnatho, 61 and note a : parasite 

in New Comedy 
goat, 23 
Gorgias, 101, 169 : famous sophist 

of the fifth century B.C. 
Gorgo, 411, 413 : of Crete 
Gorgon, 291 
Grace(s), 73, 91, 361, 387, 429 : 

the Charities ; see also Charm 
Greece, 145, 293, 421, 425 
Greek(s), 91-95, 113, 153, 163, 165, 

183, 185, 225, 239, 241, 257, 

397, 437 
Gyges, 371 : king of Lydia circa 

685-657 B.C. 

Habrotonon, 332 note b, 333 : 
Themistocles' mother 

Hades (Death), 245, 247, 281, 
383, 403 ; see also Pluto 

hare(s), 181, 355 

Harmodius, 435 : Athenian ty- 
rannicide, killed 514 B.C. 

harmonia, 245 

Harmonius, 244 note b, 245 : 
father of Er 

Harmony, 427 

Harpies, 67 

Hecatfi, 67 : ancient Chthonian 
goddess 

Hector, 11, 255, 259-263: the 
hero of Troy 

448 



Helen, 255-259 : wife of Menelaiis 

Helicon, 55, 307, 309 : largest 
mountain of Boeotia 

Helius, 183, 185, 251 and note /, 
397-401, 433 : the Sun 

Hellen, 185, 293 : eponymous 
ancestor of the Hellenes 

Hellenes : see Greek(s) 

Hellespont, 183 : the modern 
Dardanelles 

hen(s), 21, 117, 169 ; see also 
chickens, fowls 

Hephaestus, 269, 321, 389 : the 
god 

Hera, 223, 249, 293, 321, 409 
' note c : goddess-queen 

Heracles, 223, 293, 323, 339, 355, 
381 : hero 

Heraclitus, quoted, 345 : the 
weeping Ionian philosopher of 
the sixth and fifth centuries B.C. 

Hermeias, 227, 229, 233-237 : 
geometer contemporary with 
Plutarch 

Herodotus, quoted, 329 : ofHali- 
carnassus, historian of the Per- 
sian Wars 

Hesiod, 27, 37, 185, 231, 265, 273, 
285, 351, 392 note 6, 395 ; 
quoted, 25, 29, 39, 59, 157, 221, 
227, 293, 321 note c, 331 

Hipparchus, 197 : famous as- 
tronomer of the second century 

B.C. 

Hippocrates, 15 : the most 
famous medical writer of an- 
tiquity, probably of the fifth 
and fourth centuries B.C. 

Hippolochus, 421 : of Thessaly, 
lover of Lais 

Hippothoros, 45 : " The Stallion's 
Leap," a tune 

Homer, 25, 55, 87, 93, 109 note a, 
191, 221 note b, 235 note c, 237. 
249, 255-265, 279, 393, 427; 
quoted, 5, 11, 13, 41, 57, 73, 93, 
115, 145, 151, 157, 161-165, 183. 
185. 191, 201, 203. 211, 223-227, 
235, 239-243, 247, 255-265, 269, 
277, 291, 293, 319, 353, 357, 361. 
365, 371, 379, 387, 397, 415, 
427, 433 ; see also Iliad, 
Odyssey 

horses, 415 ; see also Diare(s), 
gtallion 



INDEX 



Hybris, 424 note o, 425 

hydrophobia, 187, 191 

Hylas, 241, 243, 249, 251 : rhetor 

contemporary with Plutarch 
Hypate, 277 : name of a Muse 
hyporchemata, 295 and note b, 

297 note b, 298 note b 
hypotheseis, 85 

IBIS, 235 

Ibycus, quoted, 141, 297 : IjtIc 
poet of the sixth century B.C. 

Iliad, 237, 255 ; see also Homer 

Ilissus, 307 : stream near Athens 

nithyia : see Eileithyia 

lolaiis, 339, 381 : beloved of 
Heracles 

Ion, 113 : of Chios, poet and dra- 
matist of the fifth century B.C. 

Iphiclus, 293 : brother of Hera- 
cles 

Ismenodora, 311, 313, 329, 331 
note b, 333, 337-347, 441 : rich 
widow of Thespiae 

Isthmian games, 143 : held at 
Corinth 

Ixion, 409 and note c : attempted 
Hera 



JAYS, 169 
KERASBOLOS, 

kordax, 81 
kykeon, 9 



21 



LA BRA, 165 

Lacedaemon, 123, 309 
Lacedaemonian(s), 7, 115, 151, 

175 ; see also Laconian, Spar- 

tan(s) 
Lachesis, 277 : one of the Fates 
Laconian, 415 ; see also Lacedae- 

monian(s), Spartan(s) 
Laespodias, 83 : character in a 

comedv of Eupolis 
Lais, 317, 371, 421 : famous 

courtesan 
Laius, 313 and note d : father of 

Oedipus 
Lampon, 83 : character in a 

comedy of Cratinus 
Lamprias, 43, 44 note a, 45, 47, 

53, 95, 97 note b, 99, 159, 163, 

216, 241-251, 265. 271, 277, 

289 : Plutarch's brother 

VOL. IX 



Lamprias, 231 : Plutarch's grand- 
father 

Latin, 163 

Lelantine War, 377 

Lemnian, 343 and note c 

Lemnos, 343 : large island in the 
northern Aegean 

Leon, 47 : father of Callistratus 

Leptis, 185 : African port 

Lethe, 47, 249 : the river of For- 
getfulness in the world below 

Leucocoma, 411 : Cretan maiden 
beloved of Euxynthetus 

leukanie, 11, 13 

lion, 243 

lioness, 439 

Loeheia, 359 • goddess of child- 
bhrth 

Locri, 15 : city of Southern Italy 

Longinus : see Cassius Longinus 

Love : see Eros 

Lucius, 166 note b, 167, 169, 173, 
175 : a Pythagorean contempo- 
rary with Plutarch 

Lucius, 33, 35, 41 : son of Florus 

Lycurgus, 123 : traditional foun- 
der of the Spartan constitu- 
tion 

Lysander, 253 : Spartan general, 
killed 395 B.C. 

Lysandra, 309, 327, 389 : be- 
loved by Daphnaeus 

Lysios, 103 : epithet of Dionysus 

ALlCEDONIA, 27 

Macedonian, 373 

Maecenas, 371 : the adviser of 

Augustus and patron of poets 
Mantineia, 381 : battle in which 

Epaminondas was killed, 362 

B.C. 

Marcus, 241, 247 : rhetor con- 
temporary with Plutarch 

mare(s), 45, 337, 415 

Marriage of Ceyx, 185 : a work in 
antiquity attributed by some 
to Hesiod 

Marsyas, 89 : satjT flayed by 
Apollo for presumptuous rivalry 

marten, 183 

Martial, 437 : servant of Sabinus 

Maximus, 237, 239 : rhetor con- 
temporary with Plutarch 

Mede(s), 39, 113 ; see also Persian 

Megara, 339 : wife of Heracles 

4-19 



INDEX 



Megarians, 185 

Melanippg, 347, 349 : the tragedy 
of Euripides 

Melanippides, quoted, 361 : lyric 
poet 

Melanippus, 373 : tyrannicide of 
Agrigentum 

Meleager, 381 : hero of the Caly- 
donian boar liunt 

Melitg, 275 : Attic deme 

Melpomene, 287 and note c : 
Muse 

Menaechmus, 121 : mathemati- 
cian 

Menander, 55, 83, 85 ; quoted, 53, 
243, 391 : Athenian comic 
poet, circa 342-290 B.C. 

Menelaiis, 55, 57, 255-259, 263 : 
Spartan hero at Trov 

Menepliylus, 249, 265, 277 : Peri- 
patetic philosopher contempo- 
rary with Plutarcli 

Meniscus, 289 : dancing teaclier 

Meno, 199 : medical writer 

mensa, 165 

Mese, 277 : name of a Muse 

metaphor, 291 

Metapontum, 373 : city in Sou- 
thern Italy 

metoporon, 209 

Milesian, 333 

Mitylene, 395 : chief city of Les- 
bos 

Mneiai, 267 : name of the Muses 

Mnemosyne, 308 note a : Memory, 
mother of the Muses (cf. 267) 

Moderatus, 167 : Pythagorean 

mole, 23 

Moon, 251 and note /, 399 and 
notes, 411, 433 

mouse (mice), 183, 199 

mullet, grey, 183 

Mummius, 223, 225 : Lucius 
Achaicus, sacked Corinth 146 

B.C. 

Munychia, 337 : citadel of the 

Muse(s), 51, 55, 91, 111, 218 note 
a, 219, 227, 235, 265-285, 287 
and note c, 299, 307, 309, 323, 
353, 361, 363, 385, 389, 396 
note c, 412 note a ; see also 
Pierides 

Myrmidons, 321 note b : a tragedy 
of Aeschylus 

450 



Nature, 15, 65, 133, 287, 343 
433, al. 

nausea, 193 

Nausicaa, 144 note b : princess of 
Phaeacia 

Naxos, 249 : island of the central 
Aegean 

Neate, 277 : name of a Muse 

Necessity, 277, 279 

Nestor, 173, 185 : contemporary 
of Plutarch 

Nestor, 93 : king of Pylos, hero 
of the Trojan War 

New Comedy, 83 

Nicias, 149 : Athenian politician, 
circa 470-413 B.C. 

Nicias, 7, 11 : physician con- 
temporary with Plutarch 

Nicolaus(es), 143, 147 and note 
b : of Damascus, court his- 
torian of Herod the Great, 
floruit 20-4 B.C. 

Nicopolis, 7 : probably the city 
of Pontus is meant 

Nicostratus, 373 : Argive con- 
temporary of Philip V of 
Macedon 

Nicostratus, 91, 95, 97 : Athenian 
host of Plutarch 

nightingale, 169 

Nile! 153-157, 177 : the river of 

Egypt 
Ninus, 333, 335 : king of Assyria 
Niobg, 375 : daughter of Tantalus 

and wife of Amphion 

Odysseus, 41, 178 note c, 183, 
249, 281, 291 : the Homeric 
hero 

Odyssey, 237 ; see also Homer 

Oenanthe, 333 and note / : mo- 
ther of Agathoclea 

oirws, 97 

Old Comedy, 81 

Olympian, 413 

Olympias, 293 : mother of Alex- 
ander the Great 

onomatopoeia, 291 

opson, 161 

Origins, 379 : a work of Dionysius 

Orpheus, 383 

Orphic, 147 

Osiris, 177, 393 : Egyptian di- 
vinity 



\ 



INDEX 



owls, 47 

ox, 230 note a, 231 

oysters, 201 

PAiesiA, 85 

Palamedes, 237 : the proverbially 

clever hero 
Pammenes, 379 and note a : 

Theban adherent of Epaminon- 

das 
Pamphylian, 245 
Pan, 81, 291, 363 
Pandemos, 397 : Eros 
panii, 165 
Pantheia, 55 : romantic heroine 

of Xenophon's Cyropaedeia 
parabasis, 81 : the poet's ad- 
dress to the audience, through 

chorus and coryphaeus, in Old 

Comedy 
Paracyptousa, 411 and note/ 
Paris, 257, 259, 265 : prince of 

Troy ; see also Alexander 
Parmenides, 351 : philosopher of 

fifth century B.C. 
parrot-wrasse, 183 
partridges, 169 
Patrocleas, 21, 23 : Plutarch's 

son-in-law 
Patroclus, 321 note 6 : Achilles' 

friend 
Pausanias, 175 : friend of Empe- 

docles 
Peitho : see Persuasion 
Pelasgian, 295 

Peleus, 243 : father of Achilles 
Pemptides, 345, 347, 355. 365, 

375, 379 : a speaker in the 

Dialogue an Love 
Penelop6, 55 : wife of Odvsseus 
pentathlon, 229, 338 note b 
Pergamum, 73, 113 : city of My- 

sia 
Periander, 425 : tyrant of Am- 

bracia 
Peripatetic(s), 65, 147. 151, 205, 

249, 277 : the school of Aris- 
totle 
Persephone, 247 : queen of the 

lower world 
Perseus, 291 : Gorgon-slajing hero 
Persia, 39 

Persian, 89-95 : see also Mede(8) 
Persuasion, 269. 277, 283 
pettoi, 65 



Phaeacian(s), 145, 183 

PharsaUa, 375 : city of Thessaly 

pharynx, 13 

Phayllus, 373 : Argive contem- 
porary of Piiilip of Macedon 

Pherae, 425 : city of Thessaly 

phiditia, 93 : the common messes 
of the Spartans 

Philinus, 165, 167 and note c, 171 : 
friend of Plutarch 

Philip, 71, 73 : buffoon in Xeno- 
phon's Symposium 

Philip, 73-79, 85 : of Prusa, Stoic 
contemporary of Plutarch 

Phihp II, 57, 99, 239 : king of 
Macedon 359-336 B.C. 

Phihp V, 222 note c, 223, 373 : 
king of Macedon 221-179 B.C. 

PhUippi, 27 : town in Macedonia 
founded by Philip II 

Phihppides, 317 : Athenian poet 
of New Comedy 

Philistion, 15 : of Locri, medical 
writer of fourth century B.C. 

Piiilistus, 379 : beloved of Anton 

Philo, 186 note o, 187. 191 : 
physician, contemporary with 
Plutarch 

Philolaiis, 121 : of Croton, Pytha- 
gorean contemporary with So- 
crates 

Philomela, 168 note a, 169 : 
daughter of Pandion, meta- 
morphosed into a swallow 

Philoxenus, 389 : of Cythera, di- 
thjTambic poet. 436,5-380/79 
B.C. 

Phocians, 381 

Phocis, 41 : country of Central 
Greece 

Phoenician, 231, 235 

Phorcus (Phorcys). 281 and note 
d : father of the Sirens 

Phrygian, 365 

Phryne, 335 note c. 371 : famous 
courtesan of Thespiae 

Phrynichus, quoted, 195, 389 : 
Athenian tragic poet, late sixth 
and early fifth centuries B.C. 

Pierides, 283 : the Muses, q.v. 

Pindar, 45, 113, 297 notes b. e, 
366 note b ; quoted, 47, 51, 55. 
195, 275, 283, 291, 297 notes 
b. c, 321, 357, 389, 393 : Theban 
lyric poet, 518-438 B.C. 

451 



INDEX 



Pisias, 311, 313, 325-329, 333, 
337-343, 347, 441 : Thespian, 
lover of Bacchon 

Pitholgia, 209 and note c : first 
day of the festival Anthesteria 

Pittacus, 161, 395 : statesman of 
Mityleng, circa 650-570 B.C. 

Plato, 7, 9, 13-17, 57 note c, 73, 
75, 79, 93, 111, 115-123, 128 
note b, 234 note b, 241-249, 
277-285, 298 note a, 307, 312 
note a, 313 note c, 363, 366 note 
b, 367 note e, 369, 385, 395, 
397, 403 note d, 429, 431 note b, 
433 note d, 441 note a ; quoted, 
21, 55, 81, 97, 101, 119-123, 
141, 245, 247, 281-285, 313, 
323, 363, 365, 397, 403, 419 : 
Athenian philosopher, circa 
427-347 B.C. 

Plato, 83 : Athenian poet of the 
Old Comedy 

Platonic, 279, 397 

Platonists, 41 3 note d 

Plutarch, 2, 7, 21-27, 33, 39, 43, 
53, 55, 63, 65, 73. 77, 85, 91, 
111, 119, 127-131, 137, 143, 
153, 159, 165-173, 179, 187, 
191-195, 203, 205, 215, 227-233, 
253, 255, 265, 289, 307, 309, 
313, 327 and note e, 331-341, 
347-441 : philosopher and bio- 
grapher of Chaeronea, circa 
A.D. 46-127 

Pluto, 359 : lord of the under- 
world ; see also Hades 

Podargus, 415 : Menelaiis' horse 

Podes, 259 : Trojan, friend of 
Hector 

Polycharmus, 33, 159 : Athenian 

Polycrates, 253 : tyrant of Samos 
circa 540-522 B.C. 

Polymathia, 287 : Sicyonian 
name for the Muses 

Polymnia, 267, 285 : Muse 

Pompey, 113, 225 : the Great, 
106-48 B.C. 

Porson's law, 293 note d 

Poseidon, 185, 249, 251 : the god 

prandium, 163 

Praxiteles, 143, 149, 151 : geogra- 
pher contemporary with Plu- 
tarch 

Prayers, 393 : the ninth book of 
the Iliad 

452 



Priam 41, 261 : king of Troy 
Problems, Scientific, 203 : work of 

Aristotle 
Procne, 168notea, 169 : daughter 

of Pandion, metamorphosed 

into a nightingale 
Protagoras, 13 : of Abdera, one 

of the earliest of the sophists 
Proteas, 373 : Macedonian, bro- 
ther of Theodoras 
Protesilaiis, 383 : husband of Lao- 

damia 
Protogenes, 7, 10 note b, 11, 143, 

149, 215, 227, 229, 253, 255, 

309, 313-331, 343 : friend of 

Plutarch from Tarsus 
Providence, 131, 132 note a 
Prusa, 73 : city of Bithynia 
Prytaneum, 93 : at Athens 
Ptolemy II, 222 note a, 223 : king 

of Egypt 285-246 B.C. 
Pyladic, 80 note b, 81 : dances 
Pyriphlegethon, 203 : river of the 

lower world 
pyrrhic dance, 289 and note b 
Pythagoras, 39, 123, 129, 167, 

171, 177, 179 : philosopher of 

the sixth century B.C. 
Pythagorean(s), 165-175, 179.183 
Pythia, 365, 391 : the prophetic 

priestess at Delphi 
Pythian, 43, 115, 149 
Pytho, 151 : Delphi, q.v. 
Pytholaiis, 425 : slew his lover, 

Alexander of Pherae 

Red Sea, 197 

Rhodes, 227 : island off the 

southern coast of Asia Minor 
roebucks, 355 
Roman(s), 5, 33, 35, 39, 163, 167, 

367, 371, 389 
Rome, 35, 79, 167, 421, 439 

Sabinus, 435-439 : a noble Gaid ; 
his sons, 439 

Salamis, 113: the battle of 480 B.C. 

Samian, 333 

Sappho, 79, 389, 409 note b ; 
quoted, 321, 389 : the most 
celebrated of ancient poetesses, 
of Lesbos, born drca 612 B.C. 

Satyr, 81 

Scientific Problems, 203 : work of 
Aristotle 



INDEX 



8ea-uichin8, 201 

seal, 23 

Semiramis, 333, 335 : queen of 
Assyria 

Senecio : see Sossius Senecio 

serpents, 95 ; see also snake(s) 

Seven against Thebes, 101 : tra- 
gedy of Aeschylus 

seventh-bom, 114 note a, 115 

" shadows," 57 ff. : parasites 

sheep, 41 

Sicilian, 113 

Sicyonians, 287 

Simon, 309 : father of Lvsandra 

Simonides, 237, 295, 297 note b ; 
quoted, 141, 269 : lyric and 
elegiac poet, circa 556-468 B.C. 

Sinatus, 423 : tetrarch of Galatia 

Sinorix, 423 : his murderer 

Sirens, 53, 75, 277-281 

Sirius : see Dog-star 

8nake(s), 171, 345, 421 ; see also 

Soclarus, 159, 160 note a, 161, 
308 note 6, 309, 343, 395, 397, 
441 : an intimate friend of 
Plutarch 

Socrates, 57, 73, 81, 89, 111, 115, 
123, 387 : the Athenian philo- 
sopher, 469-399 B.C. 

solecism, 191 

Solon, 319-323, 393, 395, 427 : 
Athenian statesman and poet, 
circa 640-560 B.C. 

Sophocles, quoted, 117, 189, 193, 
225, 249, 281, 351, 353, 363, 
369, 375. 383, 419, 425 : Athe- 
nian tragic i)oet, circa 496-406 
B.C. 

Sospis, 143, 147, 149, 153, 215, 
241, 243, 253, 255, 257 : friend 
of Plutarch 

Sos^iius Senecio, 4 note a, 5, 109, 
219, 299 : Roman friend of 
Plutarch 

sow, 201 

spadix, 149 

Sparta : see Lacedaemon 

Spartan(s), 77, 91, 93, 381 ; see 
also Lacedaemonian(s), Laco- 
nian 

8tag(s), 23, 45 ; see also deer 

stallion, 45 ; see also horses 

Stoic(s), 73, 110 note a, 177, 353 
note /, 415 note c 



stork, 171 

strategos, 219 and note b 

Stratios, 355 : war-god 

Stratocles, 317 : Athenian dema- 
gogue, circa 350-292 B.C. 

Stratonice, 333 note e : concubine 
of Mithjidates 

Strife(s), 221, 393 : in Hesiod 

Sulla, 165 and note d, 169, 173, 
179 : Sextius, Carthaginian 
friend of Plutarch 

Sun : see Helius 

8wallow(s), 165-171 

tymbola, 167, 171 : of Pythagoras 

Symposiacs: see T able-Talk 

symposium (-ia), 83, 103 

Symposium, 73, of Plato ; -iumt, 
75, of Plato and Xenophon 

Syria, 145 

S>-rian(8), 185, 333 

Table-Talk, 111, 219 
Tantalus, 371 : son of Zeus. 

father of Pelops 
Tarsus, 309 : city of Cilicia 
Teiresias, 247 : blind seer of 

Thebes 
Telamon, 241 : father of Ajax 
Telamonian, 243 
Telemachus, 41, 387 : son of 

Odvsseus 
Tereus, 168 note a, 169 : son of 

Ares and king of Thrace 
Terpsichore, 287 and note c : 

Thalia, 275, 285, 287 : Muse 

Thargelia, 115 : festival at 
Athens 

ThargeUon, 111 : Attic month 

Thebes, 101, 306 note a, 379 : 
city of Boeotia 

Themis, 293 : goddess of Justice 

Theodectes, 49 : identity un- 
known 

Theodorus. 373 : Macedonian, 
brother of Proteas 

Theodorus, 224 note b, 225 : 
tragic actor of the fourth cen- 
tury B.C. 

Theon, 151, 158 note a, 159, 161, 
173, 175 : friend of Plutarch 

Theophrastus, 21, 24 note a, 25 
notes b-d, 331 note c ; quoted, 
103 : Peripatetic philosopher, 
circa 369-285 B.C. 

453 



INDEX 



Thermopylae, 203 : town near 
the famous pass, lying between 
Thessaly and Phocis 

Theron, 379 : Thessalian 

Theseus, 149 : Attic hero 

Thesmotheteum, 93 : at Athens 

Tliespiae, 306 note a, 307-311, 412 
note a, 441 : town in Boeotia 

Thespians, 309 note e, 341 

Thessalian(8), 377, 421 

Thessaly, 379, 421 

Thrace, 377 

Thracian, 333 

Thrasybulus, 250 note b, 251 : 
Athenian statesman and gen- 
eral ; died 388 B.C. 

Thrasybulus, 289 : contemporary 
of Plutarch 

Thrasyllus, 131, 141, 143 : son of 
Ammonius 

Thucydides, 197 : the great 
historian of the Peloponnesian 
War, circa 460-400 B.C. 

Timaeus, 128 note b, 129 : Plato's 
work 

Timaeus, 113 : Sicilian historian, 
circa 356-260 B.C. 

Timon, 199 : not to be identified 
with any certainty 

Timon, quoted, 49 : sceptic philo- 
sopher and poet, circa 320- 
230 B.C. 

Timoxena, 309 : Plutarch's wife 

Tithora, 309 : town in Phocis 

toads, 171 

Trojan(s), 239, 257 

Troy, 93 

Trypho, 265, 275 : medical friend 
of Plutarch 



Tydeus, 239 : father of Diome- 
des 

Tyndares, 111, 115, 119-125, 175 : 
Spartan Platonist, contempo- 
rary with Plutarch 



Urania, 283 note d : 
TJranios, 397 : Eros 



Muse 



Vespasian, 435, 439 note c, 441 : 
emperor of Rome a.d. 69-79 

WOLF (WOLVES), 35, 355 

Works and Days, 221 : Hesiod's 

poem 
wrasse : see parrot-wrasse 

Xenocratbs, 53, 197, 429 : dis- 
ciple of Plato and head of the 
Academy 339-314 B.C. 

Xenophanes, 393 ; quoted, 283 : 
Greek philosopher, circa 570- 
498 B.C. 

Xenophon, 71 note a, 73, 75 : 
Greek historian and general 
author, circa 430-354 B.C. 

Xuthus, 293 : son of Hellen 

Zephyr, 407 : the West Wind 

Zeus, 37, 141, 223, 249, 259, 261, 
265, 269, 283, 291, 347. 349, 
373 : the god 

Zeuxippus, 309, 341, 361, 363, 
387, 412 note a, 417, 431, 441 : 
Spartan friend of Plutarch 

Zopyrio, 233, 237, 239 : school- 
master contemporary with Plu- 
tarch 



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Philostratus : The Life of Apolloxius of Tyaxa. F. C. 

Conybeare. 2 Vols. 
Philostratus axd Euxapius : Lives of the Sophists. 

Wilmer Cave Wright. 
PixDAR. Sir J. E. Sandys. 
Plato : Chahmides, Alcibiades, Hipparchus, The Lovers, 

Theages, Mixos axd Epixomis. W. R. yi. Lamb. 
Plato : Chatylus, Parmexides, Greater Hippias, Lessee 

Hippias. H. N. Fowler. 
Plato : Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo, Phaedrus. 

H. N. Fowler. 
Plato: Laches, Protagoras, Mend, Euthtdemos. 

W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato : Laws. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. 
Plato : Lysis, SvirposiuM, Gorgias. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato : Republic. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. 
Plato : Statesmax, Philebus. H, N. Fowler ; los. 

W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato : Theaetetus axd Sophist. H. N. Fowler. 
Plato : Timaeus, Critias, Clitopho, Mexexexus, Epi- 

STULAE. Rev. R. G. Bury. 
Plutarch: Moralia. 15 Vols. Vols. I-V. F.C. Babbitt; 
Vol. VI. W. C. Helmbold ; Vol. VII. P. H. De Lacy and 
B. Einarson; Vol. IX. E. L. Minar, Jr., F. H. Sandbach, 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

W. C. Helmbold ; Vol. X. H. N. Fowler ; Vol. XII. H. 
Cherniss and W. C. Helmbold. 

Plutabch : The Parallel Lives. B. Perrin. 11 Vols. 

PoLYBius. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. 

Phocopius : History of the Wars. H. B. Dewing. 7 Vols. 

Ptolemy : Tetrabiblos. Cf. Manetho. 

QuiNTus Smyrnaeus. a. S. Way. Verse trans. 

Sextus Empiricus. Rev. R. G. Bury. 4 Vols. 

Sophocles. F. Storr. 2 Vols. Verse trans. 

Strabo : Geography. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. 

Theophrastus : Characters. J. M. Edmonds ; Herodes. 
etc. A. D. Knox. 

Theophrastus : Enquiry i.vto Plants. Sir Arthur Hort. 
2 Vols. 

Thucydides. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. 

Tryphiodorus. Gf. Oppxav. 

Xenophon : Cyropaedia. Walter Miller. 2 Vols. 

Xenophon : Hellenica, Anabasis, Apology, and Sympo- 
sium. C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 3 Vols. 

Xenophon : Memorabilia and Oeconomicus. E. C. Mar- 
chant. 

Xenophon : Schipta Minora. E. C. Marchant. 



VOLUMES IN PREPARATION 



GREEK AUTHORS 



Aristotle : History of Animals. A. L. Peck. 
Plotinus. a. H. Armstrong. 

LATIN AUTHORS 



Babhius and Phaedrus. B. E. Perry. 

DESCRIPTIVE PROSPECTUS ON APPLICATION 

CAMBRIDGE, MASS. LONDON 

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